Unit 4:  The National Legislature <ul><li>ARTICLE I </li></ul><ul><li>What do we already know? </li></ul>
<ul><li>What does Congress do? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates the public will into public policy in the forms of law...
<ul><li>Federalists’ view of the Legislative Branch:  Congress is the first Branch of government because of the powers and...
Foundations <ul><li>Framers purposely crafted a body that favored deliberation to act boldly only when backed by persisten...
<ul><li>SLOW TO ACT! </li></ul>
<ul><li>Bicameral Legislature: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two chamber legislature.  Originally the House would be elected b...
Foundations <ul><li>Why a bicameral legislature? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
<ul><li>Historical Basis: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Parliament had two houses, Americans understood this because t...
<ul><li>Practical Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two chambers settled the conflict between the Virginia Plan and the New Jers...
<ul><li>Theoretical Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One house works as a check on the other.  We wouldn’t want one house to us...
Influence <ul><li>Each individual exercises some influence so the beliefs and interests of each individual are very import...
Terms and Sessions <ul><li>Term for Congress: 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in our Second Session </li></ul><ul><li>...
House of Representatives
<ul><li>House wants to be both big and powerful as individuals (each member) but also be powerful as a group. If you want ...
Elections and Terms <ul><li>There are 435 seats...each Representative represents about 650,000 Americans. </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>There are 7 States that only have 1 rep apiece </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives are chosen every 2nd year, so the...
<ul><li>Elections for the House must take place within each congressional district. </li></ul><ul><li>House incumbent rate...
Formal Qualifications for the House <ul><li>25 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>US Citizen for at least 7 years </li></ul><u...
Informal Qualifications <ul><li>Vote getting abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Party identification </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li>...
House of Reps and Diversity <ul><li>Average member is a white male about 53 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>74 women </li><...
SENATE
<ul><li>Senators are supposed to be less concerned with the interests of a special locality and more focused on the big pi...
Elections and Terms <ul><li>How were Senators originally chosen? </li></ul><ul><li>Originally chosen by State legislatures...
<ul><li>Terms last 6 years, no term limits </li></ul><ul><li>Elections of 1/3 of the Senate every two years. </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>Greater job security - less subject to the pressures of public opinion and interest groups.  Why? </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>States as a whole vote for Senators.  These elections are generally more competitive, expensive, high profile, and...
Qualifications <ul><li>30 years old </li></ul><ul><li>citizens for 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>inhabit state where they are ...
Diversity in Senate <ul><li>Average member is a white male about 58 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Change is slower than in t...
<ul><li>Demographics in Congress </li></ul>
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Legislative Branch, First Set of Slides

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Legislative Branch, First Set of Slides

  1. 1. Unit 4: The National Legislature <ul><li>ARTICLE I </li></ul><ul><li>What do we already know? </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>What does Congress do? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Translates the public will into public policy in the forms of law (make laws) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oversees Bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus Building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarifying policy to the public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legitimization and Expressing Diversity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Federalists’ view of the Legislative Branch: Congress is the first Branch of government because of the powers and prerogative </li></ul>
  4. 4. Foundations <ul><li>Framers purposely crafted a body that favored deliberation to act boldly only when backed by persistent popular majority, or a broad consensus among its leaders, or both. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>SLOW TO ACT! </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Bicameral Legislature: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two chamber legislature. Originally the House would be elected by the people and Senate would be elected by State legislatures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Foundations <ul><li>Why a bicameral legislature? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Basis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Basis </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Historical Basis: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>British Parliament had two houses, Americans understood this because they were used to it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>House of Lords and House of Commons </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Practical Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two chambers settled the conflict between the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did these two plans present representation? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Theoretical Basis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One house works as a check on the other. We wouldn’t want one house to usurp all legislative power. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Influence <ul><li>Each individual exercises some influence so the beliefs and interests of each individual are very important. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Terms and Sessions <ul><li>Term for Congress: 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in our Second Session </li></ul><ul><li>Session: 1 year </li></ul>
  13. 13. House of Representatives
  14. 14. <ul><li>House wants to be both big and powerful as individuals (each member) but also be powerful as a group. If you want to be powerful as a group you need a smaller group. This would make individuals lose some power. If individuals gain power, the loose collective power. It is a contradiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Do they want to be powerful as a group? Or powerful as individuals? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Elections and Terms <ul><li>There are 435 seats...each Representative represents about 650,000 Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>The Number was set by Congress in the Reapportionment Act of 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>Each State is guaranteed at least 1 representative. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>There are 7 States that only have 1 rep apiece </li></ul><ul><li>Representatives are chosen every 2nd year, so they have two year terms. This means that the next election is always around the corner. </li></ul><ul><li>House members must reside in the district they represent </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Elections for the House must take place within each congressional district. </li></ul><ul><li>House incumbent rates: election rates at about 90% because they are better known, its easier to raise funds, can use staff to do constituent service, and they can serve on committees that help constituents. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Formal Qualifications for the House <ul><li>25 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>US Citizen for at least 7 years </li></ul><ul><li>Inhabitant of the State you are elected </li></ul>
  19. 19. Informal Qualifications <ul><li>Vote getting abilities </li></ul><ul><li>Party identification </li></ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Familiarity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Political experience </li></ul><ul><li>Right combination of these </li></ul>
  20. 20. House of Reps and Diversity <ul><li>Average member is a white male about 53 years of age </li></ul><ul><li>74 women </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all are married </li></ul><ul><li>42 African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>27 Hispanic Americans </li></ul><ul><li>4 Asian Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1 Native Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1 Gay American </li></ul><ul><li>First Muslim, first Buddhists </li></ul>
  21. 21. SENATE
  22. 22. <ul><li>Senators are supposed to be less concerned with the interests of a special locality and more focused on the big picture...why? </li></ul><ul><li>They are a prime source of contenders for the presidential nominations. </li></ul><ul><li>Senators must meet a higher level of qualifications than Reps </li></ul><ul><li>Generally thought to be a more prestigious position than the House </li></ul><ul><li>Framers hoped that Senators would be more enlightened and responsible than the House. Why? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Elections and Terms <ul><li>How were Senators originally chosen? </li></ul><ul><li>Originally chosen by State legislatures, but that changed with the 17th Amendment (1913). </li></ul><ul><li>Each state is guaranteed 2 Senators. How many Senators are there? </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Terms last 6 years, no term limits </li></ul><ul><li>Elections of 1/3 of the Senate every two years. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuos body - all of its seats are never up for election at the same time </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Greater job security - less subject to the pressures of public opinion and interest groups. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Not always concerned with reelection </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>States as a whole vote for Senators. These elections are generally more competitive, expensive, high profile, and draw more candidates from other elected offices than House elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Qualifications <ul><li>30 years old </li></ul><ul><li>citizens for 9 years </li></ul><ul><li>inhabit state where they are elected from </li></ul>
  28. 28. Diversity in Senate <ul><li>Average member is a white male about 58 years old </li></ul><ul><li>Change is slower than in the House </li></ul><ul><li>1 African American </li></ul><ul><li>16 women </li></ul><ul><li>13 Jewish Americans </li></ul><ul><li>3 Hispanic Americans </li></ul><ul><li>2 Asian - Americans </li></ul><ul><li>1 Arab - Americans </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Demographics in Congress </li></ul>

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