«Controlled Translation: A new teaching scenario tailor-made for the translation industry»
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«Controlled Translation: A new teaching scenario tailor-made for the translation industry», a paper first presented at the 6th EAMT Workshop, Teaching Machine Translation, noviembre 14-15, 2002. ...

«Controlled Translation: A new teaching scenario tailor-made for the translation industry», a paper first presented at the 6th EAMT Workshop, Teaching Machine Translation, noviembre 14-15, 2002. European Association for Machine Translation, pp. 107-116.

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    «Controlled Translation: A new teaching scenario tailor-made for the translation industry» «Controlled Translation: A new teaching scenario tailor-made for the translation industry» Document Transcript

    • Controlled Translation: responsive translation industry ready to deliver in a highly competitive A New Teaching Scenario environment. Tailor-made for the In this scenario, the use of MT Translation Industry1 systems in the industry has spawned two additional fields that require careful Enrique Torrejón consideration by the professional Celia Rico translator: the use of controlled languages in specific industries (aeronautics, Dpto. de Traducción e Interpretación automotive industry, heavy-equipment Universidad Europea manufacturers, software companies, etc.) V. de Odón, E-29670 and the post-editing needs of documents celia.rico@uem.es translated with MT systems. Future professional translators need to be aware ofAbstract issues and skills such as what minimumThis paper introduces the concept of post-editing entails, which standardcontrolled translation as the new working metrics are starting to be developed toenvironment for the professional translator, score machine translation output, whichand advances the idea that a new teaching controlled languages are used in thescenario should emerge to cater for the industry, how to write documents inneeds of this controlled environment. In controlled language to get better resultsthis context, we present how such scenario when using MT systems, etc. They alsocan be tailor-made to answer the needs of need to have a thorough exposure tothe translation industry. Namely, we different professional and online MTconcentrate on the introduction of systems, not only from the user´scontrolled languages techniques to viewpoint but also from the developer´sstudents, on training in pre-editing skills since only by a good understanding of thefor machine translation use, and on post- complexity of these systems can the futureediting practice. translator judge the quality of the output and foresee what errors will be frequent.1. IntroductionThe translation industry has dramatically 2. Key Elements in Controlledchanged over the last ten years as the Translationgradual process of introducing translation This triad of use of controlled languages,memory (TM) and machine translation MT systems and post-editing processes(MT) systems in the documentation and coupled with the ever-increasing use oftranslation workflow has been gaining translation memory, CAT tools,momentum. Also, the burgeoning terminology management systems, etc.development of the software localization depict a new working environment for thebusiness in an increasingly globalized professional translator that we callworld presents a significant challenge to Controlled Translation.the translation industry by multiplying thenumber of languages that need to be 2.1. Controlled Languagestranslated and by expecting shorter Controlled languages (CLs) have becometurnaround time of translations. Online more prevalent in the industry in recentdocumentation and web delivery call for a years. They are used in technical documentation systems in large1 corporations since they improve the This paper was originally presented at the 6thEAMT Workshop, Teaching Machine Translation, readability of the documents by imposingnoviembre 14-15, 2002. European Association for clear and direct writing, they reduceMachine Translation, pp. 107-116. syntactic and lexical ambiguities by
    • applying grammatical and lexical style (Wojcik, et al. 1990). The Frenchconstraints, and they also increase the aerospace industries association (GIFAS)translatability of the text, making it has also developed a CL in French (“leamenable to MT (Mitamura & Nyberg, français rationalise”) which allows easy1995). The resulting effect is consistency translation into Simplified English whilein the style of the documents, the improving readability for French speakersreusability of texts, and the corresponding (Barthe, 1998).savings in authoring and translation Caterpillar Inc., whichprocesses along with higher customer manufactures heavy-equipment machinery,satisfaction because of better uses Caterpillar Technical English (CTE)documentation and translation. as CL for all English technical CLs impose a controlled documentation (Kamprath, et al., 1998).vocabulary and a controlled grammar. The CTE consists of a controlled terminologysize of the vocabulary and the meanings inventory (over 70,000 terms) and aper word are restricted to avoid lexical controlled grammar complex enough toambiguities. This is very advantageous write in a technical domain.when the translation is performed by MT The automotive industry has alsosystems (Baker et al. 1994). The rules for followed the path initiated by thecontrolled grammar are intended to enforce aeronautic and heavy-equipment industry.a clear style where elliptical constructions, General Motors, for instance, started inmultiple coordinated sentences, syntactic 1993 the CASL Project (Controlledambiguity (prepositional phrase Automotive Service Language) forattachments, adjectival modifiers, technical documentation (Godden, 2000).anaphoric expressions, etc.) are reduced to CASL is a subset of English that consistsa minimum. Usually, checkers are of 62 grammar rules and controlleddeveloped and integrated in the terminology. The Swedish manufacturerdocumentation environment along with Scannia also explored the feasibility ofediting software, TM and MT, terminology defining a controlled Swedish for truckmanagement systems and CAT tools. maintenance documentation (Sagvall &Mitamura (1999) provides a set of criteria Amqvist, 1996). BMW is considering athat must be met in a specific application controlled German application developeddomain for a successful deployment of a by the Institute of Applied InformationCL for MT: the translation should be for Sciences (IAI) from Saarbrücken (Reutherdissemination or outbound translation, the & Schmidt-Wigger, 2000).authors should be highly trained, the CL It is expected that the use of CLsshould be enforced by a checker, and the for technical documentation will expand indomain should be technical and very years to come beyond the fields describedspecific. above to cover other areas such as software It is not a coincidence that one of and hardware documentation, softwarethe first CLs to be developed was AECMA localization, information technology,Simplified English (Farrington, 1996), telecommunications, digital technologies,which is employed in the aeronautic web content, etc.industry to tackle the increasingcomplexity of the aircraft´s technicaldocumentation. An extension of AECMA 2.2. Pre-editingSimplified English is Boeing Technical Pre-editing technical texts is also part ofEnglish (BTE) which is used at Boeing to the working environment of Controlledimprove the readability and consistency of Translation. Translators need to have thethe technical documentation (Wojcik, et al. skills to adapt texts to the controlled1998). A checker is used to help authors language guidelines from differentwrite text in BTE and maintain a consistent industries. These guidelines are employed
    • to achieve both consistency in the should always be introduced by a relativeauthoring of source texts and improvement pronoun), and elliptical constructions, thatof the translatability of these texts by should be avoided altogether.making them amenable to MT, as Wojcik et al (1998) provide a listexplained above. The guidelines can be of writing rules that are used in Boeingoften found in the literature on CLs when Technical English (BTE). These rulesgrammatical and lexical constraints are specify, among other aspects, that : (a)described. For example, Mitamura (1999) determiners such as the a, an, this, these,explains that in KANT Controlled English etc. should be used when appropriate; (b)there are lexical constraints (besides the passive sentences should be avoided incontrolled vocabulary that limits lexical descriptive writing, (c) sentence lengthambiguity) such as the following: use of should be limited to 25 words, (d) nounfunctional words such as determiners clusters with more than three words shouldshould be encouraged, but use of pronouns be avoided, (e) there should not be moreand conjunctions should be discouraged than two adjectives modifying a noun or asince they increase the syntactic noun cluster, (f) -ing forms should beambiguity; use of participial forms (-ing carefully avoided, (g) the word that shouldand –ed forms) should be restricted when not be omitted after verbs, (h) relativeused after conjunctions (*While driving the pronouns should be used to introducevehicle…) or in reduced relative clauses relative clauses; (i) and parallel(*Directional stability caused by wheel constructions are encouraged inlock-up…). Both examples should coordinated structures.therefore be rewritten as follows: While There are also explicit guidelinesyou are driving the vehicle… and The provided by MT developers for writingdirectional stability that is caused by the content that need to be translated usingwheel lock-up. As for grammatical MT. Notice that some of these guidelinesconstraints, Mitamura argues that these overlap with the controlled languageconstraints make sense even when guidelines from KANT Controlled Englishtechnical texts are not intended for and BTE. For instance, IBM2 providestranslation, since they improve readability these recommendations: use of simple,of the source texts and reduce the short sentences (not more than 20 words),ambiguity. She distinguishes between avoidance of idiomatic and slangphrase-level constraints and sentence-level expressions, avoidance of ambiguousconstraints. In the former category she words, repetition of nouns and nounincludes replacing phrasal verbs with phrases instead of using pronouns whensingle-word verbs (turn on should be possible, use of proper punctuation, use ofrewritten as start) and repeating complete sentences in lists, etc. Therefore,prepositions in conjoined constructions to pre-editing texts following the constraintsavoid ambiguous readings. For instance, from the controlled language specificationsthis phrase recorded memory of radio and or even writing texts directly in CLeach control unit is ambiguous since it can become a new set of skills that translatorsbe construed as {recorded memory of need to take into account in Controlledradio} and {each control unit}, or Translation.recorded memory {of radio and eachcontrol unit}. Therefore, it needs to be 2.3. TM-MTrewritten this way: recorded memory of the Another key element in controlledradio and of each control unit. As for translation is that introduced by the use ofsentence-level constraints, Mitamura CAT tools and, more specifically by TMincludes coordination of sentences (the twoparts of a conjoined sentence should be of 2the same type), relative clauses (they http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/voice/pdfs/white_pap ers/MT_Guidelines.pdf (3 Oct. 2002)
    • and MT systems, in combination with CLs. simply the process of “translating toIn this sense, Rintanen & Zetzsche (2002) understand” (inbound translation) or thereport a successful experience at process of “translating to communicate”Caterpillar, where documentation for (outbound translation). These two factorsmachines and equipment is produced by determine different degrees of PE: MTusing CTE (Caterpillar Technical English) with no post-editing for content browsing,and AMT (Automated Machine rapid PE for perishable information andTranslation), together with Atril’s Déjà urgent texts allowing only the correction ofVu, in an effort to reduce post-editing “the most blatant and significant errors”,time. The AMT used at Caterpillar is partial PE where the post-editor decidesKANTOO MT environment (Nyberg et al, which “amount of changes to make in view1996, Nyberg and Mitamura, 2000) from of the client/reader audience” and full PE,Carnegie Mellon University. This MT where MT combined with the use of CL,environment provides translations into produces, in specific industrial projects, aSpanish, French and German and it faster output than “translating the entireconsists of a controlled language checker, document without any computer-aidedtools for lexical maintenance, for translation assistance”.terminology update and for partial draft The area of PE is still open totranslations taken from similar translated further study with research being done onterms. Another interesting environment is PE guidelines, PE automation orGeneral Motors’ CASL, which also interaction with CL and MTintegrates MT with CL (Godden, 2000). In any case, the full integration of 3. The Teaching ScenarioCLs and translation tools in the translation As mentioned above, controlled translationworkflow is still an area of further can be seen as a new teaching scenariodevelopment, where several aspects are yet that, in our opinion, needs to be consideredto be explored: training in controlled when training future translators. At thelanguage authoring, developing a theory of Universidad Europea in Madrid, we haveerrors, building checkers, using rule-based developed a new course that addressesMT vs. example-based MT, among others. these new skills that will be more frequently required from professional2.4. Post-editing translators in the coming years.Post-editing (PE) is an activity mainly From a methodological stance, theassociated to MT and directly linked to the course presented here introduces thediffering demand for information access. student to a “kaleidoscopic” view of MTThe current urge for information at all which concentrates at the same time on thelevels, a direct consequence of translation process and the resultingglobalization, has compelled the product, on the user’s expectations and thetranslation industry to turn to MT as an developer’s job, on the integration of MTalternative to human translation. This, in in the translator’s environment and itsturn, has set off the need for post-editing relationship to other tools. This, in turn,the output of MT. takes the student to consider the industry’s Clearly, since MT provides almost requirements and approaches to a100% accuracy only under certain controlled translation.restricted circumstances (limitedvocabulary and grammar, use of a 3.1. Methodologysublanguage), all other output must be The course is designed along the followingpost-edited one way or another. As Allen lines:(forthcoming) states, PE ranges from a) The initial framework is thebrowsing/gisting to full PE depending on translation assignment, which takes intotranslation motivation, i.e. whether it is account key aspects relating to the client,
    • the translation audience, the perception of PreG3) Insert determinersquality or the tools to be used. In this whenever possible.respect, the student addresses a set of PreG4) Insert that, which, in orderquestions that help to build the to in subordinate clauses whenevertranslational context: what is the purpose possible.of the translation?, who has commissioned PreG5) Try to avoid anaphoricit?, who is to use the translated text?, what expressions.volume of text is to be translated?, what PreG6) Try to avoid ellipticalare the deadlines for translation constructions.submission?, depending on volume and PreG7) Rewrite when and whiledeadlines, what translation tools are to be followed by an –ing form by inserting youused?, are there any format specifications are and -ing: for example, when checkingto be applied?, will the document be for ignition spark should be rewritten asupdated in the future? With this when you are checking for an ignitioninformation, the student gets a clear picture spark.of the purpose of the translation and PreG8) Try to avoid phrasal verbsunderstands why MT in a controlled or keep the adverb/preposition close to thetranslation environment is sometimes a verb: for instance, rewrite turn the enginebetter choice than only human translation. on as turn on the engine, or better yet start b) The text typology to be explored the engine.concentrates on the automotive industry. PreG9) Try to avoid adjectives,This is motivated, first, by the observation past participles and present participles (-that this particular field provides a suitable ing form) in post-nominal position.context for MT post-editing and, second, Rewrite them as relative clauses. Forby the fact that CL is extensively applied example, wires lying across bracketswithin this field (General Motors, Ford, should be rewritten as wires that are lyingScannia, BMW, etc.). The texts to be across brackets.introduced to the students are owner’s PreG10) Repeat nouns modifiedmanuals and service manuals. by coordinated adjectives: for example, the c) The pre-editing guidelines: sentence this test may indicate a loose orstudents are introduced to the lexical and poor electrical connection should begrammatical constraints from controlled rewritten as this test may indicate a looselanguages such as KANT Controlled electrical connection or a poor electricalEnglish and BTE, highlighting how pre- connection. Similarly, repeat adjectives inediting guidelines can be derived from coordination of noun phrases.these constraints. Next, students are PreG11) Repeat prepositions inprovided with the list of guidelines below. the coordination of prepositional phrases.They will use these guidelines to pre-edit For example, the title Precautions fortexts from the automotive industry with the Multiport Fuel Injection System andfinal goal of making these texts amenable Engine Control System should be rewrittento MT systems. Some of these guidelines as Precautions for the Multiport Fuelclosely follow the ones from KANT Injection System and for the EngineControlled English and BTE. Others have Control System.been derived after carefully studying the Once provided with an input text,style of the automotive texts collected for students should be able to identifythe course. The pre-editing guidelines grammar issues that require pre-editing(PreG) are: and apply the guidelines consistently. For PreG1) Keep sentences short (not instance, if students find the sentencemore than 20 words). Before disconnecting pressurized fuel line PreG2) Avoid multiple from fuel pump to injectors, be sure tocoordination of sentences. release fuel pressure, they should apply
    • PreG3 and rewrite it as Before two meta-rules for resolving ambiguitiesdisconnecting the pressurized fuel line when assigning errors to categories andfrom the fuel pump to the injectors, be sure sub-categories. The error categoriesto release the fuel pressure. If they find a (ErC) and sub-categories are:long sentence like Therefore, it is essential ErC1) Wrong term, if serious, theto maintain a clean supply of oil flowing weight is 5; if minor, 2.through the turbocharger and to follow all ErC2) Syntactic error, if serious,required maintenance instructions and 4; if minor, 2.operating procedures, students should ErC3) Omission, if serious, 4; ifapply PreGs1, 2, 3, 9 and 10 and rewrite it minor, 2.as: Therefore, it is essential to maintain a ErC4) Word Structure orclean supply that is flowing through the Agreement Error, if serious, 4; if minor, 2.turbocharger. It is also essential to follow ErC5) Misspelling, if serious, 3; ifall the required maintenance instructions minor, 1.and all the required operating procedures. ErC6) Punctuation error, if d) The post-editing guidelines: students serious, 2; if minor, 1.are first introduced to the post-editing ErC7) Miscellaneous error, ifrecommendations of the European serious, 3; if minor, 1.Commission Translation Service (Wagner, Linguistic errors that cannot be1985). These guidelines are suitable only classified under the first six categories fallfor texts that require short turnaround time, under miscellaneous error, but thisbut they are useful as a set of general category is not used to tag style, sincerecommendations. For instance, as much stylistic errors are ignored by this metric.of the output translation as possible should The two meta-rules for resolvingbe retained trying to avoid deleting and/or ambiguities when assigning categories andrewriting too much. Repetitions in the scores state that:translation should not be corrected. Also, 1. When an error is ambiguous, alwayscorrections of words and phrases should be choose the earliest primary category.made only if they are non-sensical, they 2. When in doubt, always choose seriousare wrong, and, time permitting, they are over minor.ambiguous. Finally, students will apply the following Besides the above guidelines, students minimal post-editing guidelines (PostG)are introduced to more specific ones that fix the problems detected whenderived from the J2450 Translation Quality evaluating the translation with the J2450Metric3 from the Society of Automotive Metric:Engineering (SAE). The objective of using PostG1) Fix wrong terminology inthis metric is establishing a standard that the text.can quantify the quality of translations of PostG2) Fix syntactic errorsautomotive service information, regardless (wrong part of speech, incorrect phraseof source language, target language, structures, wrong linear order, etc.).human translation or machine translation. PostG3) Fix omissions (missingThe metric consists of error categories with text).their associated numeric weights so that an PostG4) Fix morphological errorsevaluator can tag errors in the translation (number, gender, case, tense, voice, aspect,and come up with a score that quantifies etc.).the quality of the translation. The metric PostG5) Fix misspelling errors.has seven error categories each with two PostG6) Fix punctuation errors.sub-categories and associated weights, and PostG7) Fix any other linguistic errors not covered in PostG1, PostG2 and3 PostG4, such as unnecessary determiners SAE J2450 is available at:http://www.lisa.org/useful/2001/J2450Practice.pdf and wrong translations of non-technical(3 Oct. 2002)
    • vocabulary. given to the students is the translation of a When applying PostG7, students service manual of an automotive companyshould also refrain from making stylistic (Subaru, General Motors, Honda, Toyota,changes. In particular they should avoid or any other similar company) whichchanging the MT output to a more service technicians will use as on-linesophisticated style, removing duplicate documentation. The student is part of awords to avoid a repetitive style, changing team of freelance translators in anouns to pronouns, changing the meaning translation agency and they are given aof the output sentence after reinterpreting short turnaround time. As for the textthe source sentence, merging two source format, there are no special requirementssentences into one output sentence, and since it is provided to them in ASCII.splitting one source sentence into two There will be foreseen updates of theoutput sentences. For instance, a source manual in the future. Finally, thesentence such as Do not smoke in battery translation’s purpose is to communicatecharging areas, if it is translated by (outbound translation) in a non-Systran MT as No fume en áreas de carga sophisticated style, which means thatde la batería, it should not be post-edited minimal PE is expected.as No fume en áreas donde se da carga a With this information, studentslas baterías since the new translation is compose the translation framework whichjust a more sophisticated version of the they will use as reference wheneversame input sentence. Systran´s version is decisions have to be taken along thegood, grammatical and understandable for process.technical documentation. Step 2. Introduce the text to be d) The MT systems that will be translated and analyse its particularitiesused are Softissimo’s Reverso, Systran and according to the specific text typology.SDLX’s Freetranslation.com4, since these The text given to the students is theare available on-line at no charge and following:allow students to extensively practice on acontrolled translation environment. Text 1 (original text):4. A hands-on exercise General PrecautionsWe would like to illustrate in this section Do not operate the engine for anhow the teaching methodology described extended period of time without properso far is put into practice in a course for exhaust ventilation. Keep the work area well ventilated andtranslation students whose language free of any inflammable materials.combination is English-Spanish. For the Special care should be taken whensake of brevity the exercise described here handling any inflammable or poisonouswill only experiment with one MT system, materials, such as gasoline, refrigerantSystran5, but it can easily be reproduced gas, etc.with other systems. When working in a pit or other enclosed Let us now see the seven different area, be sure to properly ventilate thesteps that make up the exercise: area before working with hazardous Step1. Define the translation materials. Do not smoke while workingassignment. In this case, the assignment on the vehicle. Before jacking up the vehicle, apply wheel chocks or other tire blocks to the4 wheels to prevent the vehicle from Softissimo’s Reverso is available at:http://www.softissimo.com/index-e.htm, Systran at moving,http://babelfish.altavista.com/ and SDLX’s After jacking up the vehicle, support theFreetranslation.com at vehicle weight with safety stands at thehttp://www.freetranslation.com/ (3 Oct. 2002) points designated for proper lifting before5 The exercise was done with Systran’s online working on the vehicle.version on mid-September 2002.
    • “black box” inside the MT system.The key features of this type of text are (or Step 4. Apply pre-editingshould be) precision, conciseness and guidelines to the original text in order toobjectivity. Therefore, it is characterised, make it amenable to MT. (See “pre-editingamong other aspects, by the use of long guidelines” in section 3.1.).nominal constructions (proper exhaustventilation), passive and impersonal Text 3 (original text modified according toconstructions (care should be taken, when pre-editing guidelines –PreG):working in a pit, before jacking up thevehicle), and technical vocabulary (Sager General Precautionset al, 1980). Do not operate the engine for an Step 3. Analyse the MT output and extended period of time without THEPreG3annotate it following SAE J2450 proper exhaust ventilation. Keep the work area well ventilated andguidelines. (See “error categories” in KEEP THE WORK AREAPreG6 free ofsection 3.1.). any inflammable materials. Special care should be taken when YOU Text 2 (Systran’s output, annotated AREPreG7 handling any inflammableaccording to error categories –ErC): MATERIALSPreG10 or poisonous materials, such as gasoline, refrigerant No funcioneErC7 el motor por un período gas, etc. delErC7 tiempo extendido ErC7 fueraErc2 When YOU ARE PreG7 working in a pit or ventilación de extractor apropiada. IN PreG11 other enclosed area, be sure to Mantenga el área de trabajo ventilada properly ventilate the area before bien Erc2 y libérelaErc2 de inflamable working with hazardous materials. Do materialesErc2 Erc4. ElErc7 cuidado especial not smoke while YOU ARE PreG7 working debe ser ErC2 tomado Erc7 al dirigir ErC1 on the vehicle. cualesquiera materiales inflamables o Before jacking up the vehicle, apply venenosos Erc4 Erc4, tales como gasolina, wheel chocks or other tire blocks to the refrigerante gasErC2, etc. wheels IN ORDER PreG4 to prevent the Al trabajar en el hueco ErC1 o la ErC7 otra vehicle from moving, área incluidaErC1, sea seguro Erc2 ErC1 After jacking up the vehicle, support the ventilar correctamente el área antes de vehicle weight with safety stands at the trabajar con peligroso materiales Erc2 ErC4. points THAT ARE PreG7 designated for No fume mientras trabaja en el vehículo. proper lifting before working on the Antes de alzar con el gato encima del vehicle. vehículo Erc2, aplique las cuñas de la rueda ErC1 o el otro neumático bloques ErC1 Step 5. Feed the pre-edited text to a las ruedas para evitar que el vehículo the MT system and annotate it following se mueva. Después alzando con el gato encima del vehículo Erc2, utilice ErC1 el SAE J2450 guidelines. peso del vehículo con seguridad soportes Erc1 en las puntas ErC1 señaladas para la Text 4 (Systran’s output of the pre-edited elevación apropiada ErC4 antes de text, annotated according to error trabajar en el vehículo. categories –ErC):Once errors have been elicited from the No funcioneErC7 el motor por un períodotranslated text, there follows a discussion delErC7 tiempo extendido ErC7 sin lawhereby students try to estimate their ventilación de extractor apropiada.cause (lack of appropriate dictionary Mantenga el área de trabajo ventiladaentries in the system, grammatical rules bien ErC2 y mantenga el área de trabajo libre de cualquier material inflamable.missing or not correctly applied, problems ElErc7 cuidado especial se debe tomar Erc2in morphological rules, etc.). This is an Erc7 cuando usted está manejandointuitive process which gives students the cualesquieras materiales inflamables Erc4opportunity to go somewhere beyond the
    • o losErc7 materiales venenosos Erc4, tales trabajo libre de cualquier material como gasolina, gas refrigerante, etc. inflamable. Se debe tener PostG2 PostG7 Cuando usted está trabajando en un cuidado especial cuando usted está hueco ErC1 o en la ErC7 otra área manejando cualquier material inflamable incluidaErC1, sea seguro Erc1 Erc2 ventilar PostG4 o material venenoso PostG7 PostG4, tales correctamente el área antes de trabajar como gasolina, gas refrigerante, etc. con los materiales peligrosos. Cuando usted está trabajando en un foso PostG1 No fume mientras que usted está u otra área PostG7 cerradaPostG1, trabajando en el vehículo. asegúrese de PostG1 PostG2 ventilar Antes de alzar con el gato encima del correctamente el área antes de trabajar vehículo Erc2, aplique las cuñas la rueda con los materiales peligrosos. ErC1 u otros bloques del neumático ErC1 a No fume mientras que usted está las ruedas para evitar que el vehículo se trabajando en el vehículo. mueva. Después de alzar con el gato Antes de alzar con el gato el vehículo encima del vehículo Erc2, utilice ErC1 el PostG2 , aplique los calzos de las ruedas PostG1 peso del vehículo con los soportes de u otros bloqueos para ruedas PostG1 a seguridad en las puntas ErC1 que se las ruedas para evitar que el vehículo se señalan Erc4 para la elevación apropiada mueva. Después de alzar con el gato el ErC4 antes de trabajar en el vehículo. vehículo PostG2, sostenga PostG1 el peso del Step 6. Compare the output of the vehículo con los soportes de seguridadoriginal text (Text 2) with that of the pre- en los puntos PostG1 que están señalados PostG4edited text (Text 4), using SAE J2450 para elevar el vehículometric, so as to quantify the impact of the correctamente PostG4 antes de trabajar en el vehículo.controlled language guidelines in thetranslatability of technical texts. Notice that the resulting minimally post- In this respect, SAE J2450 metric edited version has a repetitive style. This isincludes a formula for calculating a fine for the translation assignmentdocument score, whereby this score is the envisaged in the exercise. Full post-editingsum of the weighted scores divided by the would involve polishing this versionnumber of words in the source language removing repetitions and making the textdocument6. sound more natural. In the texts presented here thescores obtained are the following: 5. Conclusion  Text 2 = 0.72 The teaching framework presented here is  Text 4 = 0.45 an attempt at introducing translation This shows an evident improvement of students to the different aspects ofthe pre-edited version over the original controlled translation. After the descriptionone. of the key elements actively intervening in Step7. Apply general post-editing the translation industry (CL, MT, TM, pre-guidelines. (See “post-editing guidelines” and post-editing), the building blocks ofin section 3.1). the teaching framework have been presented. Finally, an actual exercise hasText 5 (post-edited version): been outlined in order to demonstrate how students are provided with hands-on No haga funcionar PostG7 el motor por un período de PostG7 tiempo prolongado PostG7 experience on those key elements. sin la ventilación de extractor apropiada. Mantenga el área de trabajo bien References ventilada PostG2 y mantenga el área de Allen, J. (forthcoming): “Post-editing”. To appear in H. Somers (ed.) A6 See “Appendix A SAE J2450 translation metric Translator’s Guide to Machine score sheet”, available at: Translation, to be published by J.http://www.lisa.org/useful/2001/J2450Practice.pdf Benjamins, Amsterdam. [as cited by(3 Oct. 2002)
    • Somers (2001): “Three Perspectives on (AMTA). MT in the Classroom”, Machine Reuter, U. and A. Schmidt-Wigger (2000): Translation Summit VIII, Workshop on “Designing a Multi-Purpose CL Teaching Machine Translation, 22 Sept. Application” Controlled Language 2001, Santiago de Compostela]. Application Workshop (CLAW): 72-82.Baker, K. et al (1994) : “ Coping with Rintanen, K. and J. Zetzsche (2002): Ambiguity in a Large-Scale Machine Integrating Translation Tools in Translation System”, Proceedings of Document Creation, available at: International Conference in http://www.internationalwriters.com/dej Computational Linguistics (COLING). avu/Integrating_tools.html (27 Oct.Barthe, K. (1998): “GIFAS Rationalised 2002). French. Designing one Controlled Sager, J.C. et al (1980) : English for Language to Match Another”, Specific Purposes. Wieswaden, Controlled Language Application Brandstetter Verlag KG. Workshop (CLAW): 87-102. Sagvall, A. and I. Amqvist (1996):Farrington, G. (1996): “AECMA “Defining Scania Swedish - a controlled Simplified English: an Overview of language for truck maintenance”, t.International Aircraft Maintenance Controlled Language Application Language”, Controlled Language Workshop (CLAW). Application Workshop (CLAW): 1-21. Wagner, E. (1985): “Post-editing Systran –Godden, K. (2000): “The Evolution of A challenge for [European] Commission CASL Controlled Authoring at General Translators” in Terminologie & Motors” Controlled Language Traduction 3-1985, OPOCE, European Application Workshop (CLAW):14-19. Commission.Kamprath, C. et al (1998) : “ Controlled Wojcik, R. et al (1990) : “The Boeing Language for Multilingual Document Simplified English Checker “, Production : Experience with Caterpillar Proceedings of the International Technical English “, Controlled Conference, Human Machine Language Application Workshop Interaction and Artificial Intelligence in (CLAW): 1-12. Aeronautics and Space. Toulouse:Mitamura, T. and E. Nyberg (1995): Centre d’Etudes et de Recherches de “Controlled English for Knowledge- Toulouse: 43-57. Based Machine Translation: Experience Wojcik, R. et al (1998) : “Boeing with the KANT System”, Proceedings Technical English. An Extension of of the International Conference on AECMA SE beyond the Aircraft Theoretical and Methodological Issues Maintenance Domain” in Controlled in Machine Translation (TMI). Language Application WorkshopMitamura, T. (1999): “Controlled (CLAW): 114-123. Language for Multilingual Machine Translation” in Proceedings of Machine Translation Summit VII, Singapore, September 13-17.Nyberg, E. et al (1996) "The KANT Translation System: From R&D to Large-Scale Deployment” LISA Newsletter, Vol 2:1, March.Nyberg, E. and T. Mitamura (2000): “The KANTOO Machine Translation Environment” in Proceedings of the conference of the Association for Machine Translation in the Americas