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Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
Life table
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Life table

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  • 1. LIFE TABLE<br />Dr. Priyadarshini. C<br />I M.D.<br />ICM, MMC<br />
  • 2. INTRODUCTION<br /> Described as the ‘Biometer’ of the population by William Farr.<br /> Means of describing mortality, survival and other vital events in the population.<br />
  • 3. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br />
  • 4. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br /> John Graunt(1620-1674) - Natural and Political Observations Made upon the Bills of Mortality (1662)<br />
  • 5. Graunt’s Life Table<br />
  • 6. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br />
  • 7. HISTORY OF THE LIFE TABLE<br /> Edmund Halley (1656 – 1742) - ‘An estimate of the Degree of the Mortality of Mankind drawn from the curious Table of the Births and Funerals at the city of Breslaw’<br />
  • 8. Halley’s Life Table<br />
  • 9. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE TABLE<br />- No. of survivors<br /> At 5 years, the no, of children likely to enter primary school<br /> At 15 years, no. of women entering fertile period<br /> At 21 years. no. eligible for voting<br />- No. likely to die after life insurance or after joining service to budget for payment towards risk or pension<br />
  • 10. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE TABLE<br /><ul><li>Calculation of expectation of life and comparison of mortality among communities
  • 11. Population studies
  • 12. Survival rate after treatment</li></ul>- Analysis by causes of death <br />
  • 13. CONSTRUCTION OF A LIFE TABLE<br />Prerequisites<br />1. Population living at all individual ages in a selected period<br />2. No. of deaths that occurred in these ages during the selected period<br />
  • 14. Standard Notations<br />
  • 15. Construction of Life Table<br />1.<br />2.<br />3.<br />
  • 16. Construction of Life Table<br />4.<br />5.<br />6.<br />7.<br />
  • 17. DECREMENT TABLE<br /> The column of deaths or living can be split and analysed for new characteristics.<br />
  • 18. LIFE TABLE IN CLINICAL MEDICINEKAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />Most commonly used approach to survival analysis in medicine. Also called as the Kaplan-Meier life table method or the product-limit method.<br /> Actuarial method used if there are large numbers of subjects but the Kaplan-Meier method more advantageous if the numbers of subjects are small.<br />
  • 19. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />The actuarial method calculates survival rates based on fixed intervals whereas in the Kaplan-Meier method the intervals are uneven. <br /> Here, the deaths are not conceived of as occurring during an interval. Rather, they are seen as instantaneously terminating one interval and beginning a new interval.<br />
  • 20. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD<br />Data<br />Timing of Deaths in 4 subjects: 0.8, 3.1, 5.4, 9.2 months<br />Timing of loss to follow-up or censorship in four subjects: 1.0, 2.7, 7.0, 12.1 months<br />
  • 21. KAPLAN-MEIER METHODTabular Representation of Data<br />
  • 22. KAPLAN-MEIER METHODGraphic Representation of the Data<br />
  • 23. KAPLAN-MEIER METHOD Graphic Representation of comparison of two groups<br />
  • 24. TESTS OF SIGNIFICANCE<br /> Differences between actuarial survival curve – t-test and z-test<br /> Differences between Kaplan-Meier curves – Logrank test<br />
  • 25. LOGRANK TEST<br />
  • 26. COX REGRESSION (POPULATION HAZARDS MODEL)<br /> Adjustment for potential confounding variables.<br />
  • 27. THANK YOU<br />

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