Conectors... composition i.


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Conectors... composition i.

  1. 1. Connectors <br /> -Composition I-<br />1CO – 2011<br />by<br />Carlos Roberto Mora<br />
  2. 2. General information<br /> Linking words or connectors are extremely important since they indicate the relationship between ideas and sentences. <br />
  3. 3. They are like a…<br />CONNECT<br />
  4. 4. Usefulwhen…<br />Talking…<br />Writing…<br />Explainingsomething…<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. WORDS EXPRESSING RESULT<br />So + adjetive/adverb + that + clause<br />-He wassotired that he went to bed early.   <br />-The secretary types so quickly that she always has her work in time.   <br />-The film was so boringthatI went out before the end.     <br />-He spoke Russian sowell that everyone thought he was Russian. <br />
  7. 7. Such + noun + that + clause<br />-It’s such a cold day that I will stay in bed.   <br />-It wassuch a difficult exam (that)he knew he would not pass it. <br />*Notice that can be left out in informal speech.   <br />
  8. 8. So + clause<br />-Mrs. Deam was sleeping, so she did not hear the thief.     <br />-It was late so he decided to take a taxi home.   <br />
  9. 9. As a result, consequently, can begin a new sentence. <br />And, as a result, is used in the middle of a sentence. <br />Therefore often comes in the middle of a sentence (it can also come at the beginning or the end)<br />
  10. 10. Examples:<br />-His wife left him and, as a result, he became very depressed.   <br />-I studied a lot, as a result I got an excellent mark.   <br />-Zamorano trained hard for many years and, as a result, he became one of the best football players in Spain.   <br />-The food was bad, therefore, we did not eat it.   <br />
  11. 11. WORDS EXPRESSING REASON  <br />Since, as, seeing that + clause often come before the main clause<br />  <br />-Since/Seeing that/Aswe arrived late, all the best seats had been taken.   <br />
  12. 12. Because + clause usually comes after the main clause<br />-We could not find a good seat becauseall the best ones had been taken. <br />  <br />-The translator came late because her car broke down.     <br />
  13. 13. Because of, as a result of, owing to and due to are followed by a noun or noun phrase.<br /> -We are unable to go by train because ofthe rail strike.   <br />-The Pope could not travel because ofthe bad weather. <br />-Students have learnt a lot due tothis new project. <br />-Many of the deaths of older people aredue toheart attacks. <br />
  14. 14. WORDS EXPRESSING PURPOSE <br />We can use infinitives to(do) in order (not) to (do), so as (not) to express purpose.<br />-We came to the countryside to find some peace and quiet. <br />-I went to the music shopto buy the last Eagles CD. <br />-Be careful when handling a knife in order not toget injured. <br />-Handle the flowers carefully in order not todamage them. <br />Notice in order to, so as to are more informal  <br />
  15. 15. So that, in order that + clause (often with the verbs can, could, might, would in the clause)<br />-I turned off the radioso thatI could hear my thoughts. <br />-He chose this Universityso that /in order thathe could study English.   <br />
  16. 16. WORDS EXPRESING CONTRAST<br />Although, even if, even though + clause can come before or after the main clause.<br />-Although/Even if/Even though the car is old, it is still reliable. <br />-AlthoughI’mnot used to interpret simultaneously, I did it quite well during my first day of work.   <br />Notice even though is more informal.<br />
  17. 17. Despite, in spite of + a noun or noun phrase or -ing- form  <br />-In spite ofthe noise, the students could study for their test. <br />  <br />-In spite of/Despitethe rain, I went for a walk. <br />
  18. 18. Despite the fact that, in spite of the fact that + clause    <br />-In spite of the fact thatit was snowing, the festival took place as usual.   <br />
  19. 19. Howevercan come at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a sentence.<br />-Many people think that scientists are abusing of animals, however, the same people do nothing to stop the problem.   <br />-Buying a house is expensive. It is, however, a good investment.   <br />
  20. 20. But, while, whereas are usually placed in the middle of two main clauses expressing contrasting ideas.<br />  <br /> -John is very rich but/while/whereashis <br /> friends are extremely poor. <br />
  21. 21. On the one hand and on the other hand can be used at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of two sentences expressing contrasting ideas.<br />  <br />-On the one hand these computers are expensive. On the other hand they are <br /> exactly what we want.     <br />Notice on the other handis often used at the beginning of the second sentence. <br />
  22. 22. WORDS EXPRESSING TIME<br />When, while, as and after + clause can come before or after the main clause.<br />-While/when/as I was driving along the road, I saw a terrible accident. <br />Whenever, every time + clause often come before the main clause for added emphasis. <br />-Whenever/Every time I see John, he´s driving a different car. <br />
  23. 23. First, then, later, etc. can be used to introduce a chain of events. <br />-First he closed all the windows, thenhe locked the doors.Later he came back to check that everything was all right.   During, all through and throughoutare followed by a noun or a noun phrase.<br />-During/All throughthe concert some people tried to get on the stage. <br />-During/All throughthe summer we get a lot of visitors. <br />-It rained heavily throughout the night. <br />
  24. 24. WORDS EXPRESSING CONDITION<br />Even if, as long as and unless + clause can be used before or after the main clause.  <br />-Even if you are born rich, life is still difficult. <br />-You can borrow the car as long as you are careful with it!   <br />-You can´t come with me unless you promise to keep quiet.<br />Notice unless means if...not <br />
  25. 25. Whether + clause usually comes after the main clause and is often used in indirect questions with...or not.<br />-I'm not sure whether Richie Shakira recorded a long play with Thaliaor not.   <br />-I do not know whether you have met him or not. <br />
  26. 26. In case + clause usually comes after the main clause. <br />  <br />-Take this umbrella in caseit rains. <br />  <br />-In the building there is a box that says in case of fire, break the glass<br />
  27. 27. WORDS EXPRESSING ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ORREINFORCIONG A POINT<br />Besides, in addition(to that) and furthermore can be used at the beginning of the sentence following the first statement made. <br />-I don´t really want to go out tonight.Besidesthere is a good film on TV.   <br />-Mrs. Smith is an intelligent and stimulating teacher, furthermoreshe takes an interest in the personal well- being of her students. <br />Notice besides is less formal, furthermore is more formal.<br />
  28. 28. Moreover can be used at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence which gives additional information<br />-This theory about the origins of the Universe is new.It is moreover, extremely interesting.   <br />Not only ...but also / as well can link two sentences, phrases or words to give additional information.  <br />-The painting isnot onlyvaluable but alsoa work of art. <br />-Shenot onlywrites novels but she lecturesas well.   <br />-The house was not onlylarge but it was alsomodern. <br />
  29. 29. As well as can be folllowed by a single word, a phrase or -ing- form. <br />-Pat speaks English fluently as well asGerman. <br />-They robbed a bank as well aspost office. <br />-As well asbeing sent to prison they were fined $2000.   <br />
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  31. 31. -Composition I-<br />1 CO – 2011<br />Carlos Roberto Mora<br />