Conditional Sentences + If

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Conditional Sentences + If

  1. 1. Conditional Sentences Structure : A conditional sentence is composed of 2 parts : If-clause + Main Clause Example : If it rains tomorrow, we will not come. If-clause Main Clause
  2. 2. Conditional Sentences Types : <ul><li>There are 4 types of conditional sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>They are classified according to their specific </li></ul><ul><li>implications. </li></ul><ul><li>Each type of conditional sentences uses </li></ul><ul><li>different tenses to show the difference in </li></ul><ul><li>their implications. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Conditional Sentences Type 0 : Use : Talk about universal truth. Tense : Present tense in both clauses Example : If you heat water to 100 °C, it boils . Present Tense Present Tense If you pour oil into water, it floats .
  4. 4. Conditional Sentences Type 1 Use : Talk about a present or future probable case. Tense : If-clause ~ Present Tense Main Clause ~ Future Tense Example : If I feel sick, I will not go to school. Present Tense Future Tense If it rains tomorrow, the match will be cancelled .
  5. 5. Exercise One <ul><li>If you ___________________ (not come), </li></ul><ul><li>You ________________ (miss ) the show. </li></ul>do not come will miss <ul><li>John __________________ (buy)a car if he </li></ul><ul><li>_____________ (get)a job. </li></ul>will buy gets <ul><li>Mary ________________(get) a toothache if </li></ul><ul><li>she_________________ (eat) too many sweets. </li></ul>gets eats
  6. 6. Conditional Sentences Type 2 (Present Subjunctive) Use : Talk about a present or future improbable case. (A case that is unlikely to happen ) Tense : If-clause ~ Past Tense Main Clause ~ would + an infinitive Example : If he were a bird, he would fly across the harbour. Past Tense Would + infinitive If I had $200,000 now, I would buy a car.
  7. 7. Conditional Sentences Type 3 (Past Subjunctive) Use : Talk about a past, impossible case Tense : If-clause ~ Past Perfect Tense Main Clause ~ Would + Present Perfect Form Example : If I had had enough money, I would have bought the camera yesterday. Past Perfect Tense Would + Present Perfect Form If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme.
  8. 8. Exercise Two <ul><li>If I ________________ (be) four years old, I </li></ul><ul><li>________________ (learn) to play the piano. </li></ul>were would learn <ul><li>If I ________________ (not fail) in the </li></ul><ul><li>examination, my mother_______________ (buy) </li></ul><ul><li>me a new computer. </li></ul>had not failed would have bought 3. We ________________________ (finish) if we ________________ (have) better preparation. would have finished had had
  9. 9. Conditional Sentences Variations: Type 1 : If you see John, ask him to come and see me. Should you see John, ask him to come and see me. SHOULD may replace IF in type 1 Type 2 : If I were an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky. Were I an aeroplane, I could fly in the sky. COULD or MIGHT may replace WOULD WERE may replace IF in an inversion
  10. 10. Conditional Sentences Type 3 : If I had come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme. Had I come home earlier, I would not have missed the programme. HAD may replace IF in an inversion
  11. 11. Conditional Sentences Type 2 & Type 3 : If it were not for the rain, we would go to Shatin. (Type 2) But for the rain, we would go to Shatin. But for+ a noun may replace `If it were not for’ If it had not been for the traffic jam, we would have arrived on time. (Type 3) But for the traffic jam, we would have arrived on time. But for + a noun may replace `If it had not been for’
  12. 12. The Subjunctive Mood Other sentences than the conditional may bear the subjunctive mood. a. Wish (v) I wish I were a king. (But I am not!) I wish she had left last night. (But she didn’t!) Type 2 Type 3 * Non-subjunctive use of wish <ul><li>I wish to travel to Europe next year </li></ul><ul><li>We wish you a happy birthday. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Subjunctive Mood b. If only If only I were you! If only he were born in the USA! (He was not born in USA) If only she had left last night! (She did not leave last night) Type 2 Type 2 Type 3
  14. 14. The Subjunctive Mood b. Would rather I would rather you came earlier. (But you come late.) Type 2 I would rather he had told me the secret. (But he didn’t.) Type 3 * Non-subjunctive use of would rather A : Do you want to go fishing today? B : I would rather stay at home and take some rest. (B prefers staying at home to going fishing)
  15. 15. The Subjunctive Mood d. Lest (Conjunction) He put the money in the safe lest someone should / might steal it. e. It is (high) time <ul><li>It is (high) time you studied hard. </li></ul>(You have not studied hard. Now the examination is near, so you have to study very hard.) Past Tense <ul><li>It is time for you to leave </li></ul>(non-subjunctive)
  16. 16. END

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