Ch.13 the great century


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Ch.13 the great century

  1. 1. Ch.13 – The Great Century And beyond – 1792 to 1910 The Age of Modern Missions Begins
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>The period spans more than 100 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792 – Founding of Carey’s BMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1910 – First WMC in Edinburgh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Christianity reached more peoples and entered more cultures in this span than in any preceding century </li></ul><ul><li>This expansion was mostly Protestant and ecumenical – working through independent mission societies </li></ul><ul><li>We can only touch on some highlights </li></ul>
  3. 3. European Beginnings (1792-1810) <ul><li>William Carey and associates </li></ul><ul><li>Other Societies Multiply </li></ul><ul><li>Missionary Pioneers Emerge </li></ul>
  4. 4. (1792-1810) William Carey & Associates <ul><li>William Carey founds the BMS (1792) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pioneered the voluntary denominational society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Missions was surprisingly modern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread preaching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of the Bible in the vernacular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Church Planting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Study of non-Christian religions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ministerial training </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Serampore Trio – 1799 Marshman, Ward, Carey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forty translations of the Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dozens of mission stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many grammars and dictionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three sons follow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social reform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horticultural research </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. (1792-1810) Missionary Societies Multiply <ul><li>London Missionary Society – 1795 </li></ul><ul><li>Scottish and Glasgow Missionary Society – 1796 </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands Missionary Society – 1797 </li></ul><ul><li>Church Missionary Society of the Anglicans – 1799 </li></ul><ul><li>British and Foreign Bible Society - 1804 </li></ul>
  6. 6. (1792-1810) Missionary Pioneers Emerge <ul><li>Henry Martyn – Calcutta – 1806 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked for East India Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translations of NT into Urdu, Persian, Arabic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Robert Morrison – China – 1807 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked for East India Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese bible done after 17 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>LMS – Tahiti - 1796 – poor initial results </li></ul><ul><li>John T. Vanderkemp – South Africa – 1799 </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Involvement (1810-1832) <ul><li>General observations </li></ul><ul><li>The entry of American mission societies was a major factor in the expansion of Christianity during this period </li></ul><ul><li>American Christian thinking about missions was shaped by expansion into the frontier which blurred the lines between home and foreign missions </li></ul><ul><li>Having already admitted an obligation to reach the American Indian, it was a short step to admitting the obligation to all people everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Until William Carey’s model stimulated thinking in the US, the frontier church extension and missions to the American Indian absorbed the energies of US Christians </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Involvement – Mission Societies <ul><li>Mission societies organized between 1810 and 1832 </li></ul><ul><li>American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (1810) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student movement at Andover Seminary and Williams College supplied the first missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying infant baptism to have an answer for the Baptist missionaries in India led to the switch of the Judsons and Luther Rice from Congregationalists to Baptists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice returned to the US to raise support for Judsons and self </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formation of the General Mssionary Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the USA for Foreign Missions – “Trienniel Convention” (1814) </li></ul><ul><li>American Bible Society (1816) </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist Episcopal (1819), Protestant Episcopal (1821), Presbyterian (1831), and Evangelical Lutheran (1837) </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Involvement – Missionaries <ul><li>Adoniram Judson – usually considered “the first American foreign missionary.” (actually was George Lisle in 1782, a freed slave who returned to Jamaica to plant a church. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiram Bingham (1820) – Hawaii – with 20 others </li></ul><ul><li>Lott Cary and Colin Teague (1821) – Liberia – former slaves, first Baptist church on African continent. </li></ul><ul><li>George Dana and Sarah Boardman (1827) – Burma – worked among Karens of the north – many converts </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pioneer Missionaries – From Europe <ul><li>Robert Moffat (1816)– South Africa – really a lay missionary, holistic approach, paternalistic. </li></ul><ul><li>John Philip (1820) – South Africa - Supporter of rights for blacks in SA, advocated social reforms which led to the exodus of Afrikaners northward </li></ul><ul><li>John Williams (1817) – Pacific South Seas – island hopped until killed and eaten by cannibals in 1839 </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Duff (1830) – Calcutta – targeted upper-caste Hindus – founded missions chair at his home seminary </li></ul>
  11. 11. European and American Missiology <ul><li>(1832 – 1865) </li></ul><ul><li>Venn-Anderson-Wayland Trio </li></ul><ul><li>Anderson, head of ABCFM, two convictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian religion and civilization will triumph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gospel, once implanted, will result (under the guidance of the Holy Spirit) in true religion, sound learning, and indigenous Christian civilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Venn – CMS – developing “three-self formula” </li></ul><ul><li>Wayland – Triennial Convention – agreed with Anderson that missions had become paternalistic </li></ul><ul><li>All three mandated more indigenous methods – later forgotten or ignored – rediscovered in 20 th century </li></ul>
  12. 12. Outstanding Events and Missionaries (1832 – 1865) <ul><li>Significant Events </li></ul><ul><li>SBC forms (1845) results in FMB (now IMB) and HMB (now NAMB) – now largest mission agencies in the world </li></ul><ul><li>East India Company dissolved – religious pluralism in India aids Christianity’s spread </li></ul><ul><li>Japan opens (1858) </li></ul><ul><li>China treaties (1848,1858, 1860) </li></ul><ul><li>Second evangelical awakening </li></ul>
  13. 13. Outstanding Events and Missionaries (1832 – 1865) <ul><li>Outstanding Missionaries </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Birch Freeman (1838) – Gold Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Gutzlaff (1826 and on) – controversial </li></ul><ul><li>David Livingstone (1841 and on) – medical missions, crusader against slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Henry Townsend (1844) – Nigeria – Yorubas </li></ul><ul><li>John Taylor Jones (1843) – Thailand </li></ul><ul><li>Allen Gardiner (1850) SA, Pfander (1829) Islam, Nommensen (1862) - Sumatra </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Golden Age of Colonial Missions (1865-1910) <ul><li>Philosophy of Mission </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism – the lesser of two evils </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Principles – rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Social Gospel and Higher Education – eroded the focus on evangelism and church planting </li></ul><ul><li>Other religions – first glimmer of shift from radical exclusivism to inclusivism </li></ul>
  15. 15. Colonialism <ul><li>Ambivalence characterizes the attitude of most missionaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave access to many new fields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostered political development in some areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressed the slave trade and inter-tribal warfare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Missiologically Evil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gunboat commercialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of indigenous peoples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostered resentment toward western Christianity </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Indigenous Principles <ul><li>Philosophical loyalty to A-V-W formula </li></ul><ul><li>Practically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pious paternalism – the view that the indigenous church needs the mission organization to lead it and make wise decisions for it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benevolent imperialism – Keeping the local churches dependent on the European mission organization financially and for leadership. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Social Gospel and Higher Education <ul><li>Mission strategy continued to major on individual conversion and church planting leading to social transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Education metamorphosed from practical and industrial to academic and professional </li></ul><ul><li>Christian professionals began all kinds of social ministries on the mission field </li></ul><ul><li>Some groups began to shift from evangelization to civilization of the native peoples </li></ul>
  18. 18. Other Religions <ul><li>Mission strategy and theology embraced a radical discontinuity view for most of the period </li></ul><ul><li>Late, theological liberalism views other cultures as “bridges” to the gospel or broken lights to be repaired by Christianity </li></ul>
  19. 19. Faith Missions <ul><li>Hudson Taylor (1865) – China Inland Mission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interdenominational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No education requirement for missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters in China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted native dress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on intineration evangelism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Africa Mission, CMA, SIM, AIM </li></ul><ul><li>Fueled by fundamentalist movement </li></ul>
  20. 20. Missions at the end of the century <ul><li>Missionary movement was a hodgepodge of four kinds of agencies: </li></ul><ul><li>Interdenominational </li></ul><ul><li>Denominational </li></ul><ul><li>Faith Missions </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Missions – medical, etc </li></ul>
  21. 21. Outstanding Missionaries <ul><li>Timothy Richard (1870) Welsh Baptist, China, worked with intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>John Nevius (1890) China, indigenous principles revolutionized Korean work </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Neesima (1874) Japanese national, Doshima U, many Japanese Christian leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Mary Slessor (1876) from Scotland to Nigeria, pioneer woman missionary </li></ul>
  22. 22. Outstanding Missionaries <ul><li>Lottie Moon (1873) SBC to China, evangelist & church planter. Died of malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>William & Ann Bagby (1881) SBC to Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Pablo Besson (1881) to Argentina. Campaigned for religious rights </li></ul><ul><li>Amy Carmichael (1893) to India, rescued young girls from prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Christian Keysser (1887) to Irian Jaya </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel Zwemer (1890s) “Apostle to Islam” </li></ul>
  23. 23. World Mission Conference of 1910 <ul><li>1200 representatives, many nations </li></ul><ul><li>Reflected the Christian attitude of the time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimistic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believing in Manifest Destiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Espousing evangelical triumphalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Essential motivation behind the optimism of Edinburgh was pietistic </li></ul><ul><li>Latourette characterized the missionary enterprise as basically altruistic </li></ul>