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Institutions and policies: Game changers needed for climate risk management in agriculture


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Presentation by Jeremy Bird, DG, International Water Management Institute, at the CCAFS Workshop on Institutions and Policies to Scale out Climate Smart Agriculture held between 2-5 December 2013 in …

Presentation by Jeremy Bird, DG, International Water Management Institute, at the CCAFS Workshop on Institutions and Policies to Scale out Climate Smart Agriculture held between 2-5 December 2013 in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

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  • 1. Institutions and Policies for Scientific Water Use: Game changers for climate risk management in agriculture Jeremy Bird International Water Management Institute CCAFS Workshop Colombo, 2-3 December 2013
  • 2. Humanity’s greatest challenge To feed 9 billion people in 2050, we need to produce 50-70% more food and raise nutrition levels… …and at the same time reverse environmental degradation …and reduce vulnerability to climate shocks
  • 3. Climate change is an additional stress AR5: Global surface temperature change for the end of the 21st century is likely to exceed 1.5oC Water for a food-secure world
  • 4. Managing Variability TOO LITTLE… TOO MUCH… Water for a food-secure world
  • 5. Physical scarcity: Water resource development approaching or exceeding sustainable limits Water scarcity is already common Economic scarcity: Water resources can meet needs; but human, institutional and financial capital lacking to actually harness and use these resources Institutional scarcity: Institutions limit access to certain groups and exclude others
  • 6. Annual Rainfall Trends at Nuwara-Eliya Water for a food-secure world
  • 7. Changes in Climatic Zone Boundaries by 2050 Water for a food-secure world
  • 8. CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY HOTSPOTS -1 Exposure Index based on: Frequency of exposure to historical droughts, floods, cyclones Sensitivity Index based on: Population density, % employed in agriculture, irrigation water availability, agricultural diversity (crops diversity, livestock farming, fishing) 0 – lowest vulnerability Adaptive Capacity Index based on: education level, poverty incidence, level of infrastructure development 100 – highest vulnerability Water for a food-secure world
  • 9. CLIMATE CHANGE VULNERABILITY HOTSPOTS -3 Highly vulnerable areas are: • Typical farming areas • Have low socioeconomic and infrastructural assets (low adaptive capacity) • Show high levels of exposure to historical climate extremes Anuradhapura Nuwara-Eliya • Primary food producing areas - rely heavily on water availability for agriculture Water for a food-secure world Ratnapura
  • 10. Myanmar Dry Zone – Variability of wet season onset McCartney et al, 2013 Water for a food-secure world
  • 11. One response has been irrigation, but… …. we seem to be reaching the limit of ‘formal’ irrigated area
  • 12. Instead, look at a broader perspective – the rainfed to irrigated continuum Water for a food-secure world
  • 13. Need to re-think water storage to manage rainfall variability – but institutional complexity Water for a food-secure world
  • 14. Game changers for adaptive water management – do the right incentives exist?
  • 15. Sustainable Agricultural Intensification
  • 16. Unleashing the potential of 2 billion small-scale farmers who collectively produce 70% of current global food. WLE tackles 3 key issues. 1. Ensuring the efficient use of resources so that farmers can profit with limited environmental impact. 2. Restoring productive capacity of degraded rainfed and irrigated landscapes and impaired water systems to improve incomes and livelihoods of farmer. 3. Reducing risk and uncertainty of poor farmers within rainfed and irrigated landscapes resulting in improved productivity through the sustainable management of land, water and ecosystems.
  • 17. What if the benefits of canal commands increase to meet higher demand within the resilience of natural ecosystems? Identify incentives to influence behaviour at all levels
  • 18. What if the potential for increasing the productivity of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa can be realized? Identify policy measures and business models
  • 19. What if conjunctively managed surface and ground water resources becomes a reality? Address both over-abstraction and under-utilization
  • 20. What if there is a greater balance between natural capital and the built environment? Bringing ecosystem services into the discussion on sustainable intensification of agriculture
  • 21. Natural and built infrastructure… striking a balance – increasing the total benefit stream Intensively utilized basin Natural basin Hydropower Hydropower Crops Industrial Crops Industrial Regulation of water balance Regulation of water balance Recreation Recreation Erosion control Erosion control Nutrient cycling Soil formation Nutrient cycling Soil formation Climate regulation Climate regulation Multifunctional “green” basin Hydropower Provisioning services Crops Industrial Regulatory services Cultural services Recreation Regulation of water balance Erosion control Supporting services Nutrient cycling Soil formation Climate regulation
  • 22. Examples of institutional and policy reforms leading to more sustainable agriculture growth exist…. others are being developed… and more are needed
  • 23. The Bright Spots Initiative Comprehensive study of 286 cases in 57 countries where individuals and communities that have adopted sustainable crop intensification systems. Bright spots influenced: 12.6 million households covering 37 million hectares increased yields by an average of 79% with average carbon sequestration of 0.35 t C ha-1 yr-1. Relative yield change after/with project 11 10 Maize Sorghum/millets Pulse crops Rice Wheat Cotton 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 Yield before/without project (Mg ha-1) 10 Pretty et al., 2006; Noble et al, 2006 Water for a food-secure world
  • 24. #1: Jyotigram in Gujarat, India Upscaling the recovery of groundwater tables and reduced electricity usage – “Free’’ electricity led to groundwater overdraft – Recommended separation of electricity supply to villages and pumps and rationing of pump supply – It has brought substantial improvement in and outside the water sector: • Ground water balance improved • Electricity distribution losses down from 31% to 21% • Farmers get continuous good quality electricity schedules. Domestic supply 24/7 • Yield increases -recent agricultural growth rate is 9.6%, the highest in India. Water for a food-secure world
  • 25. Ground water policy reform in West Bengal 1. Why groundwater (GW) based solution for Bengal? • • 2. High underutilized GW potential Low agricultural productivity Research led to removal of water permits and rationalization of capital costs of initial electrification including tariffs 3. Policy change could benefit more than 5.6 million smallholders farmers 4. After policy implementation, the demand for electric pumps has risen rapidly 5. Need efficient irrigation to minimize energy use Water for a food-secure world
  • 26. Small-scale irrigation in Africa Back on the agenda in Ghana, Tanzania, Zambia, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso and elsewhere Unlocking the potential for smallholder agriculture to improve the lives of smallholder farmers in 5 countries in sub-Saharan Africa and 2 states in India (Giordano et al, 2012)
  • 27. Outputs Smallholder Agricultural Water Management: Potential to Impact Millions SSA: motor pumps • 122 million potential rural beneficiaries • Net revenues up to US$7.5 billion/yr. Tanzania: motor pumps could benefit 2-3 million people. High Medium Low
  • 28. Potential Solution: “Under Ground Taming of Floods”. Basin Scale Conjunctive Use to Mitigate Floods, Improve Livelihoods and Increase Food Security. Currently Wet Season • Store extreme flood peaks underground • Use later for irrigation • Proof of concept stage UTFI Wet Season CURRENT ACTIVITIES: • Assessing regional prospects (Eastern Ganga initially) • Developing conceptual hydrological modelling of pilot design • Selection of pilot catchments (Ganga & Chao Phraya basins) • Determine costs and benefits of options • Identifying institutional arrangements for sharing benefits and costs between farmers and flood agencies UTFI Dry Season Flood risk in the
  • 29. HARVESTING FUTURE FLOODS Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand Harvest Floods Do Not Harvest
  • 30. In the economically important rural –urban interface it is difficult to find a reliable unpolluted water source
  • 31. Using waste as a resource? Waste water Piped water
  • 32. Towards Outcomes from Safe Wastewater Use in Agriculture 2010: Co-authored the World Bank policy on wastewater 2011: Member of the UN-Water Task Force on wastewater SDG targets 2012: MoU with WHO to institutionalize collaboration on safe wastewater use 2012: Co-authored the international chapter of USEPA-USAID Wastewater Use Guidelines 2013: Regional wastewater reuse workshops involving 160 participants from 73 countries (together with UNU, UNEP, FAO and WHO) 2013: Partnering with FAO within WLE to update the AQUASTAT Wastewater database 2013: Joining UNEP’s Global Wastewater Initiative and UNEP’s initiative to write the First World Water Quality Assessment. 2012: Two IWMI researchers joined the WHO Global Expert Group on water quality 2012: FAO Farmer Field School manual based on IWMI research Water for a food-secure world
  • 33. Example of a business model currently being implemented in Ghana as a Private Public Partnership : Fecal Sludge Valorization Water for a food-secure world
  • 34. ICT – TO FARMERS IN AFRICA Ethiopia, Mali, Egypt, Sudan Cell Phones in Africa From Remote Sensing data – to crop/ water data to simple messages to farmers Water for a food-secure world
  • 35. These examples demonstrate there are water management solutions. Together with reduction of food waste we can feed 2 billion more people while reducing agriculture’s footprint and reducing climatic risks Photo: Tom Van Cakenberghe/IWMI
  • 36. The CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE)