Lecture Outline Requests: What are they? Kinds of requests Parts of a request Requests & face Burden of requests Request strategies Factors affecting requests
Requests - IntroWhen you make a request, a speaker asks a someone todo something Lend something Can I borrow 1,000 dollars? Do or help with a chore Would you clean up your room? Do something for someone Could you drive me to the station?
Kinds of RequestsHearer-oriented Could you clean up the kitchen, please?Speaker-oriented Can I borrow your notes from yesterday’s class?Speaker- and Hearer-oriented So, could we tidy up the kitchen soon?Impersonal So it might be a good idea to get it cleaned up.
Parts of a RequestDanny, can you remind me to bring the book for you onMonday? Otherwise I might forget. Attention getter Danny Head act – the request Can you remind me to bring the book for you on Monday? Supportive move(s) Otherwise I might forget.
Requests & FaceFace is your feeling of self-worth or self-image Positive face is the desire for approval by others We want others to like and respect us Negative face is the desire not to impose on others. We don’t want to be a burden to others
Burden of requestsRequests can potentially be intrusiveThe request may place a burden on the recipient Asking someone who is busy to do something else places a burden on themA recipient may have to refuse a request We don’t like to say no We don’t like to be refused
Burden of requestsRefusing a request and having a request refused result isa potential loss of face Therefore, there is a need to minimize the burden of requestsSpeakers reduce the burden of requests through differentstrategies
Request StrategiesDirect strategies Usually the second most common (10% in English)Conventially indirect strategies Most common in all languages (82%)Non-conventially indirect strategies Least common (8%)
Direct StrategiesExplicit requests I’m asking you to clean up the kitchen. You’ll have to clean up the kitchen. I really wish you’d clean up the kitchen. Often imperatives (commands) Clean up the kitchen. Do your homework! Sit down.
Conventionally Indirect StrategiesMake use of frequently used expressions to downgradethe request Suggestions How about cleaning up? Why don’t you help with the cleaning up?
Conventionally Indirect StrategiesGrammatical downgraders Could you…? I wonder if you would mind…? Do you think I could…? It would really help if you…? Would you mind if I…? Would you be kind enough to…?
Conventionally Indirect StrategiesSupportive moves Do me a favor Can you do me a favor? Would you lend me 1,000 dollars? Explain I missed my bus. Could you give me a lift home?
Conventionally Indirect StrategiesSupportive moves Check possibility Are you going towards the station? If so, could I have a ride? Compliment You have beautiful handwriting. Could I borrow your notes?
Non-conventionally Indirect StrategiesNon-conventionally indirect strategies are hintsThere is a gap between the speaker’s intended meaningand the literal meaning
Non-conventionally Indirect StrategiesIt’s cold in here. Meaning: Close the windowDo you have any money on you? Meaning: Can I borrow some money?Do you know where the newspaper is? Meaning: Would you get the newspaper?
Factors Affecting RequestsHow requests are made depend on social and situationalfactors Social status Social distance Hearer’s obligation to carry out the request Right of the speaker to make the request Difficulty of completing the request
Lecture Conclusion Requests: What are they? Kinds of requests Parts of a request Requests & face Burden of requests Request strategies Factors affecting requests