The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong...
The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong...
The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong...
The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong...
Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the...
Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the...
Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the...
Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congres...
Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congres...
Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congres...
Congress has become more  institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, or...
Congress has become more  institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, or...
Congress has become more  institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, or...
Congress has become more  institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, or...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th ...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th ...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th ...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Nearly all members of Congress have been white males – women and racial minorities are ...
The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 A...
The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 A...
The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 A...
The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 A...
SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
 
 
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educ...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educ...
Who  is  Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educ...
Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” ...
Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” ...
Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” ...
Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” ...
Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on ch...
The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
RESULT:  congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
Incumbency
Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
R-E-S-P-E-C-T
Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a who...
Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are us...
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Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are us...
Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are us...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a...
The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a...
 
The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a...
Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House and Senate are organized along party lines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House Leadership ...
Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House and Senate are organized along party lines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House Leadership ...
House Leadership
Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize...
Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize...
Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize...
Speaker of the House <ul><li>Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. </li...
Speaker of the House <ul><li>Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. </li...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day ope...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day ope...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day ope...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day ope...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day ope...
Majority Leader <ul><li>Plays significant role within the party by working to prevent minor spats, internal quarrels from ...
Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li><...
Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li><...
Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li><...
Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li><...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li>...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li>...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li>...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li>...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li>...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>“ Third Base Coach” </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable position for people wanting to rise to...
Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>“ Third Base Coach” </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable position for people wanting to rise to...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leade...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are schedu...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are schedu...
Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are schedu...
Committee Chairs
What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committe...
What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committe...
What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committe...
What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committe...
What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committe...
Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the...
Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the...
Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the...
Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the...
Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the...
The Committee System  <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as  screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Committee System  <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as  screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Committee System  <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as  screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul>...
The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees  – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of pu...
The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees   – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of p...
The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees   – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of p...
The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees   – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of p...
How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>Types of Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing a Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Act...
Types of Legislation <ul><li>Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order ...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li><...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li><...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li><...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li><...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduc...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduc...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduc...
Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduc...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills...
Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul>...
Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul>...
Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul>...
Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul>...
Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul>...
Committee Action <ul><li>SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare.  </li>...
Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floo...
Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floo...
Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floo...
Floor Action <ul><li>House  – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important...
Floor Action <ul><li>House  – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important...
Floor Action <ul><li>House  – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important...
Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a b...
Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a b...
Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a b...
Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a b...
Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules...
Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules...
Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules...
Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules...
Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules...
Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule  – members can propose amendments relevant to an...
Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule  – members can propose amendments relevant to an...
Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule  – members can propose amendments relevant to an...
Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule  – members can propose amendments relevant to an...
Floor Action <ul><li>If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber.  </li></ul><ul><li>After de...
Floor Action <ul><li>If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber.  </li></ul><ul><li>After de...
Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both house...
Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both house...
Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both house...
Presidential Action <ul><li>For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or ...
Presidential Action <ul><li>For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or ...
Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bil...
Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bil...
Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bil...
Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bil...
Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bil...
Signing Statements
Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever get...
Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever get...
Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever get...
Conclusion <ul><li>There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on e...
Conclusion <ul><li>There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on e...
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The Congress

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Slideshow prepared for a series of lectures on the U.S. Congress for PS 101 American Government at the University of Kentucky, Fall 2007. Dr. Christopher S. Rice, Lecturer.

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  1. 1. The Congress Dr. Christopher S. Rice
  2. 2. The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st House of Rep. – 65 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No standing committees </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st House of Rep. – 65 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No standing committees </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st House of Rep. – 65 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No standing committees </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The First Congress <ul><li>First Congress convened March 4, 1789, in Federal Hall, New York City. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong leadership not needed because both chambers were very small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1st Senate – 26 members from 13 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1st House of Rep. – 65 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No standing committees </li></ul><ul><li>Flow of business very manageable because federal government didn’t play a large role in American life at this time. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Congress increases in size <ul><li>Today, Senate has grown to 100 members, House to 435. </li></ul><ul><li>House froze the upper limit at 435 in 1912. </li></ul><ul><li>PROB: Can representatives effectively represent that many people and the diversity that entails? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress stays in session longer than in the past. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress stays in session longer than in the past. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Increase in volume of Congressional Business <ul><li>More responsibilities = greater volume of business handled by Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Size of Congressional Staff has significantly expanded . </li></ul><ul><li>Congress stays in session longer than in the past. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Congress has become more institutionalized & professionalized <ul><li>Congress has become more structured, rule-bound, organized. </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate rules of procedure have replaced informal arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the business of Congress is today conducted at the committee and subcommittee level, by subject-matter specialists and professional staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress has become increasingly professionalized – view their office as a long-term career choice. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Lawyers and businessmen dominate Congress – more than 80 percent reported in the 108th Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>Remainder: teachers, journalists, former congressional aides, actors, athletes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The make up of Congress reflects very narrow slice of America’s citizenry. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Nearly all members of Congress have been white males – women and racial minorities are significantly underrepresented, esp. in the Senate. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats). </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats). </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats). </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The numbers in the 109th Congress: <ul><ul><li>42 African-Americans in House – all Democrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 African-American Senator (Democrat) – Barack Obama (Ill.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hispanics: 24 in House (5 Republicans, 19 Democrats); 2 in Senate (1 Democrat, 1 Republican) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women in Congress: 68 in House (23 Republicans, 45 Democrats); 14 in Senate (5 Republicans, 9 Democrats). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. SENATE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
  25. 27. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for democratic representation? </li></ul>
  26. 28. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for democratic representation? </li></ul>
  27. 29. Who is Congress, Anyway? <ul><li>Social Class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Congress generally tend to be better educated than the rest of the population, and come from very high-income families. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does this mean for democratic representation? </li></ul>
  28. 30. Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population! </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population! </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population! </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Electoral Districts <ul><li>Senate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each state receives two senators, regardless of size. “At-Large” basis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal representation gives a LOT of power to small states in the legislative process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t this serve to substantially distort measures of popular opinion, thus diminishing democracy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think about it: A majority of Senators come from states which collectively make up only about 20% of the US population! </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Electoral Districts: The House of Representatives
  33. 35. Reapportionment The number of seats in the House of Representatives allotted to a state changes every 10 years based on changes in population determined by the Census.
  34. 36. The Power and Influence of State Legislatures
  35. 37. Sushicircus © 2006 http://www.flickr.com/photos/sushicircus/292399888/
  36. 38. Wesberry v. Sanders (1964) Supreme Court ruled principle of “one person, one vote” applied to congressional districts.
  37. 39. RESULT: congressional districts all now approximately the same size.
  38. 40. The Problem of “Mid-Decade” Redistricting
  39. 41. Gerrymandering When district boundary lines are drawn to ensure the election of a particular party, group or person.
  40. 42. Racial gerrymandering & “Majority Minority” districts
  41. 43. Incumbency
  42. 44. Today’s U.S. Congress is considered the world’s foremost example of a “professional legislature.”
  43. 45. R-E-S-P-E-C-T
  44. 46. Fenno’s Paradox Citizens invariably rate their members of Congress far more favorably than they rate the Congress as a whole.
  45. 47. Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs. </li></ul></ul>
  46. 48. +
  47. 49. Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs. </li></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Advantages of Incumbency <ul><li>Incumbents have advantages, use them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congressional resources are used to advertise accomplishments, keep their names before the public. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pork Barrel Projects – the provision of federal dollars to one’s constituency in the form of contracts, facilities and subsidies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constituent Service – responding to their constituents’ individual needs. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability). </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability). </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability). </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability). </li></ul></ul>
  53. 56. The problem of “Safe Incumbency” <ul><li>Competitive vs. Non-competitive districts. </li></ul><ul><li>This tends to have a negative effect on democracy in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Congress’ response to political change, doesn’t normally change direction that much election to election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Even when the American public is extremely dissatisfied with Congress, elections generally tend to produce only a small turnover. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakens public’s influence on Congress (low accountability). </li></ul></ul>
  54. 57. Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House and Senate are organized along party lines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Chairs </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. Congressional Leadership <ul><li>House and Senate are organized along party lines. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committee Chairs </li></ul></ul>
  56. 59. House Leadership
  57. 60. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate). </li></ul>
  58. 61. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate). </li></ul>
  59. 62. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Right to speak first on legislation during House debate. </li></ul><ul><li>Power to recognize members (i.e., give permission to speak from the floor). </li></ul><ul><li>Speaker chooses chairperson and majority-party members of the Rules Committee (controls scheduling of bills for debate). </li></ul>
  60. 63. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigns members to conference committees. </li></ul>
  61. 64. Speaker of the House <ul><li>Assigns bills to committees, places time limits on reporting of bills out of committees. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigns members to conference committees. </li></ul>
  62. 65. Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating committee activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with outside institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  63. 66. Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating committee activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with outside institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  64. 67. Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating committee activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with outside institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  65. 68. Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating committee activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with outside institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  66. 69. Majority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the majority party. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for day-to-day operations, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating committee activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting together coalitions needed to pass legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating with outside institutions. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 70. Majority Leader <ul><li>Plays significant role within the party by working to prevent minor spats, internal quarrels from developing into destructive feuds. </li></ul>
  68. 71. Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions. </li></ul>
  69. 72. Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions. </li></ul>
  70. 73. Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions. </li></ul>
  71. 74. Minority Leader <ul><li>Elected by full membership of the minority party, performs similar role as Majority Leader. </li></ul><ul><li>Heads the party’s caucus and policy committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts as party’s voice in the chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>Plays a leading role in developing the party’s policy positions. </li></ul>
  72. 75. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Votes </li></ul></ul>
  73. 76. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Votes </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Votes </li></ul></ul>
  75. 78. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Votes </li></ul></ul>
  76. 79. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>Solicit votes from party members, inform them when critical votes are scheduled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whips also perform various other functions that link the parties’ rank and file to their leaders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outline Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Votes </li></ul></ul>
  77. 80. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>“ Third Base Coach” </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader </li></ul>
  78. 81. Whips (Majority & Minority) <ul><li>“ Third Base Coach” </li></ul><ul><li>Desirable position for people wanting to rise to the position of party leader </li></ul>
  79. 82. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 83. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  81. 84. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 85. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  83. 86. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  84. 87. Senate Leadership <ul><li>President of the Senate </li></ul><ul><li>President Pro Tempore </li></ul><ul><li>Majority Leader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulates majority party’s policy agenda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages party members to support this agenda. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chairs the party’s policy committee and acts as the party’s voice in the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates “unanimous consent agreements”. </li></ul></ul>
  85. 88. Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader and Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House. </li></ul></ul>
  86. 89. Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader and Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House. </li></ul></ul>
  87. 90. Senate Leadership <ul><li>Majority Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees to it that members know when important votes are scheduled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes sure that their party’s strongest advocates on a legislative measure are present for debate when the issue comes to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minority Leader and Whip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill essentially the same role as their counterparts in the House. </li></ul></ul>
  88. 91. Committee Chairs
  89. 92. What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committee bills are considered </li></ul><ul><li>presides over committee discussions </li></ul><ul><li>directs the committee’s majority staff </li></ul><ul><li>may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership. </li></ul>
  90. 93. What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committee bills are considered </li></ul><ul><li>presides over committee discussions </li></ul><ul><li>directs the committee’s majority staff </li></ul><ul><li>may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership. </li></ul>
  91. 94. What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committee bills are considered </li></ul><ul><li>presides over committee discussions </li></ul><ul><li>directs the committee’s majority staff </li></ul><ul><li>may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership. </li></ul>
  92. 95. What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committee bills are considered </li></ul><ul><li>presides over committee discussions </li></ul><ul><li>directs the committee’s majority staff </li></ul><ul><li>may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership. </li></ul>
  93. 96. What do committee chairs do? <ul><li>schedules committee meetings </li></ul><ul><li>determines the order in which committee bills are considered </li></ul><ul><li>presides over committee discussions </li></ul><ul><li>directs the committee’s majority staff </li></ul><ul><li>may choose to lead the debate when a committee bill reaches the floor of the chamber for a vote by the full membership. </li></ul>
  94. 97. Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seniority system has been weakened in recent years </li></ul>
  95. 98. Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seniority system has been weakened in recent years </li></ul>
  96. 99. Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seniority system has been weakened in recent years </li></ul>
  97. 100. Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seniority system has been weakened in recent years </li></ul>
  98. 101. Committee Chairs <ul><li>Seniority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of the seniority system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the number of power struggles that would result from open competition for the chair position after each election. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides experienced and knowledgeable committee leadership. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves as a reward to members for long years of service on the same committee. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seniority system has been weakened in recent years </li></ul>
  99. 102. The Committee System <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states. </li></ul></ul>
  100. 103. The Committee System <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states. </li></ul></ul>
  101. 104. The Committee System <ul><li>Purposes of Committees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as screening devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permit specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow committee members to generate benefits for their home districts or states. </li></ul></ul>
  102. 105. The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each standing committee has its own staff. </li></ul></ul>
  103. 106. The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each standing committee has its own staff. </li></ul></ul>
  104. 107. The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each standing committee has its own staff. </li></ul></ul>
  105. 108. The Committee System <ul><li>Standing Committees – permanent committees with a responsibility for a particular area of public policy (subject-matter jurisdiction). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Currently 19 in House, 16 in Senate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>House committees have about 35-40 members each. Senate has about half this many. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each standing committee has its own staff. </li></ul></ul>
  106. 109. How a Bill Becomes a Law <ul><li>Types of Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing a Bill </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>Floor Action </li></ul><ul><li>Conference Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Presidential Action </li></ul>
  107. 110. Types of Legislation <ul><li>Bill </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated H.R. or S., followed by a number assigned in the order in which bills are introduced. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joint Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated H.J. Res. Or S.J. Res. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concurrent Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated H. Con. Res. Or S. Con. Res. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designated H. Res. Or S. Res. </li></ul></ul>
  108. 111. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times. </li></ul>
  109. 112. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times. </li></ul>
  110. 113. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times. </li></ul>
  111. 114. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills may only be introduced by a member of Congress. (Who writes it is another matter.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : lawmaker who introduces a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Tax bills MUST be introduced in the House first, other types may originate in either house. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills may be introduced simultaneously in the two chambers of Congress, or may be introduced at different times. </li></ul>
  112. 115. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above. </li></ul>
  113. 116. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above. </li></ul>
  114. 117. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above. </li></ul>
  115. 118. Introducing a bill <ul><li>Bills are introduced differently in each chamber: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>House – member introduces a bill by placing it in the hopper . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Senate – member must announce a bill after being recognized by the presiding officer ( first reading) . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After introduction, bill given the designation discussed above. </li></ul>
  116. 119. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  117. 120. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  118. 121. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  119. 122. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  120. 123. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  121. 124. Committee Action <ul><li>After introduction, bill referred to appropriate standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Most bills die at this stage. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Committee Chair passes the bill on to the appropriate subcommittee. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hearings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subcommittee reports to the full committee. </li></ul></ul>
  122. 125. Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill. </li></ul></ul>
  123. 126. Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill. </li></ul></ul>
  124. 127. Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill. </li></ul></ul>
  125. 128. Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill. </li></ul></ul>
  126. 129. Committee Action <ul><li>Final Committee Action </li></ul><ul><li>But what if the bill gets stuck in committee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In both houses of Congress there are ways to force bills to the floor, even if committees have not approved the bill. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discharge Petition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach the bill as an amendment to another bill. </li></ul></ul>
  127. 130. Committee Action <ul><li>SO, bills can be brought to floor despite committee rejection, but this is EXTREMELY rare. </li></ul>
  128. 131. Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted debate and the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloture </li></ul></ul>
  129. 132. Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted debate and the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloture </li></ul></ul>
  130. 133. Floor Action <ul><li>After being reported to the parent chamber by a standing committee, a bill must be scheduled for floor action. </li></ul><ul><li>Senate – in the Senate this process is easier, more informal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unrestricted debate and the Senate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filibuster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cloture </li></ul></ul>
  131. 134. Floor Action <ul><li>House – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspension of the rules . </li></ul></ul>
  132. 135. Floor Action <ul><li>House – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspension of the rules . </li></ul></ul>
  133. 136. Floor Action <ul><li>House – process much more complex due to size. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncontroversial, less important bills can be called up, passed unanimously with little debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suspension of the rules . </li></ul></ul>
  134. 137. Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act. </li></ul></ul>
  135. 138. Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act. </li></ul></ul>
  136. 139. Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act. </li></ul></ul>
  137. 140. Floor Action <ul><li>Suspension of the Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upon recognition, committee chair moves to consider a bill under suspension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a 2/3 majority of those voting agree, the bill is considered on the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate is limited to 40 minutes (20 pro, 20 con), no amendments considered, and a 2/3 majority needed to pass the legislation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Done Nov. 2, 2005 on H.R. 1606 Online Freedom of Speech Act. </li></ul></ul>
  138. 141. Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or when it should be sent to the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or how long debate is allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  139. 142. Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or when it should be sent to the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or how long debate is allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  140. 143. Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or when it should be sent to the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or how long debate is allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  141. 144. Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or when it should be sent to the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or how long debate is allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  142. 145. Floor Action <ul><li>Rules Committee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important legislation (usually controversial) goes to the Rules Committee before going to the floor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules Committee attaches a rule to all bills which specifies conditions of debate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It determines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or when it should be sent to the floor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If and/or how long debate is allowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can bill be amended (open vs. closed rule) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  143. 146. Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule. </li></ul>
  144. 147. Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule. </li></ul>
  145. 148. Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule. </li></ul>
  146. 149. Floor Action <ul><li>Open vs. Closed Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Rule – members can propose amendments relevant to any of the bill’s sections. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed Rule – only certain sections of the bill open to amendment, or amendments not allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming Rules Committee recommends a rule, the floor votes on accepting or rejecting the rule. </li></ul>
  147. 150. Floor Action <ul><li>If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill. </li></ul>
  148. 151. Floor Action <ul><li>If rule is accepted, bill is considered on the floor by the full chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>After debate on proposal, voting on amendments, floor decides whether to adopt the bill. </li></ul>
  149. 152. Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation – theory and practice. </li></ul>
  150. 153. Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation – theory and practice. </li></ul>
  151. 154. Conference Committee <ul><li>Conflicting versions must be rewritten so that a single bill gains the approval of both houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills reported from conference committee MUST be voted up or down on the floors of the House and Senate. No amendments or further changes allowed. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation – theory and practice. </li></ul>
  152. 155. Presidential Action <ul><li>For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. </li></ul><ul><li>If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration. </li></ul>
  153. 156. Presidential Action <ul><li>For a bill to pass it must receive the support of a simple majority (50% + 1) of the House or Senate members voting on it. </li></ul><ul><li>If this standard is met on a bill in the same form in both houses, it goes on to the President for his consideration. </li></ul>
  154. 157. Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto the bill and return it to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature. </li></ul></ul>
  155. 158. Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto the bill and return it to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature. </li></ul></ul>
  156. 159. Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto the bill and return it to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature. </li></ul></ul>
  157. 160. Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto the bill and return it to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature. </li></ul></ul>
  158. 161. Presidential Action <ul><li>There are FOUR (4) possible actions the president may take: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sign the bill and it becomes law. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Veto the bill and return it to Congress. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take no action and the bill will become law after ten (10) days. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pocket Veto – Take no action and if Congress adjourns within ten (10) days, the bill dies without his signature. </li></ul></ul>
  159. 162. Signing Statements
  160. 163. Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made. </li></ul><ul><li>Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee). </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups </li></ul>
  161. 164. Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made. </li></ul><ul><li>Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee). </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups </li></ul>
  162. 165. Conclusion <ul><li>Legislation is an extremely complex process. You can understand why so relatively little of it ever gets made. </li></ul><ul><li>Passing a single statute requires going through two chambers (which have more than 200 committees & subcommittee). </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires support of members of both parties as well as interest groups </li></ul>
  163. 166. Conclusion <ul><li>There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on earth does anything get done? </li></ul><ul><li>But somehow, it does. Remember, the Founders designed the process so that it WOULD be difficult to get things done. </li></ul>
  164. 167. Conclusion <ul><li>There are an amazing number of points in the obstacle course at which a bill can be shot down. How on earth does anything get done? </li></ul><ul><li>But somehow, it does. Remember, the Founders designed the process so that it WOULD be difficult to get things done. </li></ul>

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