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Ch. 15 – Turbulent and Transitional The story of missions in the Twentieth Century
Turbulent Seasons An Historical Overview
Summary – three trends <ul><li>The rapid advance of technology and its impact on missionary methods </li></ul><ul><li>Time...
Political Turbulence <ul><li>Two World Wars – the death of optimism in the West. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWI – killed millio...
Political Turbulence (II) <ul><li>Expansion and contraction of communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During expansion (50-75), c...
Political Turbulence (III) <ul><li>The de-colonialization of Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete by about 1975 ...
Religious Turbulence <ul><li>Ecumenical Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation Theologies </li></ul><ul><li>Pentecostal Ex...
Ecumenical Movements <ul><li>Comity Agreements -  dividing territory to avoid competition. Didn’t prevail because of doctr...
Ecumenical Movements (II) <ul><li>IFMA organized by “Faith Mission” groups in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>EFMA organized by eva...
Liberation Theology <ul><li>A combination of concern for human dignity and societal justice with Marxist revolutionary pra...
Pentecostal Expansion <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1960, 11 million, 14% of evangelicals </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Transitional Solutions <ul><li>New Approaches for Old Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible translation </li></ul></ul><ul>...
New Approaches (con’t) <ul><li>Focus on 10/40 Window or “world A” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1974, Ralph Winter, “hidden fronti...
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Ch.15 missions in the twentieth century

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Ch.15 missions in the twentieth century

  1. 1. Ch. 15 – Turbulent and Transitional The story of missions in the Twentieth Century
  2. 2. Turbulent Seasons An Historical Overview
  3. 3. Summary – three trends <ul><li>The rapid advance of technology and its impact on missionary methods </li></ul><ul><li>Time-distances continue to decrease, making the globe ever smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging world culture based on science and technology </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political Turbulence <ul><li>Two World Wars – the death of optimism in the West. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWI – killed millions and solved nothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Depression – crushed financial empires and caused great suffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII – genocidal world war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceleration of technology-driven culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual openness </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Political Turbulence (II) <ul><li>Expansion and contraction of communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During expansion (50-75), crushing of religious liberties and suppression of church: 12 mission killed in Soviet Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During subsequent contraction (75-2000), expansion of the church on all fronts: Far more come to Christ is subsequent 25 years </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Political Turbulence (III) <ul><li>The de-colonialization of Africa and Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complete by about 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great de-stabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wars of liberation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>French Indo-China became Vietnam and embroiled us in a debilitating war </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both good and bad for missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries expelled from China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Missionaries return after WWII to many areas with new strategies and technology to help </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Religious Turbulence <ul><li>Ecumenical Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Liberation Theologies </li></ul><ul><li>Pentecostal Expansion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ecumenical Movements <ul><li>Comity Agreements - dividing territory to avoid competition. Didn’t prevail because of doctrinal differences </li></ul><ul><li>World Council of Churches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Began as the IMC, a continuation of the 1910 world mission meeting organized by John R Mott. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became WCC in 1961 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devastated by liberal theology; now looks at the mission as dialogue with world religions and social ministry </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Ecumenical Movements (II) <ul><li>IFMA organized by “Faith Mission” groups in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>EFMA organized by evangelical foreign mission groups in 1945, in reaction to liberalism in the IMC. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Mission Board of the SBC stayed independent until 1995, when it joined the EFMA </li></ul><ul><li>AD2000 and Beyond – 1989 – to coordinate efforts by other mission agencies in such a way that each unreached people group would be addressed with the gospel </li></ul>
  10. 10. Liberation Theology <ul><li>A combination of concern for human dignity and societal justice with Marxist revolutionary praxis. </li></ul><ul><li>First exponent was Gustavo Gutierrez, a Peruvian Catholic Priest, in 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected by evangelicals, but forced a serious consideration of context and its implications for application of Scripture </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pentecostal Expansion <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1960, 11 million, 14% of evangelicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990, 93 million, 31% of evangelicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of Latin American evangelicals are pentecostals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership mobilized for witness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lively, celebrative worship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis of the miraculous </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Transitional Solutions <ul><li>New Approaches for Old Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bible translation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faith Missions – tended to innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media – the Jesus Film as example </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training Nationals – major focus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student Missions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing roles for the missionary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Approaches for New Concepts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research – cross-discipline with social sciences, many journals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of urbanization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. New Approaches (con’t) <ul><li>Focus on 10/40 Window or “world A” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1974, Ralph Winter, “hidden frontiers” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1989, Luis Bush, World A, people unreached in the 10/40 window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People Group” strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM emerges from SBC research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personnel for Missions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4400 mission agencies and growing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of self-supporting missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-residential missionaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short-term missionaries </li></ul></ul>

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