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  • 1. ASHTANG YOGAASHTANG YOGA By Swami Dwiroopanand (Dr. H. K. Gandhi in Past Life) (All rights reserved by Author). Contact : Dr. H. K. Gandhi C/O Pankaj H. Gandhi. PH: (904)-733-1579. Jacksonville, FL. USA. Publisher: Adhiatma Vigyan Prakashan Vinod Bhatt. (Mob: 98246-53043) Ph: 2630-1891 (Res) Add: C-3, Krishna Apts, B/h Lake view Flats, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad-380015. (Contact - For Sales & Specail Discounts). Price: (Amulya- Priceless) Token Price In India Rs. 150/- In USA $. 8/- Book Available at office of: GANDHI GITA DHARM SANGH - NARODA Add: 12, Ajanta Ellora Shopping Complex. N.H.way -.8.Opp Galaxy, Naroda AHD, 382325. Ph: 94290-24051.Others.C/O. 2281-0051 Website; www.gandhigitadharm.com Comp. Page Set : By Swami Dwiroopanand By Dr. H.K.GANDHI (USA) (Email : dwiroop@yahoo.com)ART & SCIENCE OF GOOD HEALTH, WEALTH Edition: 1st. 1000 copies. HAPPINESS & PERFECT SPIRITUAL LIFE. Year: 2008. (Dr. H. K. Gandhi- in Past life) Padmavati Printing Press. Gr. Floor, NIRMAN HOUSE. ADHIATMA VIGYAN PRAKASHAN Opp Vidyanagar High School. C/O Vinod Bhatt Ph: Res. 2630-1891 Usmanpura, Ahmedabad. 380013. Phones: 2755-0268 & 3002-9596.(Mob: 98246-53043) Ahmedabad-380015. i
  • 2. WITH MY NAMASKARA PREFACE: I DEDICATE THIS BOOK TO Yoga and all Indian Scriptures teach, “Know and Unfold your divine Spiritual self within, Purify intellect, believe in equality of all human beings and universal brotherhood of mankind”. Let this book “Lighten a spark of transcendental living and spiritual understanding” in minds of all lost path religious leaders and short sighted egoistic political heads of various countries of the world. This Ashtang Yoga book is really, ‘Brahma Vidya and Yoga Shahtra’, described in the Gita. Any one can understand perfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti), with known facts of sciences. The laws of motion and gravity govern fine atoms in space and all gross material bodies on globe earth and entire universe in a wonderful and perfect manner.” Let this book become instrumental in bringing better understanding about Yoga, God and One religion of Global humanity, in present days of religious fanatism all around. I have suggested a MY LATE NANA AND NANI plan of I.G.D.S. “God is Truth” and “Truth is God” Mahatma Gandhi has said. Shri Ishverbhai Mahadevbhai Patel I hope this book will prove useful to all Yoga students and all & Mrs. Revaben Ishverbhai Patel, open-minded Yoga teachers of any country or religion, who wish to learn about Eternal Religion in the first two steps of Yoga and how to AND Know, See and Unite with ‘One God of Universe’. TO LATE FOUR MATERNAL UNCLES, (Before Starting this book, Please read Ch. No. 26,Naranmama, Parshotammama, “Is God Fact or Fiction or Myth?” It indicates the final aim of Yoga Study, Self Meditaion and meaning of Samadhi).Dahyamama & Keshamama. * * * * * I had closed my medical practice in India in 1981, and immigrated (OF NARODA, AHMEDABAD) to USA with all my children. During this free period I was reading and writing my notes on Yoga, Vedanta and Gita in Gujarati language. During my interim visits of India, every two years, I used to publish one FOR THEIR LOVE AND FATHERLY CARE or two books in Gujarati. I wrote my first English book ‘ABC of Hinduism’ in 1988, and my DURING MY CHILDHOOD & YOUNG DAYS. next life mission book, “Mahatma Gandhi Ambassador of God” for Entire Mankind during 21st Century” in 1992. ii
  • 3. Many chapters of this ‘Ashtang Yoga or Raj Yoga of Patanjali’ PLACE OF YOGA AND THE GITA IN HINDUISM.book were ready by 1995. During last 14 years I was giving Free talks (Refer also Chronology Charts)on Yoga and Gita and one day Yoga workshops to small interestedgroups in India and USA. Short Story of Hinduism. I came to India this time in 2008 after 4 years. I was hesitating to Age of Vedas, Shruties, Smruties and Sanhitas;publish this book as I wanted someone to read and edit the final (7000 B. C. to 2500 B. C.)manuscript. During last 4 months I could not find anybody even to read From the holy Mantra Om, emanate the Vedas, also calledit once in India. Shruties. Shruti means knowledge gained by ears and hearing or There was no plan of publishing this book. But at last moment I Audio-Knowledge.thought, ‘this book will ever remain unpublished if I do not publish The early nomadic tribe of the Aryans in Eastern Europe, Turkeyit this time’ due to my age (84), physical limitations and traveling alone and NW parts of India had created the first 3 Vedas in Sanskrit, theirin future. spoken language. So I quickly edited its final copy myself, rearranged chapters as In Veda one observes there is worship of natural objects like, Sunbest as I could and gave it in the press. (Surya) Moon (Chandra), Water (Varuna), Air and Wind (Vayu), Rain (Indra), River (Nadi), Mountain (Parvat), Fire (Agni), Land (Pruthvi) and Thanks and Apologies. domestic animals like cows, bulls etc., These were worshipped as Gods (Deva) and Goddesses (Devies). I thank, Editor of East-West Times, Orlando, FL, Vyominiben The prehistoric Aryans settled in North-Western Indian plainsBhatt, for publishing my articles on Ashtang Yoga regularly, since around the great rivers like Indus and other four. This area was called2005. This has given me an opportunity to revise my scattered Yoga ‘Land of Five Rivers’ or Punch-aab. The name Punjab means fivearticles. waters. The first Aryan King Manu dictated earliest socio-political I also thank Mr. Naresh B Shah of Padmavati Printing Press for constitution. This was the first political scripture of Manu Smruti. This isgiving his full co-operation in printing this book. known as Indus valley cultural. The name India,, Hindu, Hindi etc. root from name of the river Sindhu (Indus), presently running in Pakistan. I also thank, Mr Vinod Bhatt, of Adhiatma Vignan Prakashan for King Dasharatha and his son Rama of Ramayana epic are believed toPublishing and marketing this book. be the 57th generation great grand sons of the first Sun worshipping Aryan King, Manu. Lastly, I ask for forgiveness from all readers and teachers for any Evolution of Upanishads, Darshans, Jainism and Buddhism.mistakes and unwanted repetition of some topics and words in different (2500 to 600. B. C.)chapters. Some independent thinker (Rishies), not happy with rules of Manu, migrated towards planes of the River Ganges. These thinkers My Namaste (salutations) to God dwelling in hearts of all people. created nearly 240 Upanishads and six Hindu Darshans by observing uniform effects of Vedic Gods (Natural Elements) on all creations in an Swami Dwiroopanand. equal and perfect manner. (Dr. H. K. Gandhi). Many Yoga practices had developed for searching the inner Soul or Spirit. The Soul is responsible for Life on the Earth. It was Naroda, Ahmedabad, India. called Brahaman in Vedic texts and Atman in Upanishads. Later it Date: 30-April, 2008. was called nameless THAT (Tat) in Darshans and the Gita. Soul is imperishable Spirit or one’s True Self. Later on the moon worshipping dynasties of Non-Aryan kings had started around the banks of river Ganges. One of them, a great King Bharat, established a big empire in North India. iii
  • 4. Inspired by these scriptures and Yoga practices, two royal princesMahavira and Buddha (Siddhartha) started newer trends in religions. Audio CDs By Swami Dwiroopanad: –They declared that Non-violence must be the most important doctrine Dr. H. K. Gandhi in Past Life.in all religious practices and rituals. 10 Audio CDs for Youth Education CD No 1 to 10 --(10,000 years of Hinduism Overview, Yoga Darshan of Patanjali. Different 8 meanings of Dharma (religion), What is This is only one Darshan out of six main Hindu Darshans. Spirituality? “Be Your self”. 6 Cds on What is OM ?Infinite God can only be visualized (Seen) in an indirect manner by (Set-of 10 Cds of Youth Education. $. 40/- with S & H.)correct understanding of Self and mastering 8 steps of Yoga. By Self Meditation (Adhiatma-Chintan) on Eternal imperishable 4 Audio CDs of Isha Vasya Upanishad.Soul, ever changing perishable material body and world of material CD No 1, 2, 3, 4. Isha Vasya Upanishad.Objects, spiritual understanding and vision of formless God is possible. (Set-of 4 CDs of Isha Vasya Upanishad. $. 16/- with S & H.)Yoga has always remained a popular way of religious and spiritualsearch in all religious subdivisions of India. 8 Audio CDs on THEORY OF KARMA in Eastern Religions. Scientific study of Yoga imparts a worriless, tensionless long life of Introduction, Different meanings of Karma, Basic Humangreat joy and inner happiness. Today Yoga has become very popular Rights in Gita, Jainism, Buddhism & Hinduism on Karma,in the West and also in India. Its physical and mental benefits can be Moksha, Nirvana and Kaivalya, Universal Space-Time, Time &immediately perceived by any individual or patient of psychosomatic Karma Bondage. (Einstein’s Theory), Hindu Trinity, Gita ondiseases like blood pressure, insomnia, acidity, joint pains, backaches, Universal Time Space, Successes and Long Survival withetc.. Many such ailments get cured in a short time by simple Yoga Karma Yoga, Karma Yoga-Ch. 3 Gita, Self Realization Bypractices. Cures of asthma, heart diseases and diseases like cancer Writing Autobiography: Sample of Dr. H. K. Gandhi,are also claimed. Is God a fact or fiction? My Divine Experience. Rishi Patanjai perhaps lived during the 2nd cent. BC(?). about 300 (Set of 8 CDs of Karma Theory. Cost. $ 32/- with S & H).years after Lord Buddha. He perfected earlier Yoga practices into a Miscellaneous Audio Cdsscience and art of 8 steps (Ashtang-Yoga). It brings a life of great joy, Introduction to Ashtang Yoga, Sankhya Darshan. (Prakruti & Purush), Vedant Darshan, Introduction to Gita, Comparativeachievements and successes (Siddhies). world religions (5 CDs) In the Gita 18 different Yogas are described. The Gita (Single CD costs $ 4/ + S&H)discusses merits and limitations of 3 Veda, Upanishads and SixHindu Darshans. Gita also preaches eternal (Sanatan) religion 10. Cds On Ashtang Yoga 6 Hours Work Shop’s Discourses.(real name of Hinduism), One God and art of Self knowledge. Gujarati Audio-CDs. SUMMARY:- 5-CDs Nos, 1,2,3,4,5. on Ashtang Yoga (Patanjali Yoga) (1995). 1. Vedas are the earliest scriptures of Hinduism. They are 3-CDs on Gita Ch-III- Karma Yoga.scriptures of worldly knowledge. In Vedas, there is worship of natural 3-CDs on Gita Ch-IX. Raj Yogaelements like SUN, MOON, WATER, AIR, EARTH, FIRE, etc., Veda 2-CDs on Gita Ch-XII. Bhakti Yoga,arise from OM, the root (mool) mantra or sound of human speech. 2-CDs on Gita Ch-XV. Purushottama Yoga 2. The 4 class socio-political system of first Aryan King Manu (Set of 5 CDs on Yoga Cost. $. 20 /. & Set of 10 CDs ondictates privileges and punishments for four classes. The word Dharma Gita’s 4 Chapters Cost. $. 40/ & with S.& H).or Religion means Duty of a class of people in the 4 class system of CDs Provide Sat-Sang in small groups with Sloka, Bhajans & Arti.)Manu. More details in www.gandhigitadharm.com. 3. The Soul and body are to be understood as separate Email:dwiroop@yahoo.comelements by art of meditation in Yoga. iv
  • 5. Age periods of evolution of world religions & thought streams in Hinduism.BLESSINGS:- Swami Sachchidanandji. Rig, Yajur and Sam Veda Develop. Later Dr. Gandhi practiced medicine in Naroda, Ahmedabad, India. For last Atharva Veda was added. Aur, Dhanur,fifteen years he resides in USA with his children. Gandharva Artha Veda Develop in later ages. In OM I have noted one important aspect of his nature. He will always try to final portions of Vedas we see start of Upanishad VEDAreach to the bottom of the subject he will get interested into. He preparesnotes, graphs, charts and try to summarize the subject into few pages. MANU SMRUTI AND SAMHITAS Recently tries to correlate religion with sciences, politics, sociology and DEVELOP. The 4 CLASS SYSTEMeconomics. A mystical type of religious philosophy has been prevalent in India. H IN HINDUISM STARTEDThere is a neglect of practical problems of daily life. This has made us poor, ERA of I 2500 BC N 240 UPANISHADignorant and illiterate. We are worshipping mortal hypocrite human individuals of Aryans D DEVELOP-ISHA, KATHinstead of God. AND OTHERS U Dr. Gandhi has a positive and practical approach to problems in day to Iday life. He is trying to link religion with science. His science does not lead to Upnishd Satheism, nor he ignores the element of faith (Shraddha) required in religion. SANKHYA, NYAYA, YOGA. ERA M VAISHASHIK PURVA Religion is also a science. He has beautifully tried to inter mix diverse MIMAMSA & UTTAR MIMANSA 2000 BCsubjects. May it be the Gita, Upanishads, or any other subject. The clarity of his VEDANTA DEVELOP Age of Hthinking, truth coupled with reason, and the fearlessness of his presentation Rishies Eare all obvious to the reader. 1000 BC B RAMAYANA BY VALMIKI AND Sometimes he is bitter and harsh in his criticism, when he is flashing red R GITA & MAHABHARAT BY SIX-Hindu VEDA VYASA who lived duringsignals towards some age-old wrong beliefs, false rituals and rigid traditions of Darshans E Roots of Jainism & W (mostly) the 500. BC period.religions. It is but natural that unintelligent religious heads and their blind Develop Buddhism lie infollowers may start boiling with anger at such remarks. Upanishads and 6 600 BC Hindu Darshans It is good that an individual and society be religious, but when this Era of 18 Hindu 500 BCcrosses a limit, it leads to foolish fanatic behavior, myth propagation and PURANAS of Brahma 2 to 300 Vishnu and Shiva -6 forfruitless imaginations. Society and individuals get misguided, live in false BC each Mystic Deity.hopes, blind faiths, false fears and become worshippers of human beings. In R 00000 +++++++++++----+++++--+++++++------- Ethe name of religion, the wealth of people gets locked into temples and a few C Islamic Rule inhands, and people forget the basic issues leading to poverty, slavery and grief. L H India I R HThey are taught to bear whatever comes as fate or fortune designed by God. G I IThis is a painful situation artfully created by unwise priests in the name of ----------------++ 700 AD I J B Four Acharyas, & S N Ureligions and God. A Saints & Bhaktas O T D I D start many secular More and more individuals like Dr. Gandhi should come forward to catch N I U religions, only in 1000 AD I N Dthe bull by horns. I am pleased to note that Dr. Gandhi has taken a bold, 1200 AD A S I last 8 centuries. I Hdetermined, useful, praiseworthy and worth welcoming step in this direction, in N L S I 1500 AD I M Sthe interest of the people and the future generations. A M S British Rule Start in 1758. I pray God that our society may receive many useful and inspiring books, T M M Ends in 1947 thru Y leadership of Gandhiji.booklets and literature from him. Hari Om Tat Sat. 1800 AD (He is forgotten by the politicians & IndianBhakti Niketan Ashram. Dantali. people)P O. Box-19, PETLAD. Dist. Kaira. Gujarat, INDIA. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1999 = (No Copy Right Charts by Swami Dwiroopanand)=1999. v
  • 6. CHRONOLOGY OF HINDU SCRIPTURES. 500. BC. GITA AND MAHABHARAT. BY VED VYASA WRITTEN IN THIS PERIOD, MOSTLY AFTER BUDDHA ANDOM IS SYMBOL OF KNOWLEDGE & ROOT OF ALL SPOKEN LANGUAGES. MAHAVIRA. VEDANTA DARSHANA WRITTEN IN THIS AGE ALSO. 7000 BC PURANIC PERIOD.- 300. BC. Mythology enters Hinduism.• EARLY HINDUISM OF THE VEDIC ARYANS. SEARCH OF KNOWLEDGE. • 18 Puranas(Mythology)scriptures develop during 2nd BC. To 3rd AD. Vedas were also called SHRUTIES or AUDIO-knowledge. Rig, Yajur and IMAGINARY GODS LIKE SHIVA, VISHNU, AND BRAHAMA ARE Sam Vedas develop. In early 3 Vedas there is worship of Natural DESCRIBED IN THESE PURANAS. Their mystic stories symbolize divine Elements like sun, Fire, Rain, Air, Water, Land etc.. These were refereed love between husbands and wives. .Bhagavatum became a popular Vishnu to as Devas and Devies. First 3 Vedas took nearly 3 to 4 thousand years PURANA after 15th century A. D. It describes 10 major incarnations of to develop. VISHNU. RAMA & KRISHNA are the 7th & 8th.VEDIC PERIOD. 5000 BC.• The Aryans were the earliest tribe to develop Vedas. Fire (Agni) and Rain 0000- + Christ is born. + + + + + + + + + + + + + Gods (Indra) were worshipped as Gods. After settling in N-W Parts of He preaches LOVE and forgiveness in the West. Indian sub-continent, their King Manu dictated the doctrines of a four 500 AD. Roman Church in West. Arya Bhatta invents Zero in Math. class socio-political system, the Varna Dharmas (Dharma= Duties). 700 AD. SHANKARACHARYA (preaches Adwaita theory) IN EASTSMRUTI PERIOD. 4500. BC. MOHAMMAD IN WEST.• After the Vedas one observes development of Smruties, which dictate the 1000 AD. PERIOD class laws of King Manu called Manu Smruti. Development of early • Era of Islamic invasions in Europe and India start. Upanishads like Ishavasya and Kathopanishad. 1200 AD. Islamic rule in India• 3000. BC. Special privileges are given to higher classes of Brahmins and • For next 600 years.: Ghori, Lodi, and Mogal dynesties rule India. Era of Kshatriyas. SAMPRADAYAS OF ACHARYAS. MADHAVA, RAMANUJA, KABIR,UPANISHAD PERIOD: 2000 BC. SURDAS preach BHAKTI PATH.(All preach Dwaita Philosophy)• Search of self (soul) and its relationship with the Vedic Gods is studied 1492 AD. COLUMBUS DISCOVERS AMERICA AND in the Upanishads. Aryans and original residents of India fight. Stories of VASCODE GAMA A SEA ROUTE TO INDIA. Devas (deities) and Asuras (demons) are seen in scriptures. They suggest 1500 AD. Rule of King Akbar conflicts or wars between more civilized and less civilized people. • Mira & Tulsidas. Vallabhacharya starts Vaishnivism. Chaitanya, Narsinha Mehta (in Gujarat); Guru Nanak starts Shikh ReligionDARSHAN PERIOD. 1200. BC. 1757 AD. END OF ISLAMIC EMPIRE AND START OF• WONDERFUL SPIRITUAL HINDU SCRIPTURES DEVELOP. BRITISH RULE IN INDIA. These include the famous Six Hindu Darshans. By this time in the Ganges 1800 AD. Swami Sahajananda Swaminarayana Religion in Gujarat.regions, Sun worshipping and moon worshipping royal dynasties were established. 1900 AD. Vivekananda in America. Gandhi leads INDIA to freedom.(1). POORVA MIMANSA, by Jaimini, (2) NYAYA, by Gautama, (3). YOGA BY 1947 AD. India Independent. 40 Years Rule of Nehru Dynasty in Democratic India. GURUS build palatious temples, only at one place, Haridwara. TheyPATANJALI, (4). SANKHYA by Kapil, (5) VAISHASHIK by Kanad, AND have forgotten their duty of educating the poor people in villages of India. (6) VEDANT by Ved Vyasa, DEVELOP. THE 21st CENTURY NEEDS NEW LIGHT IN THE RELIGIOUS FIELD. (7) Charvaks Darshan denies the theory of rebirths of souls propagated VIEWS OF MAHATMA GANDHI WILL GIVE IT.by selfish ritual minded Brahmins. ? VALMIKI RAMAYANA written in this age. Rama was the 58th son in SUMMARY. the dynasty of Manu. ? Krishna, in human form after Rama, who • Hinduism is a non-prophet philosophy of attaining wisdom by search of perhaps lived in the 12th cent. BC. self (Atma). This subject is discussed in great details in Upanishads, Darshans, and the Gita. Innumerable Prophets in Hinduism are seen only in recent centuries. They have started many secular Guru worshipping600. BC. IMPORTANT DATE (CENTURY) OF WORLD RELIGIONS. cults (sampradayas). They are also called religions.• MAHAVIRA AND BUDDHA START TWO GREAT RELIGIONS IN Search of God Starts with SELF, and Ends in SELF by understanding the INDIA. BUDDHISM AND JAINISM, LAYING STRESS on NON- fixed laws of Mother nature. VIOLENCE IN RELIGION. vi
  • 7. MANU-SMRUTI’S VARNA - DHARMA. Chart- 2.) UPANISHAD RISHIES - ASHRAM DHARMA (CHART 1) *** FOUR VARNAS (CLASSES); FOUR ASHRAMAS, (AGE QUARTERS) & 4 AGE QUARTERS OF 100 YEARS OF LIFE FOUR GOALS FOR A HINDU.= DUTIES AND GOALS TO BE ACHIEVED DURING ONE AGE QUARTER OF LIFE. 4 goals DHARMA ARTHA KAMA MOKSHA 4 Ashramas Brahm Chary Grahastha Vanprastha Sanyasa1ST. ASHRAM: STUDENT (VIDYARTHI) BRAHM CHARYA ASHRAM. GOAL LEARN DHARMA. Ashrama Ashrama Ashrama Ashrama Hinduism lays one VOW for Students: NO SEX ACTIVITY DURING STUDENT AGE. 4 Varnas (1 to 25 Yrs) (25 to 50 Yrs) (50 to 75 Yrs) (75 to 100.)2ND. ASHRAM: GRAHASTHA ASHRAM: GOALS; MARRIAGE AND EARN MONEY = ARTHA I/3RD. ASHRAM: VANPRASTHA: PARTIAL RETIREMENT FROM FAMILY. GOAL; KAMA. BHRAMINS Learn Vedas Simple life. Desire to get Saintly life4TH. ASHRAM: SANYASA : TOTAL RETIREMENT AND RENUNCIATIONS. GOAL MOKSHA. Teachers High morals Live on gifts fame in some in isolation, PRESENT IS EXISTENCE, OUR PRESENCE IN WORLD. IT IS ALWAYS TODAY AND NOW. Doctors Celibacy. Give from students branch of liberty from Judges & benefit of & donations of knowledge, all familyNOTE THE ZERO POINT OF TIME BETWEEN DEATH AND BIRTH = Lawyers etc. knowledge to lower three search of God bondages & TIME -ZERO = BOTH ARE ALWAYS TODAY AND NOW.= others classes. and religion attachments KSHATRIYAS Learn use of Fight criminal, Earn good Retire. DEATH = TODAY AND NOW =DOOMS DAY BIRTH CYCLE. weapons and protect border name & fame Become a Kings, Army laws of the of country, as a noble Rajarshi,SANYASA ASHRAM 75 TILL DEATH JOURNEY OF LIFE STARTS IN WOMB police, state. Protect And good king caring for a SaintlyGOAL LIBERTY OR MOKSHA BRAMCHARYA ASHRAM OR Government land, people people. law, people, King ; guideFROM BIRTH DEATH CYCLE Student age UP TO AGE-25. servants etc. and trade Sacrifice life and equal young kingsTOTAL DETACHMENTS FROM FAMILY EDUCATION BY PARENTS on battle field justice in moralsRESPONSIBILITY; POLITICAL AND IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES and justicePOSITIONS AND WEALTH FROM TEACHERS. STUDENT ALSO VAISHYAS Learn Maths, Earn money, Care for state, Saintly life/AND NO DESIRES OF WORLDLY LEARNS DUTIES AND MORALITY agriculture, be rich and serve other give goodCOMFORTS, EXPECTATIONS FROM FROM RELIGIOUS PRIESTS BY Business & rain fall, stars help state classes, social advice / tellRELATIVES OR FRIENDS ETC. HEARING SCRIPTURAL STORIES Farmers cattle care, /employee work and give history of Class. economics give donations donations. heroismFROM 50 TO 75 YEARS FROM 25 TO 50 YEARS seeds etc. to Brahmins.VANA-PRASTHA ASHRAM GRAHASTHA ASHRAM.(Family life) SHUDRAS Learn family Earn money Try to uplift No saintlyPARTIAL RETIREMENT FROM MARRY WITH SUITABLE PARTNER skills, respect by serving into a higher retirement tillFAMILY ATTACHMENTS AND JOBS LIVE IN FAMILY HOME AND GOOD Skilled workers, and serve 3 higher class class end of life ;BUT ACTIVE IN SERVICE NEIGHBORHOOD. EARN MONEY manual higher class give donation Vaishyas by teach family OF ALL LIVING BEINGS. BY GAINED KNOWLEDGE AND servants and to Brahmins money and love & unity. PATH OF MORALITY, laborers. gaining skillsTRY TO FULFILL LEARNED SO FAR FROMALL DESIRES LIKE TRAVEL, PARENTS, TEACHERS, GUESTS AND The classes were Job Oriented and not birth-rights giving in early times. But withPILGRIMAGES, READING, GURUS. passage of time they turned into hiraretic, privilege preaching classes. Brahmins (men ofWRITING, LEARNING MUSIC, A HOUSE HOLDER IS SUPPOSED TO knowledge) guided other three classes in all moral codes, laws, sociology, economics andARTS, AND TEACHING WITHOUT CARE FOR CHILDREN AND ELDERLY. political matters. Knowledge was preserved by creating short sentences (Mantras, proverbs) andEXPECTATIONS OF MONEY HIS THIS IS CONSIDERED BEST PERIOD musical verses (See Sam Veda Hymns).LEARNED SKILLS, EXPERIENCES ETC. OF ANY ONES LIFE SPAN . DHARMA A woman was looked upon as property of her husband. A man could marry more thanKAMA IS GOAL OF THIS IMPORTANT TEACHES TO RESPECT PARENTS, one woman, but a widow could not remarry.. Wives were burnt alive upon the death of husbandsAGE QUARTER OF LIFE. TEACHERS AND GUESTS COMING (Sati system). Inter-class marriages were forbidden; but a Brahmin could marry any girl from lower three classes, a Kshatriya could marry a girl from lower two classes, and a Vaishya could marry aKAMA MENAS DESIRES. TO HOME. TREAT THEM LIKE GODS Shudra girl, but not from the higher classes. The stories of Ramayan and Mahabharat indicate suchFULFILL ALL DESIRES IS THE ADVICE. NEAR YOU. THIS IS VOW AND ADVICE practices. Birth as a Female, a Vaishya or a Shudra class was believed to be due to sinsTHIS NEEDS YOGA MEDITATION . FOR ALL HINDU HOUSE HOLDERS.. committed in previous lives. RESPECT MONEY. IT IS GIFT OF GOD The majority class of Shudras had no right to study, Vedas, learn weapons or trade. TO YOU. LAXMIJI IS WIFE OF VISHNU. They were supposed to remain life long servants or employees of the upper three classes. Such SPEND WITH JUDGMENT AND IN verses were added in Manu Smruti by the Brahmins of the later ages so that their sons might enjoy all THRIFTY MANNER. SAVE FOR OLD privileges and class rights created in name of religion. The Shudras were not untouchables to start with. The Bhagavat Gita redefines this class privileges and affirms that all human beings are equal in AGE NEEDS. EXTRAVAGANT eye and laws of God. SPENDING IS INSULT OF LAXMIDEVI. Hinduism was a Veda (knowledge) oriented culture and a male privileged society. There was no idol worship in the earlyVeda, Upanishd and Gita age periods. vii
  • 8. INDEX Preface: 13. Step no 7. Dhyan. 76 Dhyan = Fullest (100%) Attention, Awareness Place Of Yoga And The Gita In Hinduism. and Concentration in Present Activity only. Blessings: Swami Sachchidanandji. Part-1. Ages Of Evolution Of World Religions- Chart-1 Part-2. Chronology Of Hindu Scriptures. 14. Step no 8. Samadhi 83 Ashram Dharma (Chart 1) 15. What is Hath Yoga? 88 Ashram Dharma (Chart 2) 16. What is Kundalini and Aagna Chakra? 92 Part-1. Kundalini power means a three-tenseCh No. SUBJECT Pg No. Time and Place sense (Tri-kal-Gyana). Perfect Awareness of Time-Place. Part-2. Section : I Scientific meanings of Kundalini & Agna Chakra. Introduction: 17. Diet and Yoga 991. Yoga Is A Big Business In USA. 12. Why Study Yoga? 4. Section : III3. Brief History Of Patanjali Yoga. 8 Additional Informative Articles.4. Guru Search For Yoga Study. 115. Peace Invocations Shanti Path 14 18. Sanatan Dharm in Yama Niyama 1016. Eight Steps Of Yoga In Brief. 16 Lesson 1. Yama Niyama & Sanatan Dharm Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. Section : II Lesson 3. Yoga is science of Self study Atma- Ashtang Yoga. Gyana, Swadhyay and Art of living a Perfect Divine Life.7. Step no. 1. Yama. 20 19. Art and Science of Meditation 1108. Step no 2 Niyama 23 Article 1.. &9. Step no. 3 Asana (Static Postural Exercises) 26 Article 2. Part-i. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. 20. Self-Realization Write your Autobiography. 117 Part-ii. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara. Part 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5. (Who am I?) Part-iii. (A) Asana for limbs. Sample by Author: Dr. H. K. Gandhi. Part-iv. (B) (i) Asana for backward bending of spine & neck 21. Begger of Knowledge (Upanishad Story). 139 (ii) Asana for forward bending of spine 22. One infinite God of Universe (prayer-1) 144 (iii) Side bending and rotation of spine 23. Jesus & Mahatma Gandhi are Part-iv. (C). Asana for vital systems Immortal souls (prayer-2) 14610. Step no. 4 Pranayama. 48 Breathing exercises. Pranayama cures Blood 24. SANKHYA DARSHAN OF KAPIL 148 Pressurein 90 % of cases. 25. VEDANTA DARSHAN OF VED VYAS 15511. Step no. 5. Pratyahara. 61 26. IS GOD FACT OR FICTION OR MYTH? 161 Part-1. Third eye of Shiva is within you. 27. What is I.G.D.S ? 164 Part-2. Knowledge is Highest Wealth of Individual. 28. Dictionary of Common Sanskrit Words 16712. Step no 6. Dharana. 68 Part-1. Four goals- Dharm, Artha, Kama And Moksha Part-2. Sanyasa. Search of Self, God and Yoga with God is only Desire of remaining Life. 0
  • 9. Section: I Yoga books on Hath-Yoga describe more difficult postural exercises and a few higher steps of meditation. But the real Hath Yoga is quite a different and difficult subject. Definition: The noun Yoga roots from a verb YUJ. The word Yoga can be traced to ancient Vedas like Yajur-Veda, five millenniums BCIntroduction: (approx). YUJ means to unite with, to join, to meet, to live together, to get welded to, to merge with etc.1. YOGA IS A BIG BUSINESS IN USA. Yoga is an art of uniting with people and living together in harmony and co-operation in family, society and the State. The The April, 23, 2001 issue of TIME weekly presents a fair picture of word Yoga is better understood by its opposite word - Viyoga.Yoga practices in USA. Viyoga means separation, divorce, staying away from, etc.,. “Nearly 15 million Americans Practice Yoga. There are Eight Instead of teaching noble attitudes of family unity and love, respectmajor schools of Yoga, from Bhakti, which is mostly about towards elderly and women, fellow human beings, friends and relatives,prayers and mantra chanting, to Tantra, which is largely about most Indian Gurus teach – total detachment from family life and familysex. members (Viyoga), isolation, idleness, inaction, apathy towards wealth, Most Yoga studios and fitness centers in America teach some neglect of socio-political events and rejection of progress of science.type of Hatha yoga, the Yoga of activity. Hatha comes in hundreds of They live a sort of idle life and have negative attitudes. This is verydifferent flavors - each emphasizing different body postures and wrong according to the Gita and Ashtang Yoga.breathing techniques. These are some of the most popular:. Buddhi-Yoga. (Nyaya-Darshan) Easy: (1)Iyanger; (2) Kripalu; (3) Kundalini & (4) ViniYoga. Human body is equipped with a unique gift of God- Intellect • Moderately Difficult:- (5) Shivanad Yoga (Buddhi) or common sense. It is not found in other mammals, animals • Challenging:- (6) ASHTANG YOGA (Power Yoga); and plant kingdom. It is with INTELLECT that we Think, Judge and (7) Jivanmukti; (8) Bikram or Chaudhury (Hot Yoga)”. Reason. (Shopper’s Guide - page 63) When real curiosity (Jignasa) arises in intellect of a Scientist, he * * * * * tries to find “Root Causes of Effects observed in the world of material One observes in above list names of teachers attached with Yoga things”.Schools. These Yoga schools are of popular Yoga business teachers. A Yogi by Self-meditation tries to find the “Root causes of eventsThere is vague or only partial knowledge of ASHTANG YOGA in USA occurring in daily life. He searches Self or ‘Who am I?’, consciousand India also. mind, intellect and God hidden within as Soul and Universal Love”. To refer to an age old “Art and Science of Patanjali’s AshtangYoga” as “Power Yoga” by a magazine like TIME is very wrong. Healthy Mind dwells in Healthy Body; and Healthy Mind keeps Similarly understanding of word, ‘Hath’ is incorresct. Body Healthy. (Ref Chapter on ‘What is Hath Yoga?’ in this book). Yoga is a perfect science of physical and mental health. Mind, Intellect, Ego, Desires and Knowledge are different aspects (areas) of There is unimaginable interest and curiosity about Yoga in human brain. Mind is called the sixth sense organ in the Gita. DifferentWestern countries. In many libraries of Western countries one finds 50 levels of consciousness in mind are studied in last five steps of “self-to 100 books on Yoga. All Yoga books describe some postural meditation” in Ashtang Yoga.exercises (Asana), breathing exercises (Pranayama - the 4th step of Yoga study is an important part of Hinduism (Sanatan Dharm). ItAshtang Yoga), relaxing techniques, and age old tricks of Chanting OM teaches search of own Self (Atma), Soul (Bhraman) and Creator Godmantra and a few well-known tricks of meditation. of Universe. 1
  • 10. Yoga is useful at all places and at all times for every individual of Section: Iglobal mankind. It is applicable to all, living in any part of the world,speaking any language and believing- or even not believing - in anysecular religion, faith or God. Yoga is useful for all, but one has to learnYoga with interest and real curiosity. Introduction: Yoga is Wisdom of Sages of India since Ages. We speak and hear sentences like Be Yourself, Help 2. WHY STUDY YOGA?yourself, God helps those who help themselves etc. The roots ofall such sentences could be traced to spiritual scriptures of India, called Yoga study is an important part of Hinduism (Sanatan Dharm),Upanishads and six Hindu Darshans. A Yoga student has to study Buddhism and Jainism in India. Yoga is a perfect Science ofother Darshans like Sankhya and Vedanta, and a few chapters of the Spirituality, art of health of body, blissful mind and true religious life. ToGita after Yoga study. All above spiritual scriptures deal with a common remember the purpose and scope of Yoga,subject of Self-Knowledge (Adhiatma Vidya). Remember Alphabets of YOGA. The Gita describes nearly 18 types of Yoga, like Karma Yoga, Y. YourSelf. This is a study of Self knowledge or Who am I?Bhakti Yoga, Dhyan Yoga, Sankhya Yoga Etc. Yoga and Gita teach Search God by self-realization and changeless soul within. I amtrue religion. It leads to Vision of One Universal God (Vishva- Roop Brahman, Immortal Soul is the final point to be reached byDarshan). Yoga study removes inferiority complex and creates self- meditation.respect (Swa-maan), Self-confidence (Atma-Shraddha), mental O. Find Zero of Time and Space.courage and true pride or self-esteem (Gaurav). This brings an understanding that Perfect Laws of Mother Nature Theoretical knowledge of Ashtang Yoga is needed for its practical (Prakruti) govern universe and all living beings in a perfect and equalapplication in daily life. A Yogi inspires others to do divine benevolent manner.deeds. This brings good name and joy for all. Yoga gives power of G. Good thoughts and actions (Karma), for living a perfectpositive thinking and creates compassion towards all living creations of divine life.Mother Nature. A. Achieve Four Goals of 100 years of life; Dharm, Arth, Kama, First Introductory Theoretical course of Ashtang Yoga is like an & Moksha.entry step for sailing into ocean of great psychic powers, hidden within ------------------------------------------------------------------------------human Mind. Most psychiatrists, psychics, Spiritual healers and Indian We start this study with a nice Prayer of a WesternYoga Gurus do understand Mind, Subconscious Mind (Chitta), Intellect Philosopher.(Buddhi) and Ego-Self (Ahamkar) filled Selfish Desires (VAsana) butvaguely. “Oh God, give me the Serenity of mind, Yoga students and teachers will notice a scientific approach to to understand things that I can Change;Yoga in this book. Any open minded reader will learn some new points Oh God, give me the Intellectabout Ashtang Yoga, which will benefit him/her in life’s journey. to understand things that I Can’t Change, But above all give me the Wisdom to understand the Difference between the two." If this philosopher had studied the Gita and Ashtang Yoga, he would have got his answers. In outer world we see many man made objects like clothes, books, utensils, houses, furniture, temples and churches, roads and dams, cars, T.Vs and computers etc.,. These are non-living (Jad) man-made material things, valued by man-made money. 2
  • 11. We also see living beings like insects, animals, birds, snakes, different levels of conscious and dreaming mind. Mind, Intellect, Ego,fishes and many aquatic creatures, trees and plants etc,. These are Desires and Knowledge are different aspects (areas) of human brain.God made living beings. They are not man made. Mind is called the sixth sense in the Gita (Ch-15). We can know and understand with spoken human words, man Yoga has universal application. It means that the principles workmade political rules, religious beliefs, preachings, traditions, social at all times, at all places for all individuals of either sex, at any agecustoms, etc.,. period in any religion or a nation. Hence Yoga is becoming a popular All man made physical objects, laws and living animal bodies business in recent times in America and Western countries.change with the passage of TIME. There are non-living objects like land, water, air, light, heat or fire, * * * * *sun, moon, space, millions of stars and galaxies in the universe. Theseare not man made. They appear more or less constant, but they Special Note:constantly change their relative positions in this Dynamic Universe. Shri Aurobindo defines Yoga as methodological effort towards The above prayer could be answered like this. self-perfection and development of an individuals latent potential. Yoga “Man can change man made laws and man made things, but a is an art and science of living in harmony with Mother Nature andman cannot change God made things and God made laws. Universe. Any great king or a highest military power cannot change the laws • Yoga has been appreciated in prevention of diseases andof Mother Nature (Prakruti or God). But any average man can change promotion of health by developing a perfect balance between body,laws of countries made by politicians or kings. A man can alter or mind, Ego-centric desires (Vasana), Divine Soul within and finallydestroy roads, houses and any man made thing. Constitutions, social uniting with ‘God of Universe’.customs and religious beliefs of the past can be changed, and must be • Pranayam practices of Yoga improve oxygenation, rejuvenate brainrevised with progress of science and passage of time”. cells and all organs, cultivate immunity to environmental pressures (From Mahatma Gandhi -book By Dr. H. K. Gandhi)). and thus impart vigor and vitality. • Psycho-Somatic Healing: Cures and heals many Psycho-somatic A physical scientist discovers the eternal laws of Mother Nature diseases like blood pressure, acidity, digestive, respiratory and(or God) which govern all non-living objects. A biologist discovers circulatory systems, prevents and cures heart diseases, bones andbiological laws governing all living creatures. By meditating upon Self joints, excretory systems and bladder problems, diabetes,and Death, a Yoga student learns that some invisible but perfect laws headeaches etc.,.govern all material objects (Jad) and all living creatures (Chetan) in an • Yoga has great application in the modern times when depression,equal manner. Then he feels the presence of God at all places, at all neurosis, frustrations, etc, have seeped into our daily life.times. • Helps in mental tensions, worries, and loss of sleep (insomnia); This Vision of God comes by knowing ever-changing body, mind, depressions, suicidal thoughts, frustrations etc,.intellect, knowledge, and various beliefs, but the changeless Soul • Develops art of making quick decisions and correct actions and(Spirit, Brahman, Atma) within. “Will power in Mind” to control wrong habits like Smoking, Alcohol, Only a few individuals like Jesus, Buddha, Mahavira, Mohammad Drugs etc, and food habbits responsible for over weight.and Mahatma Gandhi get divine vision of God. They declare “God Is • Removes Inferiority and Superiority complexes.One”. They revise old religious beliefs and wrong customs. • Controls Passions, Angers and sensual Temptations: Dharm Sanstapanaarthaya Sambhavami Yuge Yuge- • Creates Self-Confidence, Courage & ability of Reading Thoughts of (Gita Ch-4 V-7,8). all People. God assumes human forms, at intervals of some centuries, to • Unfolds Holy Spirit (Self, Atman) and creats a sense of Humanrevise religions Equality. • Explains true and false Religious Beliefs and need of a true The study of 8 steps of Ashtang brings this wisdom (Pragna) and Religion in life.leads to NIRVANA. The last five steps of Yoga meditation teach 3
  • 12. • Karm Yoga teaches noble behavior. It brings worldly Fame & Section: I Material Successes.• Preaches “Universal Religion”. It is a path of knowing Relationship between Self and God.• Removes fear of Death. Introduction: 3. BRIEF HISTORY OF PATANJALI YOGA. Prior to the period of Lord Buddha (6th Cent BC.), and Saint Patanjali (? 2nd Cent BC), many Yoga practices were going on in India since Vedic times. There was a Chatus-Pad (4 step) Yoga, with about 200 verses (yog-sutras). Its four sections were known as Samadhi- Pada (51 Verses), Sadhan Pada (55 verses), Vibhooti Pada (56 verses) and Kaivalya Pada (38 Verses). All these sections were jointly called Yoga Sutra* It appears that Saint Patanjali has revised above Yoga study. He had developed it into a perfect art and science. From the above Yoga Sutra, Patanjali had picked up important 8 Sanskrit words Yama, Niyama, Asans, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhayana and Samadhi, and arranged them into a ladder of 8 steps of Morals, Yoga Postures and self-meditation. This revised 8 step Yoga is the Real Astanga-Yoga. It is also called “Raj Yoga’, or Patanjali Yoga or ASHTANG YOGA. A Yoga student learns each step slowly under the guidance and supervision of a well-read, self-realized and non-greedy Guru. Yog-Sadhna (study) is a part and parcel of religious and cultural heritage of India. In the Ten Words of first two steps, there is root and perfect science of world religions. There is similar message in Old Testaments, New Testaments of Christianity, Jainism, etc., and these first two steps of Ashtang Yoga. In USA and India a rare Yoga teacher may be teaching these ‘Ten Yoga Words’ of Eternal Religion of Humanity (Sanatan Dharm) to his students. To Remember Benefits of Yoga Study Remember the spelling of P A T A N J A L I P eace of Mind. No angers, no fears and no worries, no tensions, no stress, no depressions, no unwanted elations. Never think of suicide. 4
  • 13. A waken Kundalini Shakti. This develops wonderful memory After mastering the 7th step of concentration (Dhayan) and the 8thpower, Three Tense Vision (Tri-kal-gyan). Imparts ability of making step of Samadhi (Bliss state of mind) one understands perfect rules ofcorrect and quick decisions and actions with self-confidence and Mother Natura and Omnipresence of God.courage. Kundalini imparts hopes of bright future. By Yoga study when a student reaches the Samadhi stage, he T IME-PLACE Awareness. Desh-Kal Smruti or Chitta-shakti. understands "I am not physical body, not mind or a bundle of endlessMemory of past events (Smruti), awareness of present problems, and desires, but pure soul". Then only one gets liberated from all falseclear vision of future goals and dreams, with perfect Time-Place Sense. Egos, like "I am a Hindu, I am a Christian, I am an American or an A agna Chakra: Develops Leadership (Gan-pati) qualities, Ability Indian, or I am a doctor, a lawyer, a king, a military general, a priest, aand Wisdom of giving correct commands, Power of Mass Hypnosis great scholar, etc,.".and ability of reading thoughts and intentions of people. It is called Par- True self-realization occurs when one reaches thisKaya Pravesh. Many intellectuals like teachers, doctors, lawyers, etc, understanding- "I am a human being just like any other livingare unaware of such hidden powers of mind. They become blind human being”. Cosmic Light of God may be seen when all egosfollowers of many Hypnotizing and money minded Indian Gurus. disappear. This is called Spiritual Vision. N irvana. The ultimate goal of life is Nirvana, Moksha or Kaivalya.Freedom from all material desires, worldly bondages and true liberty. Yoga study unfolds dormant divine SELF within and leads toThis is like Salvation. A Yogi gets Moksha, meaning liberation from a conviction of Universal God. Such a person does many humanitarianbirth-death cycle of soul. This is a popular belief in Jainism and many deeds without any Ego as a true Devotee of God. A Yogi has no fear ofIndian religions. death. J oining with Good People. Sat-Sang. Company of good Yoga is a wonderful Art and Science of India’s heritage andlearned people brings correct knowledge, name, fame and many culture. Many right and wrong notions prevail about benefits of Yoga inmaterial achievements. India and abroad. First introductory class explains the meaning and A rt of finding a way-out in difficult situations with “Clear and purpose of Ashtang Yoga study.Firm Mind”. Times of unhappiness come to every body, rich or poor, aking or a prisoner. Yoga knowledge helps one to firmly face all adverse *(Ref. The Text Book of Yoga, By Swami Brahmanand Saraswati -situations. He never gets frustrated, depressed or thinks of committing formerly a neuro-physician Dr. Rammurti Mishra M.D. Ashram in Springsuicide. vally NY. USA). L earn Moral Duties Dharm. Without knowledge of obligatory duties (DHARMA) towards SELF,family, society, country and entire mankind, and mother nature; anyperson lives an animal life of sensual joys at mind level and behavesworse than an animal like a devil (Rakshasa). I, who am I? Knowledge is Power and invisible Wealth of a person. This isthe general knowledge or education one receives in school andcolleges. It is called Veda, Gnyan or Vidya. But there is a secondknowledge, Self-knowledge (Atma Gyan). In Yoga one studies this Self knowledge or Who am I? The studyof a few early steps like Yoga postures (Asana) and BreathingExercises (Pranayama), impart immediate peace of mind, good sleep(in cases of insomnia), control and cure of Blood Pressure in manycases. Yoga meditation alleviates anxiety, worries and tensions andcreates a sense of well-being, positive thoughts and mental tranquility. 5
  • 14. Section: I Saint Kabir (12th Cent. AD), also gives some important tips for judging a true Guru or a Saint. 1. Sant sant sabkoi kahe sant biral sansara, Sinhanka tola nahi kanchanka na pahadIntroduction: "Every one proclaims, "I am a saint, I am a Yogi", but it is difficult to find a true saint, because lions do not live in herds and mountains of gold are not found in the world."4. GURU SEARCH FOR YOGA STUDY. 2. Char chinh hari bhaktake pragat dikhai det, Daya dharma aadhintaa par dukhko har let. Yoga is a religious and spiritual study. It demands life long "These are four obvious signs to recognize a true devotee of Godpractice (Sadhana). Personal guidance and supervision of a spiritually quickly. He is a man of Compassion, Morality (religion), Devotion toenlightened, self-realized, non-greedy, knowledgeable teacher is God, and helps other in difficulties without any ego or expectation ofalways needed for learning Yoga up to the seventh step of Dhyan. The rewards".word ‘Guru’ means a teacher. It also means an elderly person and any 3. Aash tyaje, maya tyaje moha tyaje, aru mana.man of wisdom and experience. Harsha shoka ninda tyaje, kahe Kabir sant jan." Just as one cannot learn music by knowing musical keys and A saint is a selfless, desireless person who has conquered Mayareading a few music books, in same way one cannot learn Yoga by (family attachments), is not in illusion (Moha), never feels insulted byseeing postures and reading Yoga books. criticism nor elated by praise, does not criticize others, has no fear of All people need Peace of Mind to think well. People also want death, has no anger or jealousy, is simple in life style, and not attachedlove, enjoy wealth, and live in good family relations and harmony to political position.in society. Hurry makes Curry. Patience, Peace of mind andPerseverance are 3 most important “Ps” in Yoga study. Summary. 1. Yoga is a subjective study of ones own self- Swa-adhyaya. RELATIVES OF A YOGI. Yet a Guru is necessary for learning Yoga. He must have basic A saintly king (Rajarshi) Bhartuhari (8th Cent.AD?), describes in knowledge of biology and other sciences.following manner all mental states- as relatives of a Yogi in his 2. Take sufficient time in finding a Guru. Indian Gurus frequentlyfollowing famous verse. quote sentences like these. "Do not inquire about the past of a Guru or a Sadhu". But this is Dhairyam yasya pita, kshama ch janani, shantihi chiram gahini, wrong. Yoga students must try to find the past life and family Satyam sunurayam, daya ch bhagini, bhrata manah sanyamaha; background of a Guru and judge about his worldly general knowledge. Shayya bhumitalam, dishopi vasanam, gyanamrutam bhojanam Inquire how he became a spiritual teacher. Also find Guru’s greed for Eite yasya kutumbino vada sakhe, kasmad bhayam Yoginaha. money, observe his temperament, food habits, vices like drugs, alcohol, smoking, attitude towards poor, females and untouchability "Patience is his Father, and Forgiveness is his Mother. Eternal etc,.Peace (Bliss) of mind is his Wife, and Truthfulness is his Son; 3. Beware of disciples talking about wonderful powers of theirCompassion is his Sister and always a well Controlled Mind is his Guru, doing miracles etc.,. Never get impressed by the number ofBrother. He sleeps on hard Ground and Ten Directions are his clothes disciples any Yoga Guru possesses. Simple commonsense says that a(is completely naked). Contemplation, Meditation and Spiritual divine bachelor Guru cannot teach good family values to married men orknowledge is his Food. women. Oh my friend, tell me how such a Yogi will ever be afraid of 4. Pranayama practices and chanting of OM, and some Mantrasanybody, any thing, at any time in the world?” immediatedly pacify all minds for a short time. Any agitated mind experiences a wonderful peace by doing any Pranayama. The psycho- 6
  • 15. physiological effects of conscious breathing and chanting Mantra are Section: Iuniversal. 5. "Matru Devo Bhava". Mothers are living Goddesses. Theydistribute Gods love on earth to all people. This is the preaching ofUpanishads. Hinduism places women next to God. "Janani Janmabhumi cha Swargad api Gariyasi". Mother and Introduction:Mother-land are higher than heaven. "Yatra Naryastu pujyante, ramante tatra devataha". Where 5. PEACE INVOCATIONS SHANTI PATHladies are respected as Goddesses, children born from them becomedeities. They create a heaven in home and that land". 6. Living in family love and harmony, living together is Yoga. We will observe in coming chapters, that the first two steps ofPrayers, mantra chanting, diet control and regular scriptural study are Yoga teach Eternal (Sanatan Dharm) morals of Religion, commonlyintegral parts of Yoga study. found in all world religions. 7. Patanjali’s Ashtang Yoga is only one Hindu Darshan. It needs Peace invocations or Shanti Path is done before starting Yogato be studied with some other Darshans like Sankhya, Vedanta and the classes. Some start with simple Pranayam and Mantra chanting. TheBhagavat Gita. following Mantra are recited in morning Yoga classes. Any individual 8. Yoga study creates wonderful ability of reading thoughts of doing meditation practices at home should recite a few long OMother people. This is called Par-Kaya-Pravesh. Look at the life of Lord chantings at beginning.Krishna in Mahabharat from above point. Krishna asks to fight and kill The Mantra suggest purpose, meaning of prayers and correctArjuna his own Guru, because the Guru had failed to deliver justice and attitudes towards all people.was on side of evil minded, ego-blinded ruler and his arrogant sons. All participants join in chanting Shanti Path like a musical chorus. 9. Krishna preaches, “Become a Saintly-King Rajarshi. Try toestablish a kingdom of equal justice for all”. This must be the final aim “SHANTI PATH” (PEACE INVOCATIONS).and goal of every Yoga student. (1). Do 3 Maha-Pranayam followed by The study of Yoga brings material happiness (Siddhies), by 3 long (OM) Chanting. (Five minutes) teaching how to do correct Karma. Later it brings Spiritual Chant following verses in a chorus. Vision and Joy during this very life, and not in next life after (2) Om swasti prajabhyaha paripalayantam death as many Gurus talk and preach in India. Nyayyen margane mahim mahishaha. Go Brahmanebhyo shubham astu nityam Loka samasta sukhino bhavantu. (Samhita Mantra) (3) Kale varshantu parjanyaha, Pruthivi sashya-shalini, Desho ayam kshobha rahitaha, Brahmana santu nirbhayaha. (Samhita Mantra) (4).Om sarvesham swastir bhavatu, Sarvesham shantir bhavatu Sarvesham purnam bhavatu, Sarvesham mangalam bhavat. (Upanishad Mantra) (5).Om sarve bhavantu sukhinaha, Sarve santu niramaya, Sarve bhadrani pashyantu, Ma kashchid dukhabhag bhavet. (Upanishad Mantra) 7
  • 16. (6). ASATO MAM SAD GAMAYA: Section: I TAMASO MAM JYOTIR GAMAYA MRUTOR MAM AMRUTAM GAMAYA. (Bhrada-Aranyak Upnishad) (7).Om purnam adaha, purnam eedam Introduction: purnat purnam udachyate Purnasya purnam adaya purnamev avshishyate. 6. EIGHT STEPS OF YOGA IN BRIEF. (Isha-vasya Upanishad) Om shantihi shantihi shantihi. Let us have a brief over view of the 8 steps of Yoga. We will learn more about each step in other chapters. MEANING: The Old-Wine of Self-knowledge (AtmaGyan) is presented in a (2). Let rule of equal justice of a mighty king protecting all people new bottle of “Modern Science”.prevail in our land. Let cattle and men of wisdom ever remain happy. The eight steps of Yoga teach, Eternal Universal Religion ofLet people of all classes be happy and prosperous in all respects. Global Mankind or Sanatan Dharm, Good Health of Body and Mind, (3). Let there be timely rainfall, let our mother-land remain ever how to achieve material wealth and successes and finally Art of Unitinggreen and give plenty of food and flowers. Let there be no crimes, riots with Universal God (Yoga with God) by mastering the last step ofand unrest in the country, and men of knowledge, wisdom and vision Samadhi.ever remain fearless. The “Path of Yoga” is not Easy. But the theoretical knowledge of (4). Let happiness of all kinds come to everybody; let peace come 8 steps will help any curious student. He will start correct Yogato all families, let everyone be perfect, prosperous and joyful. practices in daily life. (5). Let all be happy and healthy; let all people see good things in 1. Yama: Fear of death. Yama is imaginary Deity God of Death inlife and let unhappiness of any kind not come to anyone. Hinduism. Yoga liberates one from natural fear of death. Five words (6). Oh Lord, Lead me to Truth from untruth, lead me to Light must get translated in life to “Postpone Death”. These are Satyamfrom darkness, lead me to Immortality from (by my) death. (Truth), Ahimsa (non violence), Asteya (no thefts, no dishonesty), (7). That (Universe) is perfect; this (my body, mind, intellect Aparigraha (no greed of money, material wealth or political highand/or soul) is perfect; perfect arises from perfect; but even if any positions etc), and Brahamcharyam (Sex-Control).perfect goes out from perfect; still perfect remains. 2. Niyama: Well Disciplined Life. nd Remember the points expressed in Shanti Path. Yoga study is Five more words are indicated in this 2 step for health of bodydone to achieve above Goals. and mind. Santosh (satisfaction with any situation in life), Saucham The last verse declares that perfect rules of Mother Nature apply (Cleanliness of body, food, water, air, etc,), Tapa (Vegetarian diet,to all human beings, plants and animals in a perfect manner. enduring some hardships like hunger, thrust etc, for a few hours, a day By meditation and study of the Gita one understands ones own or two. Swadhyay (Observing one’s own self by daily meditation),limitations of knowledge, time and place. The same limitations apply to Ishvara Parinidhanam (Surrender to God, all events occurring in dailyall other human beings in exactly same and perfect manner. life). This understanding comes by Self Meditation, which in turn 3. Asana : Nearly 300 Asana (body postures) are shown increates a sense of equality, positive attitudes, self-confidence and different Yoga books. They are static postural exercises for preservingremoval of all inferiority complexes. full mobility of all joints and tone of muscles. Relaxing Asana like OM Shanti Shanti Shanti. OM TAT SAT. Sabasana and Pranayama (Breathing exercises) are done in between Let peace prevail, peace prevail, peace prevail. different Asana. God is Absolute reality and Ultimate Truth. 4. Pranayam: Various Breathing exercises. Nearly 96 types of Pranayam are described in different Yoga books. Pranayam brings the ‘sub-conscious vital system of respiration 8
  • 17. under conscious’ voluntary control. This creates wonderful peace of Dhayan and Samadhi steps. In deep Samadhi "you are looking at yourmind, feeling of well being and tension free Mind. own dead body". 5. Pratyahar: Self control practices of the five senses and five Associate the moment of your death with respiration and heartorgans of actions (Karm-Indriya) start with this step. Tapashcharya beats. Think like this. “I am alive as long as I am breathing and myteach victory over sensual cravings of short term joys, e.g., taste of heart is beating. When my heart stops, I will die”. This ‘Law of Death’eating, smoking, alcohol, drugs etc, Listen to words of wisdom from all applies to every living human being and animal.Gurus but never become a hypnotized blind disciple of any one Guru. The moment of my death is my next breath or next heart beat. 6. Dharana : Purpose or Goals of Human Life. But ‘Today and Now’ is life. Life goes on as long as God is Four Age related goals are indicated in scriptures. One goal must dwelling in my heart.be achieved during one Age Quarter. Life of 100 years is divided intofour age related quarters (Ashrama). Achieve one goal in one age Summary :quarter and observe some vows also. • Steps No. 1 & 2, Teach ‘Ten words of Morality’ preached in all World During Vidyaarthi-Ashrama (first 25 years), get education from Religions.parents and teachers (Gurus) in school and colleges. Also learn moral • Steps No.3 & 4, Teach Good health of body by postures Asana andcodes of good conduct (Dharm). One important vow indicated during breathing exercises.student-age is Celibacy. • Steps No, 5, 6 & 7, deal with Mind control, developing Will Power During Grahastha-Ashrama, (second age-quarter) live a family and how to achieve of all possible goals by daily Meditation.life in home. Goal indicated is Earn Money (Artha). Marry and Raise • The 8th step leads a true seeker to SEE, KNOW and Unite withgood children, and welcome Atithi or home coming guests. Supreme (One) God- the perfect maker of Universe, when he/she During Vanprastha-Ashrama, (3rd age quarter), Goal is Kama, overcomes the natural fear of death.meaning fulfill all Desires. Van-prastha word means ‘Go to Jungle’. Itspractical meaning is ‘Partial Retirement’, but doing some social service TIPS:activities in village areas. • Don’t try for Samadhi step before age of 75. Sanyasa-Ashrama. Sanyas means “renouncing with good • No Guru can show you God or teach Samadhi.understanding” all high positions in jobs, wealth and material comforts. • Spiritual Vision or Seeing Cosmic Light is an individual’sBecome a desireless saint. Live a simple but purposeful life. Meditate unique self experience (Swa-anubhuti). One sees Cosmic Light ofon Self and Soul and try to win the natural fear of death. This leads to a Universal God.mental state of Nirvana, Kaivalya or Moksh. Be prepared now to meet • Remember this Law. All living Gurus are Mortal Human beings,death (Yama) on any day, at any time. just like you. 7. Dhyan: Perfect attention and one pointed Contemplation isDhyan. Yoga is a perfect science for good health of body, mind, Contemplate daily upon short term plans and current age related intellect and soul. Yoga teaches how to live a noble and happy wellmain goal of life (Swadhyay). Do all activities- Karma, with a sense of united family life (Sansara-Yoga), enjoy good health, earn fame andmoral duty. Pay perfect attention in job or study and do all deeds in an name, wealth, successes and ever remain in a state of mental bliss,excellent manner. happiness and satisfaction. Dhyan means perfect attention and full concentration in any jobyou are doing ‘at the present place- today and now’. Arjuna hittingbirds eye (bulls eye) Target in Mahabharat story is a good example ofDhyan. No anger at any time. 8. Samadhi : In Samadhi state one tries to identify the physicalbody and soul as two separate elements, by thinking about ones ownDay and moment of Death. Most Yoga teachers are vague about 9
  • 18. Section: II ASHTANG YOGAART AND SCIENCE OF HEALTH, WEALTH & SPIRITUAL LIFE. Ashtang Yoga: 7. STEP NO. 1. YAMA. Ahimsa Satyam Asteyam Aparigrahaha Braham-charyam eeti Yamaha Sadhan Pada. V-30 These five words mean Non-violence, Truth, No thefts, No greed and Chaste sex life. If these words are well understood and translated in daily actions (Karma), they help to postpone death and remove Fear of Death. "Jatasya hi dhruvo mrutum". "Every born creature has got to die". The Bhagavat Gita (Ch-2) declares this perfect and eternal law of Mother Nature or God. Death is the final and natural End of Life, yet it is also a common FEAR (Bhaya) in all living human beings and animals. The name of first step is Yama. Yama is an Imaginary mystic God of Death in Hinduism. The first step in Ashtang Yoga makes us aware of a definite event, surely going to occur in future life, namely Death. This step teaches five moral words. These words are like commandments found in all world religions. If one does not observe these five principles in daily life, Death comes earlier. Its practice promises a Long and Healthy Life. All animals and mankind have this natural fear of death. This fear By: Swami Dwiroopanand. of death vanishes and mind becomes fearless (Abhaya) when one th (Dr.H.K. Gandhi – in past life. Jacksonville. FL. USA) reaches the last (8 step) of Samadhi by Yoga study. In Samadhi one realizes that he/she is “Divine Immortal Soul”, always present in all living beings. One also understands true relationship between living and non-living Universal bodies, and knows the presence of “Absolute Reality (God)” as Immortal Soul within. 10
  • 19. Each word needs some good discourses. Only a few points are Hinduism. How to serve parents in old age is nicely indicated in story ofgiven below. Shravan in the Ramayan.Ahimsa = Non violence. No injury to any life or property. This is a Aparigraha = No greed (Alobha). Do not be greedy about moneycommon doctrine in all world religions. It is preached with great stress and material things. Desires of collecting great material wealths,in Jainism and also in Buddhism and Hinduism. This is not a simple money, clothes, furniture, cars, houses, estates, kingdoms etc, isnegative commandment. LOBHA. A Yogi has a mental attitude of detachment (Alobha) from all Ahimsa teaches attitude of a positive universal love, and help material things, because they give only short-term happiness andpeople in need with compassion and sense of universal brotherhood pleasures.and friendship. Do not kill lower forms of life like insects, animals and Brahma-charyam= Chastity or celibacy in sex life. Developingplants, or murder innocent people even if you do cannot love them. mental control of thoughts of sex desires is real celibacy. Satyam = “God is Truth, and Truth is God”, Mahatma Gandhi Brahmacharyam or mental control of sex desires (Kama) is ansaid. Search God by search of “Holy Spirit” or “Immortal Soul” within all important aspect in Yoga study. All religions peach sex control.living beings. This changeless reality is called by various names in Unrestricted sex activity leads to diseases likes AIDS, Syphilis andscriptures as Soul, Holy Spirit, Bhraman, Atman, Chetna, Tat, Saha, early death.Tatva meaning pure essence, etc,. Brahmaya Charati eeti Brahamchari. Brahamchari is a person Sat means Truth, Good, right, correct. Goona means qualities. who travels far and wide for spiritual quest. But by traditional usage thisA man of good qualities is called Sat-jan, Sajjan (Jan = man), a noble word means a girl or a boy who has not done any sex activity at all ingentleman, an angel. life. (Virgin Girl or Man). A perfectly celibate individual is highly Remember: Tatva Gyana means Spiritual Knowledge, and Atma respected at all places. He is called a Brahmchari.Gyan means Self Knowledge. Lord Brahama is an imaginary creator God of “Life on earth” in Most Indian Gurus teach that this world (Jagat) and our physical Hindu mythology. Brahama symbolizes totality of spirits in all livingbodies are "Mithya, false or unreal", because they are ever changing creatures. A person who knows Brahman is a Brahmin, a livingand perish one day. representative of God on earth. Brahmin is the highest class in the But Patanjali and Lord Buddha teach that our body is made up of four-class system socio-political structure started by King Manu5 basic elements (Panch-Mahabhuta). These are “Earth, Water, Air, (approx. 2500 BC.). Manu Smruti dictates moral laws (Dharma =duties)Fire or Light (Energy) and Space”. This is also a reality and truth. Thus for all men and women in all four classes.everything in Universe is True and not false. Truth is God. All living beings want to live. The instinct of survival is an inborn Gandhiji had adopted “Nonviolence and Truth”, two moral words natural instinct (vrutti) in all living beings, which drags them all to dopreached in Yoga and all world religions, in political fight for many actions (Pravrutti, Karm) like eating, drinking, breathing, moving,independence of India against the British Rule. He used it nicely and etc,. for self preservation. Race preservation instinct is also anotherbrought Freedom (liberty) for its people in 1947. He said. “There is no natural instinct. The Karma of sex act is done by all insects anddispute, either in family, society or international issues, which cannot vertebrates. All species try to create young ones at certain age period.be solved by adopting “Nonviolence and Truth” . The desire of sex (Kama = passion) starts at teenage. In human Asteye = No thefts, no stealing. families mental control of passion is needed for a happy and healthy Karma Yoga in the Gita teaches practical Asteya in family family and social life.relations. Children are ever indebted to parents and teachers. If they do The 5 moral vows and practice of the first step of Yoga keepsnot return their debts by serving them in old age with respect, love and Yama or death away. By translating the five moral codes in life onecare with a sense of gratitude, they are thieves according to Gita. lives a long life of many achievements without any psycho-somatic (Ch.3-V-12) problems and diseases. Mother-hood and father-hood are natural instincts of love and care “Satyam Vada, Dharmam Chara”.for young ones in all species. Love is provided by both parents but Be Truthful, Honest and Nonviolent.more by the mother. Mother is respected as a living Goddess (Devi) in Om Tat Sat. That is Truth. 11
  • 20. Section: II 2. Santosha: A sense of Satisfaction with the present situation in life. Events in life happen, as they must happen according to rules (Niyama) of Mother Nature (Prakruti). These bring either happiness or unhappiness. All human beings are limited by Time and Place (Desh-Ashtang Yoga: Kal). They SEE only the effects (of events) with senses and minds. Mostly they do not try to find the causes (reason) of such events. If8. STEP NO 2 NIYAMA something do not happen as one wishes, he/she gets upset, becomes unhappy, frustrated, depressed or angry. Shaucham, Santosha Tapa, Swadhyaya, Ishvara-Pranidhanani After birth, the journey of all human beings and animals reach aeeti Niyamaha. Verse- 32. Sadhan Pada. day called Today. This is the Last Day of creation of Universe (!). According to Karma done in past- by every individual (Atma), he/she is Shaucham = Cleanliness of body, mind and intellect. either happy or unhappy. Santosha = Satisfaction, contentment, compromising attitude in Yoga teaches to develop a sense of satisfaction (Santosh) inany and all situations in life. material terms for whatever and whereever you are in life Today and Tapa = Penance are done for purification of body, mind and Now.intellect by restrains of senses and actions. It develops good human 3. Tapa: Austerities or penances.qualities like discipline, obedience, tolerance, endurance, etc,. Tapa teaches how to control sensual cravings arising in mind for Swadhyaya = Self study and practices of unfoldment of inner self objects of sensual joys, and demanded by five senses. Tapa is a(Anter-Atma), Soul or Spirit (PURE ATMAN). religious training. It must be taught by parents and learned by children Ishvera parinidhani = Total surrender to God. Develop an during young age. Tapa prepares mind for unexpected hardships likelyattitude of accepting all events (including deaths of relatives) occurring to come in future life. All days are not green and rosy days. One mustin life, as destined by God or Laws of Mother Nature. learn to endure some difficulties like pain, hunger, thirst etc,. for a few days. The 10 words of Yama and Niyama, can be compared with TEN Most people live at physical body level only. They get upset withcommandments of Christianity and all religions. One will find great slightest change in their comforts and surroundings. Their attachmentssimilarity of moral doctrines in all religions in first two steps of Yoga. to taste, smell and appearance of food make them miserable.Yoga practice starts with understanding of these morals. Happiness or unhappiness arises in mind. It is mostly due to likes and The word Niyama means rules, regulations, laws or dislikes for food items and drinks, clothes and comforts.commandments. FIVE important rules or codes of conduct are Tapa training creates “Will Power” for facing odds in lifesindicated in this step. journey. The purpose of penances is to gain control over mind and 1. Saucham: Cleanliness of body, food, water and air. senses. By learning Tapa, the student develops mental control over This means clean food, water, air, dress, home and land. In name natural instincts like thirst, hunger, sex desires, etc, and learnsof religion, many rituals are done e.g. “Fire worship by orthodox tolerance. In military training one learns many Tapas in hard trainingBhramins”. This makes atmosphere and surroundings unhygienic. They schedules.pour milk, curd, honey etc as Abhisheks’ on Shiva Linga. The residual 4. Swadhyaya: Self study and self analysis.milk create an ideal breeding pot for bacteria, flies and mosquitoes. Swadhyaya teaches realizing and accepting ones own mistakes. People throw garbage near temples and on roadside. Epidemics One learns to confess, say “sorry” and apologize for one’slike cholera, jaundice and typhoid break out. Orthodox Priests explain mistakes (Sins). A false ego of superiority or "I am always right"such events as anger of Lord Shiva. Thousands of people take bath in prevents such confessions. All kinds of false egos gradually (Mada)holy rivers like Ganges. This makes the water polluted. All such disappear by meditation. Real Swadhaya occurs when one reaches thepractices are wrong according to this step of Saucham. A Yoga last step of Samadhi in Yoga which comes by Self-Meditationstudent should not participate in such activities. 12
  • 21. (Adhiatm-Chintan) only. One becomes aware of ones limitations of Section: IITime, Place, Knowledge and Mistakes (sins) committed in the past life. 5. Ishvera-prainidhanai. Surrender to Gods wish. The art of surrendering to wish of God oras design of God is Ishvera-prainidhanai. One may believe in God or not, but by Yoga meditation one learns Ashtang Yoga:that there is some perfect law and wonderful order in Mother Nature.Founder Prophets of all religions explain God as invisible maker of laws 9. STEP NO. 3 ASANA (STATIC POSTURAL EXERCISES)like gravity, bondage of time-place for all living beings and so on. God is maker of the perfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti). This PART-I. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. PART-II. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara.God could be realized in an indirect way by self meditation only. One PART-III. (A) Asana for limbs.gradually understands that the laws of Mother Nature work in an equal, PART-IV. (B)just and perfect manner on all living bodies and non-living objects, on (i) asana for backward bending of spine and neck.all material creations in the world and universe. (ii) asana for forward bending of spine. Ishvara is one of the many names for supreme God in the (iii) side bending and rotation of spine.Upanishads. Ishvara is a fraction of the Holy Spirit ever present in the PART-IV. (C). Asana for Vital Systemshearts of all living beings. Ishvara sarva Bhutanam Hridaye tishti Arjuna. PART-I. Seven golden rules of asana and pranayama. (Gita-Ch-18) In anatomical terms words of modern science one can say “God or Pranayama and Asana go hand in hand.Ishver” is sitting at AV node in heart and ‘Bundle of HIS. Yoga booksdescribe many Chakras like Kamal (Lotus) Chakra, Hridaya Chakra, A Good warning before doing any Asana and/or Pranayama.etc,. These can be understood as AV-node located in heart Persons with history of diabetes, BP, heart attacks, lung, bones,(AtmaVishuddhi-Chakra). brain, eyes, digestive problems, pregnancy, major illness, history of Wishes and desires of all human beings are endless. Niyama help operations etc., must get their family doctors opinion before doing ANYto develop a mental balance of desires and give courage to face and ASANA, except:-endure any unhappy situation in life. (1) MAHA-PRANAYAMA (Step No 4) and Love and compassion towards lower forms of life and preservation (2) SAVASANA.of living creatures including animals and plants is the divine quality and These two can be done by any one – even sick, and masterednoble attitude of any pure hearted man. All acts mst be done as work of perfectly. They are important steps of Yoga before learning any otherand for God. ASANA. Their devoted practices bring wonderful mental and physical Niyama step teaches strict discipline, moral conduct and good results.manners and behavior. Niyama lay great stress on purity of body andmind and help to remove negative thoughts. All this is achieved by self SEVEN GOLDEN RULES OF ASANA AND PRANAYAMA.meditation. 1. ALL ASANA MUST BE DONE VERY SLOWLY AND Slogans like “do to others what you want them to do to yourself” WITHOUT JERKS. The slow movements create a great mind power,come from understanding of a divine self within all of us. control of mind and will power. Om Tat Sat. God Is Truth. 2. Yoga Asana are like vaccine shots. They prevent many psycho- somatic diseases. Partial relief or complete cure in many psychosomatic diseases like blood pressure, insomnia, asthma, diabetes and many chronic diseases occurs to many people. When a disease is well established, one cannot not expect magic cures. But some relief in digestive diseases, BP, and arthritis etc., always occur. 13
  • 22. 3. Yoga Asana are Static Postural exercises. They cannot be The first four steps of Yoga teach Eternal Religion and how tocompared with muscle developing Aerobic exercises or Fitness Gyms. keep Body and Mind in perfectly fit condition. Some simple Asana can 4. Learn and master Maha-Pranayama, inner Kumbhak and outer be easily done for ten to fifteen minutes at home or in office if one findsKumbhak and Rachak. These are linked with many ASANA. Do a little “Free Time”.relaxing Savasana in-between and/or after completion of Asana. In Yoga meditation and Asana are time tested tools of pacifyingstead of doing many ASANA daily, master a few selected ASANA mind. This leads to quick recovery from many diseases likeadvised by the teacher which are useful for your age and other digestive problems, BP, etc,.conditions. Do such Asana daily for longer times. Asana and Pranayama if done regularly, help to stop progress of 5. Do not spend more than 15 to 30 minutes for Asana and many diseases. Some Asana cure digestive problems like loss ofPranayama at one time in a day. Surya-Namaskara, walking, appetite, hiccups, flatulence, constipation, acidity, ulcers etc,. They alsoPranayama and Savasana are good for aged people. prevent and cure brain, bone and joint diseases like headaches, 6. Jogging or fast running is not advisable after the age of sixty or migraines, insomnia, back and neck stiffness and joint aches, crampsseventy. Avoid long standing Asana, if you are doing long standing jobs in legs etc., etc.for hours, have high BP, hip, knee, ankle and leg problems. Always learn Asana under supervision of a knowledgeable and 7. Flex and extend toes and fingers in between ASANA, many experienced teacher (Guru), preferably having background of moderntimes during a day, whenever possible, after removing shoes and medicine. People in old age and/or diseases like BP, history of heartstockings. Remember little fingers also do very important jobs. diseases, have to avoid Asana like Shirsasana. Some Asana are not advisable during pregnancy, in cases of injuries of spine and so on. STATIC BODY POSTURES. Nearly three hundred Asana are described in Yoga Books. One "Shariram adyam khalu Dharma Sadhanam " needs to learn only a few, suitable for his or her age period and need. "Body is the first important tool for living a healthy, and happy long The names of Asana vary in different books. Asana and Postures arelife. Correct practices of Dharma (religion) are indicated in the first two named after animals, birds, insects, and geometric figures etc.,. Forsteps of Yoga". example the "Matsya-asana" is like a fish, the "Kukutta-asana" is like a The bliss state of mind (thoughtless consciousness) produced by cock, the "Salabhasana" is like a grass hopper, the "Sarp Aasana orPranayama and meditation, cures many psycho-somatic diseases. In Bhujang Asana" is like a snake and so on.spiritual talks of Indian Gurus one hears like this: "A healthy body keeps the mind healthy and healthy mind “You are not body, not mind, not intellect, but pure Atma, soul or keeps the body healthy. If both are well united (in Yoga) withspirit. Body is mortal, perishable, ever changing etc,. You are immortal intellect, a perfect human personality is created".soul". Good health of body and inner Vital Systems is important for long This takes very long time, daily meditation on Self, and devoted life and all happiness. Respiration is partly voluntary and partlystudy of Yoga for years to reach this final point of Nirvana or Spiritual involuntary. Any adult individual can easily control “rate and depth” ofConsciousness. air intake at will. Pranayam teaches how to develop a partial control Asana means a seat, a chair or a throne. even for a few minutes, over this involuntary vital system of body. Asana are firm static body postures, usually combined with Learn and master art of Maha-Pranayama before starting anysimple postural exercises and Pranayama . Asana. The purpose of Asana is to maintain good health and mobility of Maha-Pranayama (MP):all joints in limbs, spine and vital systems like respiration, circulation, Longest Possible One Breath.excretions and digestive organs. The human body is wonderful design, Take a very deep breath, (inhale); Hold the air in lungs as long ashighest creation and gift of God. possible (Kumbhak). Then exhale as slowly as possible (Rachak), and Patanjali and Lord Buddha had realized the importance of a lastly do not take next breath (outer Kumbhak), as long as posible.healthy body, sound mind, and purification of intellect for higher These 4 steps of one longest possible breath cycle make one Maha-mediation. Body is important and must be cared well. Pranayam (MP). 14
  • 23. Normal respiration rate is 15 to 18 breaths/minute. 500 cc. air is Lying on ground with face towards sky is called Supine position.breathed in and out in 4 seconds normally. In one breath. any average Lying face down is called Prone position.person can easily breath- inhale, 3 times (1500c.c) air, hold it in for Savasana appears easy but it is a difficult Asana to master. Yogasome time, and do one MP. This reduces the normal breathing rate of teachers show various tricks to master Savasana. It should be done in15 to 18, to only 2 or 3 breaths per minute. a quiet and dimly lighted room if possible. Savasana can be done either Measure your MPs with a wristwatch. Try to do 4 to 8 MPs of in PRONE or in SUPINE positions. Savasana should be done in-about 30 seconds, in two to five minutes. Do not try any more. By doing between other Asana which require more KUMBHAKS, (breath-inlong in-holds (Kumbhak) more time is allowed for a larger volume of air holds).for purification (oxygen exchange) in lungs. Mind soon becomes fresh Savasana brings great relaxation to joints, muscles, internaland pacified immediately. sphincters, all vital organs and creates immediate peace in agitated We will learn only a few common and useful Asana with important minds.points and benefits. Savasana is very useful in relieving tensions, worries¸ insomnia and mental tensions. If well mastered Savasana can induce sleep at PART-II. Savasan, Padmasana, & Surya Namaskara. will. No sleeping pills will be needed. One gets a dreamless sound sleep within a few minutes, even in noisy places. A student must note General rule: that ‘dreamless sleep state’ and Samadhi, the 8th step of Yoga, are not Before starting any Asana a student should learn and master similar mental states as many Yoga Gurus believe and teach.Maha-Pranayama. In pregnancy and in case of injuries of back, spine A few minute Savasana done at any place during jobs demandingtwisting Asana should be avoided. Before trying any difficult Asana great mental attention and concentration helps to create new and freshconsult family doctor. Some Asana are good only for youth and not ideas. Savasana and Pranayama help Lawyers drafting importantadvisable for old people. Do all Asans slowly, without jerks and only to documents, Doctors performing many operations one after another,your capacity and age limits. Business people making important decisions like buying or selling SAVASAN OR SHABASAN: DEAD BODY POSTURE. shares or property etc,. Similarly writers, poets, actors, singers, Shab means a dead-body. Shava means sleep. dancers, sportsmen and athletes during their spells of mental or Lie flat on hard ground and pretend as if you are like a dead body. physical fits demanding extra energy will be benefited.This sleeping posture or a dead body posture is called Savasana or A few minutes of Savasana will create new ideas, mental peaceShabaasana. If one lifts the hand or leg of a person in real Savasana, and physical energy for next important jobs. A few Maha-Pranayama,and then releases it, the limb falls on ground like a lifeless block of done prior to diving give a longer under-water time to all swimmers.wood. SAVASANA IS A THOUGHTLESS WORRYLESS CONSCIOUS Steps for Mastering Savasan.RELAXED STATE OF MIND DURING WHICH ALL OPPOSING Lie flat on ground and close both eyes completely. Use a firmGROUPS OF VOLUNTARY MUSCLES REMAIN IN A RELAXED mattress and a rolled towel under the nape of neck, if the hard groundSTATE. is uncomfortable for back and head. Make your self very comfortable at first. • Do two or three Maha-Pranayama. By altering normal breathing rate from 15 to 18 per/Min to 4 to 6 per/Min, or chanting in mind Long OM mantra, or any long Mantra, try to relax all body muscles. Count breathing by numbers from one to fifty, or chant name of God you like. But in final stage all chanting must stop. Try to develop a thoughtless consciousness or a total void in mind. Following tips will help. • Imagine that your body is very light and floating in a cloud of golden light. 15
  • 24. • Try to feel the temperature difference of exhaled and inhaled air at postures according to ability and level of the student. Any comfortable the tip of nose. The temperature of exhaled air is higher than that sitting posture is called Sukha-asana. of inhaled air under normal circumstances. Try to feel this fine Chant OM or some prayer Mantra. Combine them with deep temperature difference. breathing exercises. This practice immediately brings a short time• Try to hear the sound and rhythm of your own heart beats. mental peace to any fresh Yoga student. It relaxes body muscles, Many such tricks are described in Yoga books and taught by relieves tensions from confused and worrying thoughts in mind.different Yoga teachers. One observes that in a simple looking Asana With more practice of Self Meditation (Adhiatma Chintan) newerlike Savasana there is need of a teacher. The teacher suggests ideas and positive thoughts of bright future are created in mind.procedures and supervises performance of students. Indian Yogis Surya Namaskaras. SUN SALUTATIONS.knew such tricks since thousands of years. Surya-namaskaras provides a full body exercise of all joints. It is Savasana is an important and preliminary Asana, which must be combination of lift-ups and stretch-outs, familiar in West. It gives goodlearned and mastered before practicing other Asana and higher steps exercise to both limbs and spine. Five to ten SUN Salutations is a veryof deep meditation like Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. good daily exercise and a good daily Yoga routine. Learn Asana and Pranayama in small groups. Experiences of Combine one SUN SALUTATION with chanting of one, two orother students help when they discuss their own subjective three Gayatri Mantras of Sun worship. During one Surya-Namaskara,experiences. Pranayama and Asana are correlated, complimentary and try to chant two or three Gayatri mantra. After some practice try tointerdependent practices. complete one Gayatri mantra with one Maha-Pranayama in one spell of Meditation postures:- a Surya Namaskara. When Surya-namaskaras is combined with chanting Gayatri Mantra, it makes devotional ritual of Sun-worship. In Gayatri Mantra the student requests the Sun God to give him/her “Intellect as bright” as the Sun, so that he/she can shine in world with newer self uplifting ideas for entire mankind on Earth. Padmasana, Siddhasana Sukhasan. Most popular sitting Asana for Yoga is the “Lotus posture orMeditation posture”. There are three main variations. (1). Padmasan, (Lotus Posture); Two feet are firmly crossed overeach other. Feet are placed on opposite thighs. The ten toes make afigure like a lotus in the lap. (2) Siddhasana (Success posture). When any meditation postureis maintained for a long time it is called Siddhasana. (3) Sukhasana (Comfort posture). Sit in any comfortable position,even in a chair or sofa. Meditation can be done by old, and people withleg joint problems in chair. Yoga Meditation is generally done in above 16
  • 25. PART-III. (A) Asana for limbs. ASANA OR STATIC BODY POSTURES. Garudasana. EAGLE POSTURE. A healthy body keeps mind healthy and healthy mind keeps Stand on one leg. Wrap the other leg around it. Do similarthe body healthy. When Body and Mind are in Yoga with Intellect, wrapping of one hand on a semi-flexed elbow of other hand. Maintaina well balanced human personality is the final result. this position for a few minutes. Do such 2-3 min. spells changing right Nearly three hundred Asana are described in Yoga Books, but one and left hands and feet.needs to learn only a few useful Asana, good for one’s age period andspecific needs. Good health of body and all Vital Systems is importantfor long life and to enjoy material happiness. All Yoga Asana can be classified into following main groups. A. Asana for limbs. They preserve the fullest range of mobility of all major jointsof upper and lower limbs. B. Asana for the spine and neck. These can be sub-divided into 3 groups. (i). Backward spine bending Asana (ii). Foreword spine bending Asana. (iii). Rotation and side to side spine bending Asana. 2. Vajrasana. HIPS AND KNEES POSTURE. Sit on both flexed knees and ankles pointing backwards. Try toC. Asana for the vital systems separate both feet slowly outwards according to your tolerance. Maintain this posture as long as you can, but never over do this or any difficult posture longer than your limit of tolerance. Complete flexion of (A) ASANA FOR LIMBS. knees and rotation of hips prevents old age arthritis. These Asana maintain and increase the full range of movements This Asana is very useful for the western people who are not usedin major joints of upper limb like shoulders, elbows and wrists, and to sit on ground or use toilet in squatting position for excretorylower limb like ankles, knees and hip joints. The limitation of joint functions.movements and various diseases occurring in joints of hands and legsbring crippling state to any person. If some simple Asana are doneregularly from young age, a very useful long and healthy life is the realgain. Only a few popular Asana will be described in these chapters. The pictures of many other Asana and more details are available in many Yoga books and work out Yoga videos available today. 17
  • 26. 3. Mayurasana. PEACOCK POSTURE. PART-IV. (B) This is a difficult Asana, but useful for youth and adults. Two (i) asana for backward bending of spine and neck.palms and forearms flexed at elbow support the straight and Most people stoop forewords during normal daily activities. Thishorizontally extended body in prone position. Posture looks like an leads to a constant strain on the back muscles of spine. By doingIndian colorful bird peacock. forward bending Asana, the spinal back muscles get toned up. The fatigue of the back muscles is responsible for many minor backaches and loss of mood during work hours. By doing Back bending Asana the range of backward movement of spinal column is increased. Stronger spinal muscles prevent backaches and future slip-disk problems. 1. Shalabhasana. Half, Full, Chalit. LOCUST POSTURES. Lying in prone position raise head and neck and extended one by one leg as up as you can, keeping two hands by the sides. Carry out this, alternately 5 or 10 times on both sides. Try to synchronize and link with one Maha-Pranayama each spell of leg raising. Two legs raising done together makes a full Shalabhasana. Moving two legs one after 4. Hirak-asana. DIAMOND POSTURE. another make a Chalit Shalabhasana. Can be done in standing or sitting positions. Stand on toes, knees facing outwards. Raise heels and keep twopalms on loins. Upper limbs can be placed in various poses like facingsky, or back of neck etc,. These postures can also be done in sitting orlying down positions. Chalit Shalabhasana. 18
  • 27. 2. Bhujangasana. SERPENT OR COBRA POSTURE. 3. Matsyasana. FISH POSTURE. Lying in prone position raise Head and Chest keeping both legs Do Padmasana- the meditation posture. Maintaining the flexedfully straight. Maintain for 2 or 3 minutes. Breathing is allowed. Short knees, lie on back. Then bend neck backwards and lift abdomen andspells of 10 to 30 seconds of Breath In-holds, Kumbhaks, can be done. chest upwards. Breathing permitted.Support of two elbows is allowed. Do not forget to do a Savasan in Do such 3 to 5 spells of 2-3 min. each.between. 4. Dhanurasana. BOW POSTURE (easy). 5. Chakrasana. HALF WHEEL POSTURE. After doing above two Asana No 1 and 2, lying in prone position Usually done in Standing, but can be done in Supine positions.try to hold two ankles with two hands on the backside making shape of Keep two legs together, bend knees forewords, try to bend backwardsa bow. Kumbhaks done for 10 to 30 seconds.are useful. Do such 4 to 8 making a half arch of body looking like a half wheel. Difficult for adultsspells and one or two Savasana in between. and aged. Breathing permitted. Maintain for 2-3 minutes. BOW POSTURE (perfect). 6. Ooshtrasana. CAMEL POSTURE. “A Sitting Triangle” made with (i) base by legs, (ii) thigh and trunk straight, (iii) two hands behind taking support on two ankles: (iv) Keep neck thrown backwards. Breathing allowed. Do 2-3 spells. Try to keep each spell for 2-3 min. 19
  • 28. 1.Uttanpadasana. (Half-full & Chalit). STRAIGHT LEG RAISING. Lye supine, raise one leg up (keeping straight) to 30 to 45 degrees from ground, and doing a Kumbhak. Keep for 10 sec. Breath out. Bring leg down. Do such 8 to 10 spells with each leg. Do Savasana in between. Raising two legs together is full UP-Asan. Moving legs in with Kumbhaks make it a Chalit Uttanpadasana. This is a good Asan for reducing fat from abdomen, and a good quadriceps exercise for thigh. Part-IV.B (ii). ASANA FOR FORWARD BENDING OF SPINE. These Asana can be done lying on ground in Supine or Standingpositions. These are not indicated for people with bone diseases,tumors, slip-disk cases, pregnancy etc. 1.Katiutthanasana. (Bridge Posture of PT Exercises)THIGH-TRUNK-CHEST-RAISING POSTURE. Lying supine lift abdomen and chest with half flexed knees,making a triangle supported by shoulders and feet. Keep two hands bysides. Breathing permitted. Do 3 to 5 spells of MahaPranayama.Maintain this for 2-3 min. This is a very good Asana for back of spine,Lumbgo, and legs. It is very easy for most people. 20
  • 29. 5. Sarvangasana. ALL LIMBS POSTURE. 3. Naukasan. BOAT POSTURE. Legs up - head down posture with extreme flexion of neck. Raise Lying in supine position raise two straight legs and two straight legs and trunk up. Support body with two hands on buttocks. Thishands at 45 degrees position towards the sky. Asana is like a half- Sirshasana (Head-down legs-up posture). 4. Pashchimottasana. TOE TOUCH AND HEAD-KNEEPOSTURE. 6. Halasana, PLOUGH POSTURE. From Sarvangasana further Sit with extended legs in front. Try to touch two big toes with flex trunk, stretching legs and feet backwards to touch ground. Handsfingers of hands bending forwards. Try to bring face down to touch the remain straight on opposite side of legs.knees. This Asana can be done in standing position also. 21
  • 30. 7. Karnasana. EARS BETWEEN KNEES POSTURE. 2. Ardha-Chandrasana. HALF-MOON POSTURE. After mastering Halasana, try to make a complete curvature of Done in standing position. Legs together. Raise one hand towardsspine by placing head and ears between two knees. This is a difficult sky and keep that way. Bring other hand as down from knee towardsAsana for adults and aged. Do not do this asana during early Asana ankle, making curvature like a half-moon. Alternate sides. Do 2-3 min.training. spells. Breathing is permitted. 3. Matsyandrasana, or Vakrasana. HALF AND FULL TWIST POSTURES. PART-IV. (B) (iii) side bending and rotation of spine. Keep one straight leg on ground. Flex other leg in knee-up position. Twist and pass opposite hand and shoulder over the raised 1. Trikonasana. TRIANGLE POSTURE. knee. This is half Asana. For complete Asana, flex the straight and try Done in standing position with two legs 18" apart. Bend one knee, to catch the toes of flexed leg with other hand from behind.same side hand touches ground, other hand straight, neck bent also on Half and full Matyendrasana and many spine twisting postures aresame side. 2-3 min. spells. Alternate sides. Breathing allowed. done sitting, standing and lying on ground in supine or Prone positions. 22
  • 31. 2. Vanarasana. MONKEY POSTURE.Part IV. (C). Asana for Vital Systems This is opposite of above Asana. It is done in Prone position. Flex both knees, raise hips and trunk, both arms stretched forwards. Keep Human body is equipped with five vital systems, namely, (i) face on one side. Do Kapalbhati, Kumbhaks and Rachaks.Prana= Respiratory, (ii) Vyana= digestive, (iii) Samana=circulatory, (iv) Apana= excretory, (v) Udana= nervous. ManyIndian priests chant these words during fire rituals withoutunderstanding their meanings. These systems are subconsciouslycontrolled by autonomic nervous system. Some Yoga exercises help to develop a partial control over thesesystems. Deep breathing exercises and ASANA done with BreathInholds- Kumbhak help all inner vital organs of body by circulating moreoxygenated blood to brain and all abdominal organs. 1. Pavan-Muktasana. GAS-RELIEVING POSTURES 3. Shirsaasana. HEAD-DOWN LEGS-UP POSTURE. In Supine position, flex one knee, bend head towards knee and do Complete head down position. Take support of a wall to start with.a breath out (RACHAK) forcefully. Repeat on second knee. Flex two This Asana should not be done by people with high BP, past history oflegs. Press them by two arms making a Lithotomy position in brain stokes and neck problems. Do this for only 2-3 minutes initially.Gynecology operations. Do in between Kapalbhati, Kumbhaks and It cures many headeaches, stops progress and/or cures cases ofRACHAK Pranayama. reading glass numbers and many eye and nasal problems. 23
  • 32. Section: II Summary: • Asana names will vary in different Yoga Books. • A student must remember the purpose of a particular Asanaand try to do it slowly and without jerks. • Never over do any Asana or any extreme joint stretching Ashtang Yoga:exercises. • In all Asana for upper and lower limbs try to flex or extend all 10. STEP NO. 4 PRANAYAMA. (Breathing Exercises)joints to their fullest range. • In Aerobic exercises the purpose is shape of body and BREATHING EXERCISES.developing muscle power. The aim of Yoga Asana is to maintain tone Pranayama Cures Blood Pressurein 90 % of cases.of muscles and preserve fullest range of movements of all smaller andlarger joints of limbs, neck and spine. Pranayama:-Breathing Exercises. • Try to develop your own suitable routine of Asans and stick to Breathing is a most important involuntary vital system. When thethat regularly preferably in early morning hours. breath stops one dies. One can realize God indirectly by • Do not mimic someone doing difficult and surprising body understanding that this Law of Mother Nature (God) work on allpostures. People in circus can do wonderful body postures. One should human beings and animals in an equal manner. Its voluntarynot try to mimic other people. control, even for a short time, creates great will power. • Never forget the smaller finger joints of hands and feet.Whenever you get time, remember to flex and extend these little joints. Respiratory system (Prana) is one of the five vital systems of • Osteo arthritis of most joints could be prevented and cured to physiology in all human beings and animals. The other four vitala fair degree by doing regular exercises and correct Yoga Asana. systems are Excretory (Apaana), Digestive, (Vyana) Nervous (Udaan) and Circulatory (Samaan). Mostly these are not under voluntary control of any person. Pranayama practices create a state of peace of mind called thoughtless consciousness (Nirvichar Jagruti). In long run it leads mind into a higher state of self-awareness, self-realization (Atma-Gyan) and spiritual or universal consciousness. This is called Nirvana. This State of Mind is not easy to achieve as it looks. To reach Nirvana one needs regular Yoga and Pranayama practices for days, months and years. Pranayama Cures Blood Pressurein 90 % of cases. I would like to record an Email response of a new friend who had tried only one short session of Maha Prayanama. He wrote, “Dear Doctor Gandhi, It was my pleasure to meet you at the Thanksgiving dinner. I can give thanks that we happened to meet and engage in a very interesting conversation about Yoga. Saturday night I took my blood pressure. It was above normal at 146 over 95. I waited about 10 minutes and did the breathing exercise and took my pressure after finishing. The pressure was low and close to the new standards issued by the medical profession some time ago, 24
  • 33. 126 over 85. I am impressed and interested in discovering more about When one consciously controls the rate and depth ofthe practice of Yoga. respiration, all worrying and confusing thoughts cropping up in Thank you for the additional information you gave me today at mind like sparks of wild fire- or a monkey jumping from onechurch. I will put time aside on Monday to read thru the material. The branch to another disappear for that short period of time.next thing I MUST do is discipline myself to take the time to do the Pranayama when combined with chanting of OM and Prayerbreathing exercises regularly. Mantras provide a handy tool of pacifying the confused mind for Thanks again and I hope to see you soon. Regards, any individual at all times and at all places. Ron Ferster.” With Pranayama and chanting OM, mind becomes pacified. A pacified mind is needed to learn any subject in school or doing any Pranayama done in chair, or in lying positions during recovery good job or mental activity of meditation. Mind remains attentive andfrom heart attacks and other surgical procedures, accelerates the creative if it is calm. Immediate relief of worries, stress, tensions andrecovery and shortens the bed stay. Many known cases of blood confusion of thoughts is experienced. This can be compared to twopressure are permanently cured by simple Pranayama practices. aspirin tablets relieving joint pains, fevers and headaches in a short Blood pressure is described as idiopathic- disease in 90% of time.cases in medical books. In simple words “the cause is not known”. It is The benefits of Pranayama are totally any Individual’s subjectivea silent disease having no symptoms during the early onset period. experience (Atma-Anubhuti). One has to confirm by self-experimentSometimes it is discovered during routine medical check ups for and observing all short and long term results.insurance. When it remains untreated for a long time it gets established Deep breathing produces more oxygenated blood in lungsand starts affecting other vital organs like kidneys, coronary arteries and at the same time wipes out accumulated carbon-dioxide. All(supplying blood to heart), and arteries of brain and other systems. The vital organs of body like brain, kidneys, intestines and liver startarteries become hard and loose their elasticity. working better immediately because they get oxygenated fresh Worries, stress and tensions are well-recognized psychological blood. The mind is peaceful, heart rate falls and this increasescauses responsible for many cases of idiopathic blood pressure. cardiac out put per minute. The satisfied vital organs like lungs,Besides blood pressure, Pranayama and Mantra chanting cures and/or liver, heart, kidneys, intestines etc., create a wonderful sense ofprevents other psycho-somatic diseases like sinus problems, recurrent well-being, alertness and better performance. There is no need forattacks of colds, asthma, acidity, angina, diabetes, gastric ulcers, smoking or drinking tea or coffee or alcohol.constipation, backaches, joint diseases, stiffness, etc., etc. Breathing is partly voluntary and partly involuntary. Any adult Pranayama is the threshold for entering Yoga Meditationindividual, by some practice can develop a good control over the rate The art of Meditation starts with Pranayama and last four steps ofand depth of air intake at will for some minutes. Pranayama practices Yoga. These steps teach mind control, setting of age related goals andteach how to develop will control over this partly involuntary vital art of positive thinking. They teach how to control five Sensessystem of body. This helps all persons in sports like swimming, diving (Pratyahar Step -5), Four Goals of Life (Dharna, 6th step), Art of 100 %(in particular), running, tennis, basket ball, singing skills (Aalap) etc,. Concentration (Dhyan, 7th step) and spiritual realization of Self, by self-This is a worth learning step of Yoga even if one does not wish to learn knowledge, self-upliftment and vision (Darshan) of invisible Godand practice other steps or play above sports. (Samadhi, step 8). They are studied with Upanishads, Darshans like Normally the respiratory system is functioning Sankhya, Vedanta and the Bhagavat Gita (Divine song of God).subconsciously. By bringing it under voluntary (conscious) * * * *control of mind, the thoughts cropping up in mind disappear atonce like criminals running away upon hearing the siren of a It is possible to live long by regulating the Prana (life breath),police car. One immediately feels good and becomes worries and which is partly under control of your will. Your life is partly in yourtension free. hands by the free will for actions (Karma) given to only human The ancient Indian Rishies had observed another important beings by God. You are Bhagvan - the maker of your own destiny.mental activity associated with breath control. (Bhag or Bhagya means Luck, destiny). 25
  • 34. Nearly 96 types of Pranayama are described in different Yoga remains in the ‘dead space’ area made up of bronchi, trachea, pharynxbooks. Learn Pranayama under the guidance of a non-greedy teacher and nasal sinuses. When respiration rate is reduced from normal of 18(Guru) having background of modern medical subjects like anatomy, per minute, to 2 or 3 breaths per minute, it gives nearly 30 seconds ofphysiology, pharmacology and diseases. Only a few useful and time for 1300 cc of a “block of fresh air” in the lungs for purificationimportant are described below. during one MP. With more practice one can increase 1 MP time to one breath per SOME IMPORTANT PRANAYAMA: minute or one breath in 2 or 3 minutes. But do not try such long MP 1. Maha-Pranayama: (MP) stunts in early practice. Recently I watched on TV one 8 minute long Longest Possible One Breath. breath-hold (KUMBHAK) by some under water diver. 2. Bhrastrika. Rapid Deep Breathings. Long inhalation, short in Even if you wish you will not be able to do more than 5 to 10 MPs.hold- long exhalation- short out hold. Different combinations of above There is a physiological reason. The carbon-dioxide level in blood fallsprocedures Combined with OM and Mantra Chanting. due to deep breath ins/outs. It changes the normal pH of blood. There 3. Kapal-Bhati. Deep forced Breath outs with forceful use of are nerve sensors located in the carotid arteries, which supply blood todiaphragm and the recti (abdominal) muscles. the brain. They send messages to ‘the vital center of respiration’ 4. Tratak: Combined with different Eyes exercises and located in brain stem (Medulla Oblongata) to stop this activity. This is aPranayama. wonderful design of God. It is comparable to fuel and air mixing devices 5. Nasal Pranayama. Various tricks of Nasal breathing, in/out of automatic sensors of modern carburetors in cars and airplanes.from right and/or left noses, and Mouth Breathing. One can easily master Maha-Pramayam (MP) and a few other Pranayama. MPs provide more oxygenated blood to diseased organs 1. Maha-Pranayama (MP): during recovery period in sicknesses, and thus helps to cure many Longest possible single breath. In MP Yoga student learns to diseases. This knowledge also help during life threatening situationsreduce normal rate of breathing of 15 to 18 per minute to one or two like entrapped in mines, caves or fallen buildings during earth-quakes,breaths per minute. (MP is author’s name of this Pranayam). land slides, smokes due to fire hazards, poisonous gases etc,. 1. Take a deepest possible in-breath, Maximum Inhalation. Any inexperienced person can easily breath-in 3 times than 2. Hold breath in as long as possible. In-hold (Kumbhak). normal air intake- nearly 1300 to 1500c.c. He can hold it in, the 3. Breath out slowly; Long Exhale, Rachak. Lastly, breathed air for some more time. By doing such a long in-hold 4. Do not take next breath as long as you can, Keep long outer (Kumbhak) more time is allowed for a bigger volume of air for oxygenbreath hold – Bahya Khumbhak. exchange in lungs. Anybody can easily do 3 or 4 MPs of average 30 Above 4 parts of one breath cycle make One Maha-Pranayam seconds each, and can do such 4 to 8 MP session of two to four(1MP). minutes at very first trial. Mastering MP is foundation stone for all Pranayama Practices. It is Maha Pranayama is a very simple deep breathing exercise. 5 tosimple to learn and easy to practice. In MP normal rate of breathing of 10 MPs done at intervals during work intervals or recovery period in15 to 18 per minute is reduced to one, two or three breaths per minute. hospital beds, improve tone of all body muscles. People take breaksMeasure this with a wristwatch. Measure also the length of each part. during work hours to refresh their tired bodies and minds. But they MP is a very useful and wonderful breathing exercise for all smoke cigarettes; take tea or coffee, alcoholic drinks and otherindividuals, at all age periods, males or females, sick or healthy. intoxicating drugs, which harm liver, lungs and general health. Instead Normally an adult at rest takes 15 to 18 breaths per minute or one a few MPs, if done regularly, will have no side effects and they do notbreath in 4 seconds. During same one minute the heart beats 72 times. cost a cent. Besides the results will be far superior, heath preserving,One heartbeat takes about 0.8 seconds. and give immediate mental benefits. During one breath cycle (inhalation and exhalation) a person at MPs create a general sense of well-being, freshness of mind,rest takes-in and exhales-out nearly 500 cc of air. Out of this 500 cc of improve general tone of body muscles and all joints. MPs refresh allair inhaled, only 350 cc of air enters into the inner most sponge like vital organs of body like brain, lungs, kidneys, liver and heart.portion of lung (alveoli) for oxygen exchange. Whereas 150 cc of air 26
  • 35. Imagine during Maha Pranayam that God as Universal Air (Vayu Do such 15 to 30 quick breaths up to tolerable limit in one cycle. Dev) and Cosmic Light Energy (Vishva -Jyoti) is entering your body Take rest and come back to normal breathing for two to three minutes. and purifying all internal organs and mind. Again start a second cycle of Bhastrika. Try to count how many breaths you rapidly took in one minute, and also in one session. Do Tips: (1). Master each part gradually up to its full capacity, but maximum 4 sessions in one day.never overdo any part of a MP to extreme limit. (2). All phases must be Tip: How to remember four daily sessions of MPs and Bhastrika.smooth and gradual without any jerks. (3). Do 5 to 8 sessions of 4 to 8 1. Getting up from bed.MPs daily at two or three hourly intervals. 2. Before Break Fast Advise: Do not do more than 8 MPs in one session at one time. 3. Before Lunch.Let your breath come down to normal breathing rate for a few minutes. 4. Before Dinner.Then only start next 8 Mps and stop. Do 15 to 20 minutes MPs In case you forget one session, then try to do before going to bed.sessions in one sitting. Than do next the next session after 2 to 4 hours Benefits: Bhastrika is useful in many Headaches, Migraine,interval. Asthma, Chronic Bronchitis, Parkinson’s disease, Paresis of limbs, MPs can be done at any time in a day, e.g. getting up from bed, Liver and kidney diseases, Acidity and Gastric Ulcers, Blood pressureafter taking bath, before prayers, during work intervals, recovery and Heart diseases, etc,. Before diving, a spell of Bhastrika helps toperiods from sickness in hospital beds, or any free time, during day or increase under water time.before going to bed at night. You will soon start seeing its mental, physical and benefits in High 3. Kapal-Bhati.Blood Pressure cases and recovery of other disease conditions. This is a useful and worth mastering Pranayam for both sexes. In normal breathing adults do not use abdominal muscles in breathing like Summary: young children. Maha Pranayama is simple to learn and useful for all individuals, In Kapal Bhati one does “Deep forced Breath outs with use ofat all age periods, males or females, sick or healthy. Learn, master and diaphragm and in-drawing the abdominal Recti muscles.try to practice 20 minutes sessions of MPs. Do at two or four hourly Keep one hand on abdomen and press while exhaling. Try to forceintervals. Try this for 3 to 5 days regularly. out maximum air from lungs with all possible efforts of chest and You will soon start experiencing its mental peace and benefits in abdominal muscles. This compresses the lungs to its maximum. Fromrecovery of Blood Pressure and other disease conditions. You can deepest parts of lungs carbon dioxide containing air is thrown out byteach this Pranayama to many friends after observing its benefits upon pulling abdomen inwards with diaphragm, a dome shaped muscleyourself. separating abdomen and chest. All other Pranayam practices are some variations of the different Three humors Vat, Pitt and Couf (gases, bile, and sticky mucous)phases of MPs. They give some other benefits in specific conditions. are described in Aur-Vedic texts. Imbalance of these is responsible of many diseases. KB Pranayama creates a balance of all three humors. * * * * The forced expiration awakens Swadhistan Chakra, located in chest 2. Bhastrika Pranayam. region. Rapid Deep breathings. Benefits: KB produces an abdominal massage, which improves Long inhalation, short in hold, long exhalation- short outer hold – tone of all abdominal organs like, intestines, pancreas, liver, kidneys, All done in one breath. During quick breaths try to make a and genital organs in males and females. It helps in regulation ofwhistling sound like a Steam Engine from nostrils and throat. menstrual cycles, and cures fibroids of uterus. Bhastrika is opposite of MPs. In Bhastrika the normal rate of KB helps to develop control over urgency and frequency ofbreathing of 15 to 18 is raised to 25 to 30 per minute. Never over do urination, cures minor prostrate problems and early cancer cases.any Pranayam beyond your capacity and comfort limit. One spell can Helps in cases of cirrhosis of liver, hepatic diseases, controls diabetesbe of 2 minutes to start with and increased up to 5 minutes maximum. and cholesterol. The abdominal in-drawing exercises reduce abdominal“Never do Bhastrika more than that limit”. fat, circumference of belly and belt size. 27
  • 36. KB helps to pass out hard stools from bowels and relieves Modern psychics and police officers know this trick. In Karateconstipation when done on a toilet seat. KB helps in other abdominal fights also Tratak is taught to students. Conscious mind is fullyconditions like, prolapsed uterus in females and prostrate conditions in concentrated upon the object observed.males. Yogis who have cultivated this ability can read thoughts of weak It is believed that KB awakens the Muladhar Chakra, located in minded people. They can easily hypnotize and influence them.pelvis. Awakening of Muladhar Chakra, improve sexual functions in Many successful intellectuals worship more than 1000 MortalEDS (Erectile Dysfunction Syndrome) cases in males and similar state Living Gurus as “Living Gods”. They donate millions of Dollars to buildin females leading to joy (anand) of sexual life. hudge temples as per wish whims and dreams of such Gurus. This is KB practices push fresh blood on face. Without any cosmetics the going on to maximum degree at present in India, England and USA.face looks brightened up. KB cures early cases of asthma, sinusitis, In sports Tratak helps to concentrate and win a game. Tratakallergies, snoring at night, and sinusitis. High blood pressure is a silent develops fullest attention of eyes and mind. All jobs requiring pin-disease and root cause of many heart diseases Improvement of kidney pointed attention and fullest concentration, like calculations of numbers,tone removes toxins from blood and reduction of blood pressure. KB driving a car in heavy traffic, ascend and decent of airplane, wrist watchdevelops attention and concentration powers in all activities. repairing, fine painting, etc, become perfect by Tratak practices. Tips. Do not do KB after food. Best time is early morning beforebreakfast, in after noon after 4 hours of meals and after 3 hours of Yoga Eyes Exercises.dinner before going to bed. Not advised in later months of pregnancy. Work out. Do 5 to 10 KB in one spell with intervals of some rest in Eyes are important sense organs. Their movements like lookingbetween. Do not do more than three spells in one sitting. Up, Down, Side to Side and at Tip of Nose without moving head are Bahya Kumbhak - Pranayam. good Yoga Exercises. Other exercises teach wide opening and closing Longer Outer Breath Holds: firmly of both eyes alternately. Take few Deep breaths then do a short In-hold and Exhale After above exercises press softly both eyes with base of palmquickly. Now do not take next breath until you are forced to take next after rubbing palms. This gives a mild heat pad like soothing effect onbreath. Measure outer breath hold time with a wrist-watch. Mastering Eyes. This can be done when eyes are tired due to constant use inBKP is useful in swimming for remaining under water for longer times. writing or reading.Do such 3 to 5 BKP after each session of KB. * * * * Bandha like Jalander Bandha can be combined with this Only a few successful and intellectual individuals have realPranayam. Flex neck and touch chin to chest and Hold. Keep position curiosity to know true religion and God. The higher steps of Yogaof flexed neck during BKP. require sacrifice of time, liberation from family and material attachments like money and victory over sensual pleasures. This is very difficult 4. Tratak. practice for many people. Different Yoga teachers and schools teach various Tratak tricks. Pranayama and the first three steps of Yoga create a wonderfulTratak falls under Hath Yoga practices. In Tratak students are asked to sense of well being of body and mind and give inner joy, self-focus Eyes on some Objects like bright Lamps, an Idol of a deity God, confidence and positive attitude to many individuals. These are easy tophoto of a Guru or a great past personality like Lord Buddha. start and practice for all. Fixing eyes on a bright object. This is a popular trick for achieving concentration (Dhyan), the 7th 5. Nasal & Oral Pranayama.step in Yoga. The student looks at a fixed bright object usually a candle Try these Nasal practices before doing Nasal Pranayama.or a bright lamp. He/she is not supposed to blink even if tears run A. Nose Massage. With tips of thumb and middle fingers of Rprofusely from the eyes. This washes out dust particles from eyes. hand, press nose at top and bring fingers down wards, giving two sides Tratak mastery (Sadhna) imparts ability of mind reading, when of nose a gentle massage. Do this for 10-15 times.one is in Tratak with some one. 28
  • 37. B. Nose Twistings. Press and Push nose gently on L side with R It is claimed that 4 Sun Pranayama done in one session, and suchthumb. Repeat for 10-15 times. Do reverse of this with Left Thumb for 4 sessions done in a day, reduces body weight by 1 lb/month without15 times. any diet changes. If combined with proper food and Calories control it C. Nose Expansion Exercises. Two nostrils can be expanded helps to reduce Obesity.and contracted to some extent by voluntary muscles around two The reverse of Surya Pranayam is Chandra Pranayama.nostrils. Try to do this expansion exercise 10 to 15 Times. (3). Inhale via Left and Breath-out via Right nostril. Do this way Above Nasal exercises can be done at any time during a day. every time. This will be Moon or Chandra Pranayam. Do such 30 MoonThey increase defense capacity of mucous membrane, the inner lining Pranayams in one session. If such 4 sessions are done in one day, itof nose, and help to prevent attacks of recurring cold. helps to increase body weight by 1lb in a month. While doing nasal Pranayama, keep the left hand on left knee. Chandra Pranayam helps to gain weight by increasing appetite. InUse only right hand for nasal Parnayama. Keep Spine Erect. Sit in case you forget one session, then do it before going to bed.Sukhasan Comfort Posture, Padmasan Lotus Posture or Siddhasan for Benefits. This pranayam helps in Asthma cases and RecurrentPranayama practices. Sinus problems. Also helps in Arthritis by producing joint fluids and Some palm poses Mudras are done. In Yog Mudra, one makes a regenerating cartilages in early cases of Osteo-Arthritis. Helps incircle with index finger and thumb keeping other three fingers varicose veins of legs and blockage of Brain and Coronary arteries.extended. In Vayu Mudra, the index finger is firmly pressed at the baseof the thumb with three fingers extended. B. Shitli Pranayama. Temperature Cooling Pranayama. Nasal & Oral Pranayama. Inhale from mouth through teeth and exhale via Nose. Some A. Lom Anulom (Vilom) Pranayam. teachers ask to make a tube like protruded tongue while doing Shitli B. Shitli Pranayama. Pranayama. C. Bhramari Pranayam. This is useful in cases of high temperature. The air entering on D. Udgith Pranayam. moist tongue gets cooled and reduces temperature of blood in lungs. E. Hasya Pranayama. Long Loud Laughters. When it is exhaled the hot air carries away the heat. Opposite of above F. Ujjayai Pranayam. breathing is breath-in via Nose and exhale via mouth. This is useful in cold weathers. A. Lom Anulom (Vilom) Pranayam To close left and right nose alternately make a Mudra (hand pose) C. Bhramari Pranayam.with Right hand. Keep only Thumb, Little and Ring fingers extended Place two thumbs of two hands into ears to close any soundand keep Index and Middle fingers flexed. coming from outside. Then place index finger on forehead. With (1). Inhale via Right and Breath-out via Left Nose. Second time remaining fingers partially close two sides of nose. Take deep in-Inhale via Left and Breath-out via Right Nose. breath. Then while exhaling try to produce a constant humming noise During early learning phase try to do 10 to 15 breaths in one (hum-m-m-m) like that of a Bumblebee. You will experience a loud humsession, and come down to normal breathing in-between. Try to in your ear drums. Measure the length of hummmm by wrist watch.maintain the rate of breathing about 8 to 10 per minute. Determine to Benefits: This Pranayam helps to relieve mental tensions,do regularly 3 to 4 such sessions daily. You will observe its benefits worries, stress, family upsets and business problems, and negativewithin a week. thoughts. Also helps in High BP. In yoga books two important Nadies, IDA (also called Sun or Do 3 to 5 Bhramari Pranayam in early morning and before goingSurya–Nadi) and PINGLA (also called Moon or Chandra–Nadi) are to bed. It can be done at any time during free work interval for quittingdescribed. Ida runs in R. Nose and Pingla runs in Left nose. habit of smoking, alcohol and drugs. It creates self control, (Atma- (2). Inhale via Right and Breath-out via Left nostril every time. This Sanyam) self confidence (Atma Shraddha) and concentration (Dhyan)will be Sun or Surya Pranayam. Do such 30 breathings in one session. in jobs. It awakens Agna Chakra and gives ability of making firmTake rest. This will become one session of a Sun Pranayam. decisions. 29
  • 38. Follow up this Pranayama by Udgith Pranayam or Mantra Repeat such long laughs for 3 to five minutes. This creates a joyfulChanting. mood in mind and in surrounding people also. Hasya Pranayama, when done in small groups, creates a happy D. Udgith Pranayam. atmosphere. Regular Laughing Clubs movement is going on in many Association of Speaking or Chanting OM Mantrta, Verses, places in India. This activity helps to over come stress, tensions, andPrayers, Songs, or musical sounds during breath out phase is sad moods in friend circles and social groups.Udgith Pranayama. Note that any Mantra is possible during out breathing phase only. F. Ujjayai Pranayam.Speaking becomes Karma or activity, which can be done only at Flex neck and touch chin to chest.present moment “Today and Now”. In this Pranayama each MP is Usually we are not able to produce any sound or noise whilecombined with OM or Mantra chanting. This develops singing ability breathing in. But with some practice it is possible to makeand is very useful for budding singers. such a sound. Take deep breath, hold and try to speak a long and loud OM whileexhaling air. Measure length of OM with wrist watch. Try to speak 5 While breathing try to produce a sound like Uoo, Uoo, Uoomletter Mantras like “Om Namah Shivaya”, or 12 letter Mantras like “Om during inhaling phase. Try slowly two or three noises in theNamo Bhagavate Vasu Devaya”, or some short poetry lines. Later try beginning. Gradually increase up to 5 to 8 in one session.to chant longer 16 sound Mantras like Gayatri Mantra or Hare-Rama, Benefits: Helps to cure Thyroid problems, Sinus and night snoringHare- Krishna Mantra in one breath. problems. Also clears throat stickiness and clears vocal cords and Keep eyes closed and do this chanting with devotional mood of improves quality of voice for singers.prayers to God. During chanting imagine as if you are sending yourmessage or praises to King of Universe (Jagdish, Narayana)-or God, Summary:residing in paradise at the other end of Universe. Such practices are Yoga students must learn and master some simple Asana andseen in Islamic and Christian group prayers also. these Pranayama. They will soon observe its subjective beneficial The sound produced during OM Chanting is called Pranav. effects on Body and worrying agitated Mind.Imagine your sound is merging with the spoken words of all people of Indian Yoga Gurus earn lot of money by teaching such simple timepast and present times in Infinite Space (Aakash, Sky) of Universe. tested tricks of breathing, soothing music, Mantra Chanting and In Hindu temples group Mantra Chanting of scriptures like Religious group Prayers. All these create a short-term peace in anyRamayana or Gita is done in a nonstop manner for hours. Combination agitated mind.of devotional songs with music produces wonderful mind pacifying When OM or any Mantra is spoken repeatedly and loudly witheffects. All worries and confusing thoughts disappear for that short or breath control a powerful pacification of mind occurs. This trick pacifieslong spell of time. any worrying and confused mind. Average Swamies and Yoga teachers who know this trick Singh Mudra: This is a funny variation of Pranayam. A pose of hypnotize rich and famous and many other people easily. For givingsitting Lion is done. Then tongue is protruded to maximum limit. After some Mantra to chant Indian Gurus charge lot of money. They minttaking a deep breath, a sound like the Roar of a Lion is done. It creates money by teaching such simple age-old psycho-physiological tricks fora funny atmosphere around. It creates self-confidence in the mind of pacifying confused minds. The wandering and agitated mind soonthe doer. becomes quiet. The pacified mind is more receptive to fresh knowledge. New and positive ideas arise only in a cool mind. E. Hasya Pranayama. Initially learn Pranayam and Asana practices and master some Long Loud Laughter popular Pranayama under the guidance of a non-greedy teacher This is done in sitting or standing positions. After taking a deep (Guru), having background of modern medical sciences and diseases.breath, start laughing “as loudly as you can in a non stop manner” until Later on you will be able to teach such Pranayama to others afteryour breath is exhausted, and abdomen drawn in like Kapal Bhati. observing its benefits upon yourself. 30
  • 39. Section: II tricks shown during Yoga meditation student has to reach and find inner pure divine Self, called SPIRIT or SOUL (Brahman). The Sanskrit term for soul or spirit in the Vedas is BRAHAMAN and the word for self is Atma. By self meditation one understands that I am Brahaman. Atman is Brahaman. "Ayam atma Brahamaha" is a great short sentence or Vedic Maha Vakya. Most Indian Gurus andAshtang Yoga: priests understand, speak and translate the word ‘ATMA’ in the sense of spirit or soul only. This is not correct understanding or translation.11. STEP NO. 5. PRATYAHARA. Many misunderstandings would get clarified if the word ATMA is strictly translated as Self and Brahaman is translated as soul or spirit. Part-1. Grammatically speaking "I" is first person singular pronoun. It is the consciousness of ones own physical body or self. This is only the Third Eye of Shiva is within you. first level of self consciousness. Removal of a variety of false Egos in a short time is very difficult. One gradually learns to reduce false egos. Swa-vishava samprayoge Chittasya swaroopanukara, Meditation teaches how to discriminate between true and false egos. eve indriyanam pratyaharahe. This is not possible without help of a trust worthy teacher and regular Sadhana Pada. Verse 54. meditation practices. As one climbs higher steps all false beliefs and “Understanding one’s Self, within dimensions of Universal egos get slowly reduced. "Nothing belongs to me, I dont possess anySpace/Place -Time (Chitta-Shakti) and developing control over the thing, I dont know so many things. Whatever money, knowledge andsenses is Pratyahara”. power I have is limited and it is for a limited time only". The student now reaches the 5th step of Yoga ladder. In this step Mahatma Gandhi has shown an easy way to develop such a mind."Mind is with drawn from sense objects and the senses are withdrawn "I am just a trustee, a care taker of whatever I have and possess".from their subjects". He learns the art of understanding inner natural When false egos are conquered, true self (Nij-Swaroop) unfolds. Whendesires or instincts (Vrutties) like hunger and thirst, passions or sex true self unfolds, self-confidence and firm convictions (Atma-shraddha)urges (Kama, Vasnas) and actions (Karma) done to satisfy these develops. Then real self control over all senses and organs of actionsdesires by self. This brings complete mastery over the 5 senses - develop.namely Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue as taste organ and Nose; and their 5 Many false religious and political beliefs come to an end. Truesubjects - namely Hearing, Touching, Seeing, Tasting and Smelling beliefs and correct goals indicated by scriptures, and knowledge based(Shabda, Sparsha, Roop, Ras and Gandha). upon memories of ones own experiences remain clear in awakened Yoga Meditation is study of Self or “Who am I?” and ever conscious mind. With this step starts the analysis of one’s own likes and dislikes at One learns this important psychological fact. Any consciousmaterial and senses level, desires, hopes, wants, ambitions, mind is able to possess only one thought at one time. When oneachievements of goals and failures etc.,. All past events that have thought gets erased, then only a second thought can enter and occupyoccurred in own life, thoughts of sensual happinees (Sukkha), the conscious mind. This is true for any human being, how great aunhappiness (Dukkha), family expectations, separations and meetings scholar he/she may be.etc, all pleasures and joys (Ananad) occurring are meditated upon. Meditation brings to memory and consciousness many past Who am I"? Self meditation starts with this question. The experiences like a recall on calculators and computers. When KundaliniSanskrit word for "I" (Aham) has two meanings. Aham means Ego. It and Agna Chakra (the highest intellect and universal mind) awakes onealso means Self or “I”- the first person singular pronoun. is able to switch from remote pasts to near future, much faster than any When any one speaks I, mostly he/she means gross physical computer in the world. A super-human genious and a saintlybody. But in sub-conscious mind he/she is aware of the name, sex, personality is born, who transcendents into divine spiritual zone ofnationality, education (knowledge), wealth, bank balance, status or universal or God consciousness.position in life and many relations, beliefs and false notions. Thus eachperson understands a number of vague things for himself or herself. By 31
  • 40. Asana and Pranayama prepare the student to create a peaceful like, “likes and dislikes (Raga and Dwesha), and emotions like angers,and thoughtless state of mind. In this step the student must clearly and selfish desires (Krodha and Kama)”.understand two important Yoga words. (1) Swadhyaya (Refer this word in the 2nd. Step of Niyama). Part-2. (2) Atma-Sanyama (Self-control over senses and sensual joys). (1). Swadhyaya in simple words means Self examination, Self Knowledge is the real wealth of any individual.analysis. Thoughts and dreams constantly arise in conscious mindduring waking or sleeping hours. Mostly they are related to money, OM is a holy Symbol of Knowledge or Vedas. It is called Pranav,family problems, behavior of relatives and neighbors, or events meaning human voice or ‘spoken sound’ in all Eastern religions.occurring in a city or country, the world and so on. These events are Spoken words of any language are only sound variations of OM. OM isperceived with Ears and Eyes mainly. Worries and tensions arise due at the root of all spoken human languages.to likes, dislikes and many false fears. Thinking in all human minds occur with words and all ideas Swadhyaya (self-analysis) means thinking about one’s own past are mainly communicated by Speech. Thinking usually occurs inlife starting from childhood till today. You can write a short mother tongue at all places. I cannot think in French, German orautobiography. This is easier than thinking or meditating in mind. In Spanish. Similarly a French man cannot think in any Indian language ifSwadhyaya one brings to memory of one’s own past, remembers all he has not learnt it.important events of life like deaths in family, sicknesses, graduation,marriage, birth of children, buying a house, a new car, etc, in past life. Knowledge is the real wealth of any individual. thThe student analyzes his likes and dislikes of past and present time I learned the following Sanskrit verse in the 5 grade of my schoolevents, his/her behavior at such occasions and the joys and pains days. It has always inspired me to learn new ideas and skills every day.produced by such events. I am still a student. Third Eye of Shiva is within you. Na chor choryam na cha raj haryam; The intellect (or Kundalini) is located in the front part of human Na bhratru bhajyam na cha bharakari;brain. Anatomically it is the frontal lobe area of human brain just behind Vyaye krute vardhat avam nityamthe forehead. Many Indian people make Tilaks or various colorful Vidya dhanam sarva dhanam pradhanam.religious decorations in forehead. It symbolizes “Lord Shiva’s third eye”located at this point. But most people do not know the meaning of Tilak "Among all kinds of wealth, knowledge is the top most wealth.and tricks of meditation of activating Kundalini or making proper use of Because a thief cannot steal it, a king cannot confiscate it, it cannot beintellect or Buddhi. divided among brothers like other material property; and it is not heavy Until recent times the exact function of the frontal lobes was not during traveling. But the topmost quality of knowledge is this. Itknown to medical science. This area was known as silent area of increases by spending whereas other material wealth like money,brain. A blind operation of Pre-frontal Lobotomy was performed in jewelry, etc, decrease by spending (!)".severe cases of schizophrenia. Alcohol and hallucinating drugs likeCannabis Indica (Bhang), cocaine, opium etc., produce their first Knowledge is power. Knowledge is God. Knowledge isdoping effects upon the nerve cells located in this area. Then the ability wealth. We hear such sentences. This is worldly knowledge. It is calledof correct thinking, judging right and wrong, desires and actions is Ved or Vidya, any Logy (like geology, cardiology, etc,.). This is materialdulled or lost. Control over all Karma Indriyas is lost and people behave knowledge of the world explored by different sciences and seers of thelike lunatics and devils under the influence of such intoxicating drinks past. It is gained by the use of ears and eyes in home and schools. Anyand drugs. useful knowledge is the greatest wealth of a person. But without Self Thinking is done by anatomical, physiological and psychological knowledge (Adhiatma-Vidya) and Self realization any person havingparts of brain, called mind (lower or animal mind), chitta and intellect great knowledge remains in darkness, and behaves sometimes like a(Buddhi). One cannot think well when lower mind is in grip of feelings lost path soul. 32
  • 41. Without genuine interest (Jignasa) one cannot learn and no There is a second meaning of the word Pratyahara. It is food of ateacher can teach Self Knowledge. The same principle applies in Yogi. Prati means daily or towards, and Aahara means food. Food ofSelf-knowledge also. In studies like Yoga, the real quest of knowing a true Yogi is nectar of all knowledge. He has spiritual quest and isone’s spiritual self arises only in a few people- one in a thousand or always trying for self realization. Gyan-amrutam Bhojanam.one in a million. Remain a curious student, revise your worldly Intellect (Buddhi) works like a computer with the data (memory orknowledge and religious beliefs, always keep eyes and ears open, and data) stored in different parts of brain and memories of past events aslearn new things every day. This visible universe is an ever changing audio-visual impressions. It is stored as words of the spoken languageworld of perishable objects, so do not get too much attached to them. listened by the child, and events observed with eyes, wherever he/she was born, raised, moved, lived and educated until TODAY. Knowledge and Intellect are different human abilities. Meditate upon this point. “95 % of any human being’s (2). Atma-Sanyama. Means:- (A) Self-Control by Intellect overknowledge is Audio-knowledge gained by hearing words from mind and 5 senses -the Gyana Indriyas, namely, ears, eyes, tongue asparents, teachers and unknown people (Atithi), as any young child taste organ, nose and skin and (B) Control over 5 organs of actions -grows in any part of the world. Karma Indriyas, namely, tongue as organ of speech, hands, legs, excretory organs and sex organs. Yoga Meditation is a mental exercise of “knowing and The conscious mind, called the 6th sense organ in the Gita isunderstanding ones own self” (Atma-Gyana). Indian Religions lay generally attached to the five senses. Desires for gratification of sensesgreat stress upon gaining worldly knowledge (Veda), and also upon constantly arise in mind for getting contact of material objects of thespiritual knowledge in which one understands correctly body, mind, world. Thoughts are mostly about past experiences of gainingintellect, false egos and soul as different parts of Self (Atma), which happiness from material objects.make the total personality of any individual. Yoga student takes some vows of abstinence from such sense The Sanskrit word Veda means knowledge. Veda is stored in the joys and strictly observes them. These help him to develop control ofChitta part of brain, mainly as memory (OM or listened words), as mind over objects of material world and lead him to higher steps of self-Audio-knowledge or shruti-gyan”. Human brain has wonderful study and better use of intellect. Guru indicates penances for studentscapacity of acquiring and storing, volumes of knowledge in sub- according to level of his mind. Abstinence from smoking, alcohol, non-conscious memory compartment or ‘Chitta’. vegetarian foods, celibacy, “Maunam”- not speaking for a day, half or The Vedas contain the knowledge and prayers of mother nature’s full day fasts etc., are some simple vows. But these must be observedvisible material objects like the sun, land, water, rain, fire, air, etc.,. The and practiced for higher goals (indicated in next - 6th step of Yoga).knowledge of worldly material objects is gained by the five senses, but To reach the highest steps of Dhyana and Samadhi (7th and 8thmainly by ‘seeing with eyes (Smruti = memory) and (Shruti) hearing steps) more penances are needed. Nirvana or Moksha (Mukti) iswords with ears’. Thus Vedic knowledge is like audio-visual recording reached when mind gets totally liberated from all worldly desires andon minds blank VCR memory tape. This recorded or 95 % blank tape attachments. This is very difficult for a family man during early years ofexists as Chitta-Shakti or sub-conscious mind in all human brains. life. Vedic knowledge means knowledge of material objects of the Sanyama or Self control is gained by renunciation of wrongworld, perceived mainly as ‘Hearing by Ears’ and other four beliefs (Avidya), ego centric desires, passions, greed and superstitions.senses. Medicine (Aur-ved), music and fine arts (Gandharva-Ved), Desires arise in mind due to likes (Ragas), dislikes (hates), greedmartial arts (Dhanur-Ved), economics (Arth-ved) were the branches of (lobha), jealousy (dwesha) etc, called feelings and emotions. The minddifferent Vedas or material knowledges. All material knowledge is always in the grip of such emotions when it is attached to senses,changes with passage of time, newer ideas and inventions. The Vedic sense objects and past experiences of pains or pleasures stored inknowledge and beliefs need to be revised and updated with passage of mind as memories. By use of intellect and Sanyama one learns how totime and fresh inventions of science. control the agitated mind. 33
  • 42. In Gita Ch-3-V-41, Lord Krishna indicates a way of controlling Section: IIones wandering mind. "Lord Says; Oh the mightiest (like a bull) in mankind, developcontrol over thy sense organs, and slain all ego centric (selfish) desiresand angers, because they drag you to do wrong deeds (sins). Theydestroy your knowledge and intellect (discriminative ability -judgment, Ashtang Yoga:talent, scientific skills etc,). 12. STEP NO. 6. DHARANA. Summary. 1. Pratyahara means victory over temporary sensual joys and Part-1.control of 5 organs of actions, in which controls of speech and sexdesire are most important penances. Learn to develop control of tastes, Deshabandh Chittasya Dharana. Vibhhoti Pada. Verse. 1.smell and sight of foods. “Awareness of Time, Place and clear Goals (purpose of life) in 2. Self control brings a long healthy life, with good name, fame subconscious mind (Chitta) is Dharana”.and immortality. Real Sanyama, (Self control) comes at a later ageperiod after self realization. Awareness of Dharm, Artha, Kama and Moksha, four Goals of 3. Active involvement in deeds of selfless humanitarian services Life, is Dharna..makes any person a living Angel, Manifest God or Goddess. 4. Samadhi state and “Total Surrender to God’s will” requires Some Yoga books and Yoga teachers explain Dharana like this:-years of Yoga and living a truly religious life. 1.“Concentration of mind in spiritual consciousness within the 5. Golden Rule: Do not try Samadhi Step before age of 75 body”.and over. In Samadhi Step one meditates like this. 2.“Fixing attention on some deity forms like sun, moon or a statue For days, months and sometimes years a Yoga student of deity God, or Guru within mind and in universal show”.searches answers to following questions step by step. 3. Some Gurus teach Hath Yoga practices in Dharna step like “How small I am in the universal dimensions of TIME and SPACE ‘Tratak’, Naity, etc,. In future articles and next step of Dhyan,in this ever changing endless universe?" we will learn more about ‘Tratak’. How and when I came to this life? th 4. I present a new angle of studying the 6 step- Dharna. Dharna What factors maintain my daily life? means intensions, will, goals, aim and purpose of life. How long would I like to live? How many people know me in this city, country and on Globe Awareness of four Life Goals is Dharna.Earth? Hinduism preaches four age-quarters related Goals. We will learn What will happen to my property, family and city and the world about purpose of human life and four goals (Ashrama-Dharma) called,when I die? Dharm, Artha, Kama and Moksha. How big would be my funeral? Conscious and subconscious mind of all human beings are ever In what manner I would like to die, if I am given a choice of a filled with endless wants, hopes, wishes (Asha), and desires (Kama).disease before my death? Most desires get satisfied according to Karma done by every individual (Atma) to achieve them. But desires go on growing as one grows in age. The endless ‘Chain of Desires’, never comes to a final full point in mind, called st nd ‘Satisfaction’ in life journey. (Look at 1 word Santosh - in the 2 step of Niyama). Noble desires are always worth keeping in mind as good goals and dreams of life. Subconscious goals (Dharna) give a definite 34
  • 43. direction to daily activities (Karma). Instincts (Vrutties), dreams and correct age related goals of life and what are wrong desires at young ordesires (Kama) are at the root of all human activities (Pravrutti). They old age periods.drag a person to do Karma and deeds (Karya). This is called Mother A child of five years wants toys and candies. The same toy orNature’s (Prakruti) Law of cause and effects, or Karya Karana candy does not give him same joy when he grows to 10 or 15. AtSidhanta. teenage there is natural drag of sex desires (kama) and other material The Sanskrit word Dharm is usually translated as religion by most things. The desires again change in middle age period. New desires ofIndian Gurus but it has many meanings. touring the world, buying new cars, ornaments, fancy dresses, homes Visit www.gandhigitadharm.com. To learn 8 different meanings of etc, arise in mind. This chain of desires goes on and on until old ageword Dharm. starts and diseases and fears of death arise in Mind. Even at moments of death some desires always remain unfulfilled, but one has to die. The subconscious mind is filled with many desires. Self- The ancient Indian King Manu (2500, BC) had divided theKnowledge (Atma-Gyan) and correct actions (Karma Yoga) bring population of his kingdom into four job-oriented Classes- or Varna. Thefulfillment of most desires, wishes and all possible dreams in life. Classes were based upon different jobs done by the people. The wordAchievement of a goal is called success (Siddhi) or victory (Vijaya). Dharm was used in meaning of ‘duty’ in times of Manu.Successes bring mental happiness and joys. This creates Self 1. Brahmins were men of Knowledge. They (teachers, Gurus)confidence and Self-esteem (Gaurav). A Karma-Yogi is clear in mind made the highest or top class. They knew laws of biology (Bhrama-about his/her past actions, present needs and what actions he needs to Vidya) and herbal medicine. They guided all lower three classes indo for achieving all future noble goals. matters of morality or obligatory duties and gave judgments and punishments. What do you want? 2. Kshatriya were men of strength. They knew use of weapons. The Desires (Kama) are divided into two major groups. They were kings, rulers and warriors. Their duty was protection of (a) Natural Instincts (Vrutties, Kama) like, eating food for hunger, people and punishing wrong or evil ones.drinking water for thirst, breathing air for survival and sex activities for 3. Vaishya were men doing agriculture, sale and transport ofpropagation of race. These are common in all living beings, human goods. Morals like no cheating, no greed, honesty, etc., werebeings, animals and plants. prescribed as their Dharm. They knew economics and business skills. (b) Material wants. There are many material wants in human 4. Shudra, the fourth major class was made up of all remainingsociety, like houses, clothes, money, jewelry, transport vehicles, etc, people. They included carpenters, weavers, blacksmiths, masons andThese are common desires of only human beings, at all places. all others who did some manual labor. Their Dharma was to serve Ahara, Nidra, Bhaya, maithunam cha upper 3 classes as employees, servants, slaves or laborers. Samanyam etat pashunam naranam, All four classes were expected to do their assigned jobs with a Dharmo hi eko adhiko visheshaha sense of Dharm (duty). Today this word is usually translated as Dharmana hina pashubhi samana. ‘Religion’ into English. But it means “Duty or Responsibility of a person To Eat (Hunger), Drink (Thirst), Sleep, Live in many fears and in a particular class” in Hinduism. The classes were Job Oriented andPassions and Sex Desires are common in animals and human beings. not Birth-rights imparting classes to start with.But Religion (=Dharm meaning ‘Sense of Duty’ and Self-control) is There were no untouchables in earlier times. But with passage ofunique quality of human beings. People without Self-control and time these classes turned into hierocratic (VIP) privileges imparting andDharma behave like animals. preaching classes. When any human mind gets attached to money and material • Brahmins (men of knowledge) guided other three classes in allpleasures gained by material things with money, he/she forgets natural moral codes, laws, sociology, economics and political matters.instincts and runs after material things. People try to get more and Knowledge was passed over and preserved by creation of shortmore money, political power, etc,. Only a few are conscious about- sentences, Mantra, proverbs and musical hymns and verses. (Samwhat are natural wants and what are unnatural desires; what are Veda Hymns). 35
  • 44. • A woman was property of her husband. A man could marry Part-2. Sanyasa.more than one woman, but a widow could not remarry. Wives wereburnt alive upon the death of husbands (Sati system). Search of Self, God and Union (Yoga) or merging with God is • Inter-class marriages were forbidden. But a Brahmin male his only Desire of Life.could marry any girl from lower three classes, a Kshatriya could marrya girl from lower two classes. A Vaishya could marry a Shudra girl, but In Hindu scriptures Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha are fournot from higher two classes. The stories of Ramayan and Mahabharat popular words. They indicate four goals of Life. One goal is to be thindicate such practices. achieved during one age quarter. The 6 step of Dharana teaches how • Birth as Female, or as a Vaishya or Shudra was believed to be to achieve the four age quarter related goals.due to sins committed in previous lives. The Karma Yoga, preached in the Gita teaches how to achieve life • The majority class of Shudra had no right to speak Sanskrit goals by doing correct Actions (Karma). Yoga Meditation teaches TimeVeda-Mantra, learn weapons or do any trade. They were supposed to Consciousness, present age related goal and plans for perfect actions.remain lifelong servants or employees of the upper three classes. Such To achieve a goal one has to do some effort (purushartha) or correctverses were added in Manu Smruti by the Brahmins of the later ages actions (karma). All Karma must be guided by Dharma (dutyso that their sons might enjoy all privileges and rights of the higher consciousness), intellect and perfect knowledge of doing that job.class created in name of religion. Life expectancy of human beings was well studied by the ancient • The Bhagavat Gita (in the 5 Cent BC) redefines these class th Rishies, the men of great wisdom. They observed that a human beingprivileges and declares that ‘all human beings (men and women) may expect to live at the most 100 years. The span of 100 years of lifeare equal in eye and laws of God. They have right (Adhikara) of was divided into 4 age quarters, each quarter called one Ashrama. Onedoing Karma and worship God’. goal was indicated for one Ashrama. Some vows for Ashrama were • Hinduism was a Veda (Knowledge) oriented culture and a male also indicated.privileged socio-political Culture or Religion. The following table indicates one goal for each Ashrama, and • There was no idol worship before the 15th Cent AD and start gives a plan of a perfectly happy and healthy life of 100 years.of Vaishnavism by Shri Vallabha-acharya. Only Shiva temples werepresent in ancient cities like Benaras, Somnath in Gujarat, etc. BrahmCharya-Ashrama. Age period. 1 to 25 Yrs. • The Shudras were not untouchables to start with. It is the Gain worldly knowledge and also Learn DHARMA or moral duties.greatest black spot in Hinduiam Today. All great saints of past (No Sex activity during student age.)and recent times have preached that all human beings- men andwomen- are equal creations of God. Grahastha-Ashrama. Age period. 25 to 50 Yrs. Hinduism is called Varn-Ashram-Dharm. After my study of world Get Married, Earn ARTHA (Money), raise children, Respect homereligions for last 22 years, a few observations about the condition of coming guests (Atithi-Dev) as God.Hinduism at the present times are listed above. This is worth revisingcondition for all Indian intellectual people. Four-class system or Varna- Vanprastha-Ashrama. Age period. 50 to 75 Yrs.Dharma giving special privileges to only a few, has down graded Vanprastha means go to jungle. Partial retirement. Try to Fulfill allHinduism during the course of last 800 years. KAMA (Desires). Ashram-Dharma teach four life goals. This is a very useful sectionin Hinduism, applicable at all places in any land, and worth studying byall Yoga students. We will now study the Ashrama-Dharma part. Sanyasa-Ashrama. Age Period. 75 to 100Yrs. Goal - MOKSHA or Nirvana. Liberty from Fear of death and no or minimum expectations from others. Socio-economic and obligatory duties towards family, neighborhood, town, state (mother land) must be taught by parents to 36
  • 45. growing children along with school education during the first and most KAMA = Fulfill all desires with the money earned andimportant age quarter of life, Brahmcharya Ashrama- student positions achieved during life. During the 3rd quarter a sense of(Vidyarthi) age. Education of morals is called religious education. “having lived a satisfactory life” must arise in mind (Santosha presched nd Dharma teaches speaking truth, no thefts, non-violence, honesty, in the 2 step) and desire of earning more and more money musthumbleness, obedience to parents and teachers, etc,. These values come to some end.must be taught to children during the teenage period. These are If health is good then gradually withdraw from job and familyfundamental principles of good manners and morality or religion at all works, but remain active in selfless community services like educationplaces. These are commonly preached in all world religions. (See and medical help to needy and old, particularly in backward villages. stYama, 1 step of Yoga). A matured wise Karm-Yogi gives benefits of his knowledge, wealth and experience to the next generation during Vanprastha and Sanyasa The Upanishad Rishies gave following advises (moral age.commandments) to students going home after their study in the Rishi MOKSHA. It means Liberty. Sanyasa Ashrama means mentalSchools. Freedom from family bondages and money attachments. Satyam Vad, (Speak the truth), Moksha is the last goal during 4th age quarter. Salvation, Nirvana, Dharmam Chara, (keep sense of duty in life and walk on the path and Kaivalya are similar terms used in Christianity, Buddhism andof morality), Jainism for achieving this state of mind. Praja Tantum Ma Vivatchhetsi. Do not break family lineage. Get Sanyasa means an attitude of detachment from joys of materialmarried with proper partner. Live family life in home, produce and raise objects, money, property and family relations. A truly liberated Sanyasichildren, give them good education and also teach them Dharm or has renounced all desires of high positions, money, material wealthmoral values. Preserve Family Lineage and ‘No Sanyas at young age’ and property.was the advice of the Gurus. In past times most Gurus were married Search of Self, God and Union (Yoga) or merging with God is hisand not BalBrahmcharies as we see in many recent religious Guru only Desire of Life.Cults (Sampradaya). What advise a young BramChari or BramCharini will give to a Meditate upon your correct goal of the present age quarterhouse-holder (Grahastha) in matter of family relations, disputes, and try to achieve it by practicing Dharma and dreams oflove and harmony when they have not lived a family life? future called dharana. ARTHA = money, Laxmi. Earn money or wealth by path ofDharma. Second meaning of Artha is “Purpose of Life”. Money is necessary for a house-holder (Grahastha). Become a Some methods of achieving set goals that have worked in my lifegood and responsible parent was the advice. The goal indicated during are suggested below.this important Grahastha-Ashram of living in home with family, was to 1. Write autobiography. Keep a confidential notebook or Tape-earn money by honest and fair means. record your own short life-story in your own words of important events. Religion is linked with an Individual Self or Atma. Remember your young ages desires, dreams and wants. According to It is called Swa-Dharm in the Gita. In HinduSthan or Land of decisions made and actions done during the past life, you haveHindus (India), today Religion has turned into big business corporations reached the present place (Home in any country) and position in lifeand organizations (Sampradays) of earning money and enjoying all Today and Now.material comforts by average priests. Installation of Idols of Deity Gods 2. Observe by meditation that most of your desires are fulfilledand ownership of temples lead by Dynasties of Gurus is a great today or not. You will observe that according to Perfect Laws ofunreligious activity going on. Ignorant, hypnotized, misguided but rich accumulation of (Sanchit) Karma of God, you are either enjoying orintellectuals mostly support such activities. suffering Today. 3. Remember your childhood’s unfulfilled desires like learning dancing, music, painting, traveling, sightseeing, etc. Set 37
  • 46. short-term goals and try to fulfill them. You will notice that most desires Section: IIwill get fulfilled, provided there is no attachment to money and they donot depend upon help of other family members or mercy of otherhuman beings. 4. Write or make a list of present desires and goals. Givethem a Time-Place frame. Record important events of recent past and Ashtang Yoga:analyze your actions and reactions. Then try to achieve your remaininggoals. 13. STEP NO 7. DHYAN. 5. Always look at others as good and equal fellow human beings.Do not neglect daily duty bound actions towards job and family Tatra pratikata eti Dhyanm.members. Vibhooti Pada. Verse 2. 6. Always try to gain new knowledge in free time. Develop anattitude of making financial compromises in life and close family Dhyan = Fullest (100%) attention, awareness andrelations. The priorities, goals and actions must change with passage concentration in present activity.of time and age. 7. REMEMBER THIS GOLDEN RULE. When confused about Part-1.goals and priorities, think with a pen and paper. Conscious mind canoccupy only one thought at one time. This applies to any great man, There is great confusion about correct meaning, teaching,a priest or a politician living on Globe Earth Today, or who lived in the and practices of the last two steps of Ashtang Yoga. Most Guruspast, or who will live in the future. understand Dhyan and Samadhi- are synonymous words. Remember these most important points. Some Tips for Meditation. In Dhyan- the eyes are open. In Dhyan the person is A. Meditate in early morning. Pick only one issue or think about engrossed in some important activity with fullest attention.only one natural object like the sun, moon, water, air, land, fire, etc. In Samadhi the eyes are closed. A Yogi is in state of deepThe sun, moon, water, air etc., have similar effects on all living beings. spiritual meditation or Trans. He has conquered all sensualThis understanding creates a sense of equality, satisfaction and Self desires of worldly pleasures and joys. He is beyond any familyconfidence. attachment, personal need, body comforts, pleasures or pains and B. Meditate upon, law of TIME-PLACE Bondage. Material things is ready to die for any noble humanitarian cause.and family relations constantly change with passage of Time. There isPerfect Time-Place or Time-Space bondage to all material bodies, What is Real Dhyan?living (Chetan) and non-living (Jad). DHYAN means perfect Attention, Awareness and No two physical or material bodies can occupy the Same Concentration in any and all activities (Pravrutties), namely job,Space at Same Time. This Law of Alibi of Mother Nature applies to all, meditation, learning or study one is doing at the present Placeany great religious Guru or any Political Head. and Time (Desh-Kal). This ‘Time’ is always Today and Now. C. Study scriptures of all religions with open mind. Meditate Different Indian Yoga Gurus teach this step in different ways.and/or seek advice from parents and good friends. A trust worthy Guru Some ask students to focus eyes on some idol of a deity God for longis necessary until one is liberated from all material attachments and time and then close eyes to bring that idol in mind. Others place aexpectations from family members and relatives. candle or bright object in a dark room and ask students to look at it God bless You to achieve every short term goal and all four without blinking eyes. These are different Tratak and Hath Yogagoals of life. practices and not Dhyan. (More about Meditaion See Additional Articles in Sec-III ) th Dhyan is the 7 step of Ashtang Yoga. Dhyan is usually translated OM Tat Sat. as Meditation by many Yoga Gurus and books. The meaning in different Yoga Books and its teachings by different Yoga Teachers 38
  • 47. (Gurus) also vary a great deal. Students need practical examples and the front car took a quick shift in the Right slow lane because there wassome stories of events occurring in daily life to understand correct a totally stopped car ahead of the front fast moving car.meaning of Dhyan. Following common incidents will explain the correct My son had very little time to shift to Right lane due to traffic in themeaning of this important Sanskrit word ‘Dhyan’, used in Yoga study. Right side. So to prevent a bad accident he quickly turned his car to left side of the front halted car and drove for some yards in unpaved Daily Examples of Dhyan. sloping grass curb, keeping fullest attention and perfect control of (a) One nice example of Dhyan is narrated in the epic of steering. He brought back gradually his car in original Left lane, andMahabharat. carefully moved in the slow moving Right lane. Arjuna, the Pandava prince, is shown to hit a fine target- the bird’s They all were horrified. All started praying and thanked God foreye at a distance on a tree- with an arrow. Guru Drana during a saving them from a bad car accident. To prevent other car accidents,practical examination, asks one by one all participating students while his wife called 911 and informed about the stalled car in Left lane onshooting a target. “What do you see? Do you see the tree, the sky and this highway. It was standing there with only Red Lights on and noall us present here?” Most students answered, “Yes”. flashing signals. She informed about approximate mile zone on HW-95. When Arjun’s turn came, he said first, “I see only the Bird andTree”. Guru Asked again “Now what do you see?”. He said, ”I see When we think of “Ifs and Buts” of this little incident an essay canBird’s head only”. Next time he replied “I SEE BIRDS EYE ONLY.” be written. We all will forget about this event after some time. But it will Guru then asked him to let go the arrow, which hit bird’s eye remain in our memory for ever for remaining life.perfectly. This is a very good example of Dhyan. ‘IF’ my son had not taken that correct, quick and right decision of shifting on the grass curb than what would have happened is matter of (b). Alexander Flaming does not hear Sirens. only speculations. But our common sense can say and predict that a The famous inventor of wonder medical drug Penicillin did not bad accident would have taken place with all its unhappyhear the sounds of warning Siren’s sound when was fully concentrated consequences of injuries or perhaps deaths. This accident wasduring research work in his office. He had instructed his staff not to prevented because my son had perfect attention and concentration indisturb him while he was working in lab alone. driving. This is called Dhyan. In those days German bombers were raiding England oft and onduring the years of 1938-39. When warning sirens started, his staff What is Dhyan?thought Doctor will naturally hear sounds of siren and come down in Complete awareness in the present situation and activity oneshelters. The raid was over.After some time, when the staff returned, is doing at a ‘Place and Time’ is Dhyan. Perfect attention inthey saw doctor still working in laboratory. When they asked about that whatever “I am doing Today Now and Here” means Dhyan.recent raid, he told he did not know anything about raid and siren Concentration and awareness of surroundings in any job one is doingsounds about attacks of German bombers. This is 100% attention, is called Dhyan.concentration or Dhyan. Many such common examples in everyday life can be listed. Keep awareness in speaking with any person- even your family members, (c). Dhyan- Saved all from a very bad Accident. and also before any audience. Keep awareness of traffic lights and The following event occurred recently in my son’s life on August stop signals while driving car. These are just a few examples of Dhyan th12 -2007. It also explains the meaning of 7 step of “Dhyan-Yoga”. in daily life. Even a little loss of attention (Dhyan) will lead to My son with his wife and two daughters, from Jacksonville FL making mistakes, sins and/or accidents.(USA), had gone to Miami Florida located about 400 miles South from At physical level the goal of Yoga is to achieve a perfect harmonyour home in Jacksonville, to help his elder daughter to change her of Body, Mind and Intellect. Religious devotees believing in someApartment at start of a new college term. She is studying in a college in Supreme maker of Universe (God, Allah, Yashovah, Jesus orMiami. Bhagavan etc.), reach Dhyan and Samadhi stages quickly and easily, While returning from Miami at night, he was driving North on HW- compared to more educated, debating, intellectual atheists.95. He was following a fast running car in the left (fast) lane. Suddenly 39
  • 48. In real Dhyan a student learns how to unite (do Yoga of) his As step by step the journey of life progresses, Mind experiences aconscious Mind and sub-conscious (Chitta) mind with intellect wonderful peace and divine mood. This is experienced by the student(Buddhi). He can think about events that have occurred with himself in himself only and cannot be shown to others, because this is totally athe past with perfect sense of ‘Place-Time’ (Desh-Kal), in chronological subjective experience.order. Study of Sankhya Darshan of Kapil Rishi and Vedanta Darshana Only a few people study scriptures with spiritual zeal and openof Ved-Vysa, also helps in developing art of Dhyan. mind. Only a few try to understand fine points about the last two steps From Vedanta Darshan one learns that the effect of all natural of Dhyan and Samadhi.elements (Prakruti) like Sun, Rain, Fire, Heat, Cold, water, air, etc,. is Majority of Yoga Gurus in India do not know good English. Whenequal on all (Purusha) bodies of all living beings. Meditate on 10 deity important Sanskrit key-words are translated by any Guru in someGods linked with 5 senses and 5 organs of actions and do some self Indian language, and they are re-translate into English by their averageexperiments as suggested in the previous step of Dharana. disciples, many a times correct meanings of key words get distorted. One English verse says, Most Yoga Gurus do not know or talk about the first two steps, “Work while you work, play while you play, morals and family values, or about the four life goals and ultimate that is the way to be Happy and Gay”. purpose of Yoga study. Limitations and bondage of same ‘Time -Place’ We can add, apply to all living (Chetan) and non-living (Jad) physical bodies. This is “Cook while you cook, Eat while you eat, perfectly understood by the student in the Dhyan step. Do not try for Read while you read, Drive while you drive, deep Samadhi. Some dangers and risks are associated in this last Don’t talk on Mobile Phones or don’t do anything else”. step. A new and unfamiliar student experiences immediate peace of This is a simple and practical way of mastering Dhyan. mind from stress and worries by simple Asana and Pranayama. The Tip for today’s young generation. effects of deep breathing and chanting OM or any Mantra is similar and “Do not Drive in Hurry, and Do not talk on Cell Phone while universal upon all human beings. Anybody can become a Yoga teacherDriving Car”. by learning few Asana, Pranayama and Mantra chanting methods. Kundalini Shakti and Agna-Chakra are Mental Power Centers Part-2. (Chakra) located in Brain and Spinal cord. The Sanskrit words used for Chakra can be explained with equivalent words of modern anatomy, Review of previous 6 steps. physiology and psychology. (See coming Chapters). Dhyan and Samadhi Steps teach how to develop Kundalini powers or 3-tense- The first two steps teach moral codes of good behavior (Sanatan sense and art of positive thinking.Dharm) like truth (satyam)and non-violence, compromising attitudes Physiological changes in body may be observed as reduction of(Santosh), celibacy, cleanliness etc.,. These are common preaching in blood pressure and arrest of diseases like acidity, headaches, arthritisall religions. and so on. The 3rd step and 4th step of Asana and Pranayama are for body’s Psychological changes like recovery from depressions andgood health. Pranayama prepares foundation stone for meditation. The experience of mental happiness and joyful mood can be observed bylast four steps of Yoga are for meditation. friends and relatives. This is my simple advice to all new Yoga students. The 5th and 6th steps are of self analysis, developing control over Learn how to develop Kundalini-Powers to achieve material successes inall 5 sense organs and mind, and setting higher goals of future life. The the life first. Never try to reach the Samadhi Step in short times. It is a6th step teaches 4 correct age related goals, art of positive thinking, dangerous practice if one tries to reach it, before mastering the other 7making correct decisions and doing right actions (Karma Yoga). steps. From 7th step onwards the student enters a zone of Remember this message of Lord Krishna in the Gita. “Only one in atranscendental meditation. He learns how to turn mind from zone of million, a true seeker of God is able to reach Samadhi and see the cosmicmaterial objects of outer world to the spiritual zone and SELF within light of God”. It is difficult to find a Guru who has seen such light of God.and understanding of False Egos and True Pride. 40
  • 49. A good way of concentration is to form the habit of concentrating it. This is called self-confidence.” He/she becomes self-reliant, lessyour thoughts upon any and all activities and things that you do in daily expectant or dependent upon help from other people nearby. Afterlife. mastering the 6th and 7th steps, positive helping nature towards others When you are tying your shoe, think of tying that shoe lace until it should also develop.is tied perfectly and do not try to read a news-paper at the same time. 5. Foresight and Vision: Three tense sense- Kundlini developsWhen you are dressing for a dinner party, think of your dress only but after conquering six inner major enemies, namely; Desires, angers,do try to practice a speech or a song at the same time. Such simple greed, illusions, false egos and jealousy (Kama, Krodha, Lobh, Moha,and regular habits and practices of concentration in present- will greatly Mad and Matser).quicken your power and enable you to do thoroughly and speedily 6. Real spiritual Self unfolds only after mastering the Samadhieverything you undertake. step. All successful men of the world are those who have learned above “I am zero as one individual (ATMA). How small I am in thismentioned habits and practiced daily. They have acquired the art of Universe? So is everyone. We are all mortal human beings. The dateconcentrating upon above indicated simple points. of my death is fixed by God or Mother Nature. The next breath or next In Dhyan a Yogi maintains an unbroken flow of thoughts for the heart beat can become my last moment of life. It is with grace of Godgoal indicated in the 6th step and has perfect awareness of the present that I am alive here Today and Now at this moment”.“Place and Time” for doing actions (Karma) and also inaction (Akarma) 7. Any curious and devoted student of Yoga can reach thealso. mental level of all great prophets by mastering the Samadhi Step. A Yogi becomes one with God and fearless. He is not afraid of Spiritual evolution (uplifting) takes place in following order. death. After mastering the Samadhi Step, he is able to and can give moral guide lines and commandments to masses as his/her Agna- 1. Control of 5 senses. (Indriya Sanyama, by practicing the 5th Chakra unfolds. He is ready to die performing his duty towards Godstep). This develops by learning how to control many random sensual and humanity at large. He dies a martyr’s death fighting againstdesires arising in mind. traditional, orthodox, selfish and business minded priests and 2. Make short term material goals and try to achieve them all. politicians. His body dies but his noble preaching remains for ever. He Understand well that only wishes and desires do not work at all thus becomes an immortal (Amar-Atma) soul. The life stories oftimes. Correct actions are also required to get wishes fulfilled. This is Buddha, Mahavira, Jesus Christ, Mohammed, many saints and truethe first stage of Self Realization. Remember the names of 5 organs of devotees of God all over the world is same. They were engaged in aactions, namely, speech, two hands, two legs, excretory organs and life-long fight for delivering the true message of morality (religion) andsex organs. Any Action (Karma) can be done “Today and Now” only. God. Make a possible wish and do perfect actions. Your wish will be 8. Write your autobiography.fulfilled soon if your actions are perfect and do not depend upon other Summary:persons. Note also that bondage of Time-Place will always occur to all • Raj Yoga of Patanjali is a theistic philosophy believing inactions done by you. one supreme creator, compared to Nir-ishver Sankhya of Kapil, 3. Self confidence develops: Jainism and Buddhism. These are some atheist Darshans in India. Only after developing an attitude of equality towards all human • Find 15 to 30 minutes Time to meditate daily in morningbeings, real self confidence develops. It comes only when all false about what you will and can do Today and tomorrow. Do notEgos of superiority vanish. A true Yogi believes that no body is superior worry too much about day after tomorrow. Do not worry or broodand no one is inferior. He does not believe in man made class system over what you did not do yesterday and in past life.and man made unjust laws. We are all equal human beings in the laws • One concentrates mind upon the relationship betweenof Mother Nature and eyes of God. self or “I”, material body and pure spirit by constant meditation 4. All inferiority complexes vanish: during the steps of Dharana, Dhyan and Samadhi. When positive thinking starts, a hopeful attitude develops. If otherscan do it, and if someone has done it in the past then, “I can also do 41
  • 50. Section: II Lord Says:- "A person runs after material things (Vishaya- material objects giving sensual joys) and gets attached to those objects. Desires to repeat the previous pleasurable experiences arise in mind. When the Ashtang Yoga: (desires) are not satisfied, anger is the result. When mind is in grip of anger, consciousness is replaced by illusion (slumber = Sammoha). 14. SAMADHI STEP 8. Illusion leads to loss of memory (Smruti-vibhramaha=Amnesia). Loss of memory leads to loss of intellect (power of logical thinking). Thus loss of intellect (Buddhi-nasha) brings peril, disasters and down fall of the SAMADHI = BRAHAMA-NIRVANA. (Budhi-Yog) person." These two verses explain how two powerful Satans- ‘desires and Yoga of Intellect with Universal Mind and Spiritual angers’ arise in mind and where they lead an individual to in end. TheConsciousness. other four Satans are false egos (Mada), greed of money and power (Lobha), wrong beliefs arising from ignorence (Maya or Avidya), and Sthitpragnsya ka Bhasha, Samadhi-sthasya Keshava, unproductive jelousy - Matsara. All these tendences create a sense of Sthitdhihi kim prabhashate Kim aaseet vrajet kim. HATE. Hate is opposite of true LOVE. Gita II-54. Such and similar verses of the Gita had changed the life of Arjuna asks: “Oh Keshava, please tell me how a man of firm mind, Mahatma Gandhiji. Gandhiji learned these verses for the first time frompure intellect and wisdom, who has reached Samadhi - sits, walks, an English translation of the Gita (by Arnold Edwin) when he was aspeaks, and behaves ?" student of law in London. He got attracted to this scripture and it When the last step of Samadhi in Raj Yoga is reached, a Yogi changed his thinking and life. This is recorded in his autobiography,becomes Sthita Pragna,- a Wise Man, a Buddha, a man of clear vision "My experiments with truth".and foresight, firm mind and purified (unbiased and liberated) intellect Worldly objects come in contact with five senses. They give(Sthitdhihi). temporary short lived happiness and joys. For example a dish of The last 18 verses (54 to 72) of the 2nd chapter of The Gita nicely sweets gives joy to tongue when it makes contact with tongue. Thedescribe the state of Brahma- Nirvana or Samadhi State of mind. A pleasure experienced by tongue, creates attachments to sweets. Likesvivid word picture of a Yogi in Samadhi is described in these verses. and dislikes (Ragas and Dwandwas) for other food items get created inOne should memorize these 18 golden verses, understand their mind. Similarly one likes to see with eyes only beautiful things andmeanings, and try to meditate upon Self, in the light of these verses. persons, and dislikes dirty things or ugly faces of some people. One "A liberated soul, in Bhrama-Nirvana state has conquered all likes to hear only good news and praises and generally dislikes baddesires and is satisfied and peaceful within himself (55). news and critism with another sense organ ‘Ears’. One likes contact of He is not unhappy in unhappy events, or is elated in happy soft and cold things with skin (Sparsha Sukh) and likes fragnence ofsituations; he is free from attachments and pleasures gained by sense flowers and nice flavours in food items. People do not like bad smellsobjects; and has conquered false fears and angers (56). and dirty odours. By remaining attached to all such objects of sensual He can endure hunger, thirst and is always in a blissful mood (59). joys, one commits many sins and falls in life. Naturally a question Dhyayato vishayan punshaha arises. What is sin? sangat eshup jayate Like a wind dragging a boat without a steering wheel in any Sangat sanjayate Kamah direction- the life of people living for joys gained from senses and Kamat Krodhobhi jayate, sense objects, run in all directions, because they cannot use their Krodhat bhavati Sammoha intellect and wisdom (Pragna). (67). Sammohat Smruti-vibhramaha When others sleep, a Yogi is awake; when others are awake he Smruti bhranshat Buddhi nasho sleeps (69). Buddhi nashat pranashyati. Gita:-Ch.II-62 & 63. 42
  • 51. He is liberated from sense of possessions, false egos and material These drugs induce a temporary Samadhi like state of mind, but itdesires. He wants nothing, is a man of clear vision, and is conscious of is not Nir-Vikalp-Samadhi. Such drugs, alcohol, smoking, etc., create ahis limitation of Time and Place (71). short euphoria, trance, or a blissful state of mind. The person gets disoriented from the present time-place sense and the world of reality. The last verse describes mental state of Bhram Nirvana. Orthodox Hath Yogies teach to with-hold passing urine and stools for long hours "Moolbandha", and such other Bandhas. Esha Brahmi sthiti Partha nainam prapya vimuhyati I Some teach long fasts for days and months, to identify that soul is Sthitvasyam anta kalepi Bhrama Nirvanam uchhyate II different from body. Such practices are seen in Jainism. These are Gita, II-72. not real Yoga practices. Penances are meant to develop self control over natural desires of hunger, thirst, sex, etc,. Lord Says :-"This is the state of Samadhi. One, who has not To exhibit their great sex control and high degree of celibacy,attained it, is always in illusion (Moha). One who has reached it is some Yogis (Sadhus) move totally naked (Digamber) in the society.unshaken at the time of his death. He gets Nirvana and merges with This is a common practice in one division of Jainism (SthanakvasiDivine Supreme Brahaman (God)." Jains). Many so called “Yogis of Himalayan cults in Hinduism” also Such a soul merges with the Absolute Bhraman (God) after move naked in small and big groups (Naga Bava), seen on TV indeath and is not born again. Kumbh-Mela. (January -2001). A Yogi is convinced about the perfect laws of Nature and has no When a group of Hath-Yogis visit some village in India, theyduality in mind. He is a man of firm opinion and is always calm in harass illiterate and ignorant village people. Some demand sweets, richmind during war or peace. He is not an escapist but is ready to fight food dishes, money and many other things. People are afraid of suchand die performing his obligatory duties for noble causes. Naked Sadhus and try to satisfy their demands. If one has courage, do I know a case of a medical doctor in Bombay who died while not yield to their demands. They are also mortal human beings, just likepracticing Dhyana Yoga and Samadhi, taught by famous intellectual us.YOGA TEACHER- NOW, LATE Acharya Rajanish. Many young and Do not try for Samadhi during early steps of Yoga study. There isimportant family members have died or have became lost path souls great risk of becoming an escapist, and leaving family life. People runwhile attempting Dhyana and Samadhi under such teachers. They do away from family responsibilities and duties towards children, friends,not teach the earlier steps in a systematic manner. society and country. Never be in a hurry to reach the last step of Samadhi in short Many young and promising youth, go to Himalaya to learntime. It is like studying in a Ph.D. class, when one is just a student spirituality and Yoga. They neglect their young children, wives and oldof the 1st grade in a school. parents. A student on path of so called spirituality is highly respected in society and considered a divine soul in India (!). This is wrong practice Do not try to Reach Samadhi State hurriedly. It is risky, at young age. It is anti-religious (Adharma).dangerous and suicidal. Ashtang Yoga of Patanjali and the Gita, do not preach Nirvana stage comes to a true seeker slowly and automatically. All practices like, detachment from money, wealth, family life andindividuals who gain mastery over the first seven steps, experience a leadership positions, in any society or country.mental state of pure universal spiritual at all times during their future Raj means King. Become a king or a good and noble leader toyears, and at time of their own death. They have conquered the fear of guide the King, is goal of Yoga study.death. Summary of important points:- Wrong teachings for Samadhi. 1. The purpose of Yoga study is to unfold hidden noble and Some Yogis teach control of heart rate by practices of long divine qualities within Self, and not to become a Superman or God.Kumbhaks and Rachaks in Pranayama. Others give hallucinating drugs 2. There are many wrong beliefs and notions among Indianand intoxicating herbs, like Cannabis Indica (Bhang), marijuana people, Hindus and Jains. e.g., “You cannot get Moksha or See God,(Charas), opium (Afim), cocaine and narcotics. 43
  • 52. without a Guru”. Only a Guru can liberate from birth death cycle is Section: IIanother wrong notion. These are great misconceptions. 3. Today there are nearly 1000 or more living Gurus, who areworshipped as living Gods. Their hypnotized sheep like disciples,believe in their preaching and teachings. These blind followers believethat, “Only their Guru” is a super human divine soul and a Living Image Ashtang Yoga:of God! 4. No Guru can show or teach Samadhi to any student. No Guru 15. WHAT IS HATH YOGA?can show God face to face (Sakshatkar). A good Yoga Guru can teachup to 7 steps of Yoga. Then by self meditation the final peak of WHAT IS HATH YOGA?Samadhi is reached by ‘Closing Eyes’ and looking at one’s own dead In different Yoga books HATH YOGA is described as a group ofbody with conscious mind. various difficult postures, and /or in many different ways by different 5. In this way, only after mastering the 7th steps, one Yoga teachers.identifies, Body and Soul as two separate things. But do not The correct meaning of the Sanskrit word "Hath" is will power, firmforget also that they both are ever united (in Yoga), and depend mind or unshakable determination. It also means obstinacy, obsessionupon each other. or stubbornness. 6. Soul can’t exist without material elements like water, air, The purpose of Raj Yoga study is to develop unshakable faith inetc,. and Body without Brahman, spirit or soul is a dead mass of God, will power to walk on the path of morality (religion) and do noblebones and flesh. deeds and perform right actions. 7. A true Guru guides his disciple on path of morality (Dharma), Four types of Haths are well known since age old times which areby first practicing himself. He preaches the higher morals by his own described in various Indian scriptural stories. These are called Bal-example of selfless, simple life style, and noble humanitarian deeds, Hath, Stree-Hath, Raj-Hath and Yogi-Hath. It means tenacity orand ever peaceful mind and manners. adamant behavior of children, obstinacy of a wife (woman), firm 8. No human being can ever BE GOD OR BECOME GOD. But resolution of a king or government officer with weapons, andany true seeker can SEE THE LIGHT OF GOD by the path of Yoga perseverance or firm beliefs of many religious people or any true YOGI.meditation. This is possible by understanding who am I?, and the The last Hath is exhibited by all great prophets who have got nolimitations of time-place that apply to ones own self. attachments of the other three and conquered likes and dislikes of 9. Any self realized soul can SEE and merge with God by the five senses. There is voluminous literature on Hath Yoga in most yogapath of Devotion (Bhakti) and total surrender to God’s will in all events books. Each teacher has his own belief about Hath Yoga and explainsof happiness and unhappiness occurring during life, and accepting it according to his understanding of this subject.them as perfect design of Universal God (Vishva Pita or Universal Some Tapascharya (see Step 2 Niyama) during young age andFather). teenage periods, or training of enduring some hardships like fasting and not eating tasty foods or water for some hours etc,. is important and necessary part of moral and cultural training (Sanskara imprinting). If children are not trained in this manner, they become miserable, frustrated and depressed when they suffer minor injuries, get diseases or some unhappy situation occurs in their future life. Hath Yoga does not lead to vision of God, but it develops a higher thresh-hold for pain endurance. This creates a will power, ability of tolerance of hardships to some limit and an attitude of compromises. The sum total of all such training is development of courage and Self confidence (Atma-Shraddha). 44
  • 53. Hath Yoga is only a sub-step (Tapa) described in the second step other steps like the Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara and in higherof Niyama in Ashtang or Raj Yoga. Many wrong things are taught in the meditation like Dhyan etc.,.name of Hath Yoga. Yoga students should understand the purpose ofsuch penances and their limitations. 1. Dhoti or Stomach lavage. Some Hath Yoga practices were developed in ancient India when A long bandage like strip of soft cloth is swallowed slowly withemergency medical aids were not available. By learning these tricks plenty of water- nearly 3 to 4 liters. Then the water and cloth areone develops wonderful control over natural instincts and desires like vomited out. This procedure removes accidentally ingested wrong foodthirst and hunger; and good control over involuntary physiological items or poisons. This is like a crude type of gastric lavage. But onesystems like respiratory, digestive, excretory and reproductive system must learn such tricks during normal times as an additional side step oflike sex desires. yoga training. Weaknesses of males and females in sex urges (passions) arisingduring teenage periods was very well recognized by the ancient 2. Basti or Enema at will without any instruments.Rishies. Celibacy became an important vow. This is preached as a Different "Basti" tricks are mastered and demonstrated in publicsub-step of Yama- the 1st step of Yoga. It is an important moral code, shows by some Yogis. Some one would sit in a tub filled with water andpreached in all the religions and all civilized communities. suck in (drink) the water via anal route by relaxing the anal sphincter at Mool-Bandhas mean control of excretory functions of body like will. Some other one would use a hollow stem (tube) and suck waterpassing of stools and urine, vomiting, spitting, coughing etc.,. These into terminal parts of colon using abdominal muscles. In ancient times,controls are a part of good social behaviors and manners in every day similar procedures were used to relieve chronic constipation. They canlife. They are important and essential hygienic manners in home life be called enemas of the ancient times.and neighborhood. This is indicated as another sub-step in Niyama,called Saucham. 3. Naiti. or Nose cleaning methods. Many age old tricks and practices of Hath Yoga are obsolete, out A thin strip of wet cloth- about 2 feet long is dipped in plain waterdated and not required today. Yet they are taught by many orthodox or saline. Then it is passed from one nostril and taken out from mouthYoga teachers. or the other nostril. Then by to and fro slow movements of the cloth strip, nose is cleaned. Yogis claim wonderful cures of recurrent colds Simple and useful Hath Yogas. and chronic sinusitis in some patients. It was a way of treating nasal Victory over taste of food, diet control for a day or two, partial colds which can be compared to scraping of nasal polyps by modernfasts, missing a meal, taking only fruits and/or only milk for a day or a E.N.T doctors. Some Hath Yogis can drink water, either by two nostrilsweek, remaining thirsty for twelve hours, and avoidance of some food or one nostril directly from a glass of water or some take help of aitems like salt, sour tasting foods, etc., are some simple Hath Yoga rubber tube placed in one nose.practices. Anybody can learn these and practice easily. They getestablished as good habits in the course of time. These should be 4. Tratak. Fixing eyes on a bright object.practiced first by parents and Gurus and then taught to children. A This is a popular trick of achieving very good concentrationwonderful faith and attitude of devotion to God or some noble cause is (Dhyana) of mind - which is the 7th step of Raj Yoga. Students arecreated by association of famous festivals and religious days and asked to look at some bright object - usually a candle, a bright lamp, orhistoric legends with such practices a fixed statue or a picture of deity God or in the eyes of Yoga Guru. Pranayam and Asana can also be looked upon as Hath Yoga to They are not supposed to blink any moment, even if tears run profuselysome extent. These are good for body health. But long term fasts done from the eyes.in the name of false religious beliefs upset and harm digestive organs This type of concentration of eyes washout any dust particles fromand other vital systems. eyes. It is claimed that "Tratak mastery (Sadhna)" imparts ability of Six well-recognized Hath Yoga procedures (Bandhas) are reading minds and thoughts of other people when a master is indescribed below. It is only for the purpose of general knowledge Tratak with some new student.and not for practicing. Some Hath Yoga procedures are described in 45
  • 54. Modern psycho-analysts and police officers know such tricks of Section: IIconcentration and looking into eyes. In Karate fights also, such Trataktricks are taught to students. Wandering sub-conscious mind gets fullyconcentrated upon the object observed. Yogis who have cultivated thisability can read thoughts of weak minded people, and can hypnotizeand influence them. Ashtang Yoga: In many sports Tratak helps to concentrate and win a game.Tratak means fullest attention and tuning of eyes, mind, intellect and 16. WHAT IS KUNDALINI AND AAGNA CHAKRA?complete alertness. All jobs requiring pin-pointed attention and fullestconcentration, like calculations of numbers, driving a car in heavy traffic (A scientific approach to above frequently used words inor an airplane, wrist watch repairing, fine painting, etc.,. get done Yoga study in light of anatomy, physiology and psychology).perfectly by Tratak and Dhyana practices. Part-1. Kundalini power means a three-tense time (tri-kal- 5. Nauli. Control of abdominal muscles. gyana) and place sense or perfect orientation of time-place. Two long strip like muscles run from chest to mid-pubic regionlocated in lower front of abdominal wall. They are called the Rectii What is Kundalini Power (Kundalini Shakti), which many Yogamuscles in anatomy. By mastering postural exercises of the abdominal teachers talk about?muscles, any student (Sadhak) can develop great will control over Some Yoga books and teachers describe Kundalini as a lotusthese muscles. He can then make them stand out forewords while the (Kamal Chakra) with thousand petals. Others indicate that theremaining part of abdomen is withdrawn. He can move the right and left lotus or Kamal Chakra is located in the heart region.rectus muscle separately and can churn his abdomen by rhythmic Kundal means a round ornament worn in ears. Secondmovements of these muscles. This trick removes gases and chronic meaning of Kundal is gold. A circular coiled up rope is also calledconstipation and gives gentle message to all internal abdominal organs Kundal.like Kidneys, Liver, Stomach, Spleen etc,. In Yoga books one finds description of three main nerves (Nadies) 6. Kapal Bhati. Forced deep exhalations. and some plexuses (Chakras) located in brain and spinal cord. Ida and This is a kind of very popular Pranayama, which is discussed in Pingla Nadies arise from left and right nostrils respectively and travel ththe 4 step of Yoga. This is usually done in sitting, but can be done in up towards brain. Then they descend in spinal cord. Susumna is thestanding position also. third Nadi located in spinal cord. It is described as a sleeping serpent After doing some rapid, short forced exhalations by using the with its tail located in pelvis or the lowest point of spinal cord andabdominal muscles and diaphragm, the student does one long and genital organs.forced exhalation. This expiration can be linked with foreword bending Susumna nadi also travels upwards to reach brain where it fansof body. Some Yoga postures of foreword bending can be combined out like thousand heads of a snake. This big head is referred to aswith Kapal Bhati. Kundalini in some Yoga books. Kundalini is the head or lotus like part Kapal Bhati is a good Hath Yoga exercise which needs to be of Susumna Nadi. Thus Kundalini is explained in different books withlearnt from a well experienced Yoga teacher. If done slowly while sitting different symbolisms and a new curious student gets confused. Theon a toilet seat, it helps to relieve gases and constipation. other names of Ida and Pingla Nadies are Chandra Nadi (Moon Nadi) and Surya Nadi (Sun Nadi) respectively. Kundalini arousing means developing mastery over all voluntary muscles in Body (Karma Indriyas) and also a few involuntary systems of body like breathing, sex desires, excretory functions, digestive organs, etc,. by Pranayama and some other 46
  • 55. tricks. Some Yogis are able to reduce or increase their heart rate Kundalini Awakening and use of Agna Chakra imparts abilityat will by such Hatha- Yoga tricks called Tapascharya. of mass hypnosis and one becomes a “Ganapati”. (Gana= mass of Kundalini Shakti (power) is understood by some as super people and Pati= master, boss or a leader.)human will power. Orthodox Yogis believe that when Kundalini isaroused a Yogi gets united with Universal God. Part-2. Please remember that this is not a correct thing or a true Scientific meanings of Kundalini and Agna Chakra.statement. It is not easy thing to develop Kundalini powers for allstudents and also not needed in regular daily yoga practices. We will now try to understand these words in the light of modern medical terms and facts of anatomy, physiology and psychology. What is Agna Chakra? In anatomy, the nervous system is divided into two main parts, A Chakra literally means a wheel. The Chakras are the locations namely voluntary and involuntary nerves. The Nadies and Chakrasin spinal cord where the 3 main Nadies- Ida, Pingla and Susumna could be looked upon as parts of voluntary and involuntary nervouscross with each other and/or from left to right. systems. Muladhara Chakra, the lowest Chakra is located in pelvis. It The voluntary nervous system controls all muscles of neck,regulates excretions (Upastha or Apana) like passage of stools, urine limbs and spine. The voluntary nerves are under control of will andand sex organs. It is the tail of Susumna Nadi. wishes of all persons. Manipura Chakra (Nabhi or Ganesh Chakra) is located in Navel The involuntary system is called autonomic nervous system.or umbilical region. It regulates intestinal movements, appetite, desire These nerves are usually not under the will control of any person.for food and water. It has two further sub-divisions. Manasa Chakra (Mind), Surya Chakra (Sun) and Kamal Chakra (1) Sympathetic nerves and(Lotus) are located in Chest and Heart regions. (2) Para-sympathetic nerves. Vishuddhi Chakra (Nad-Chakra, Shankha Chakra or Speech The ganglia of both groups form nerve net-works, called variousChakra) is located in throat and neck region. plexuses. They are located in brain and spinal cord. These are The highest Agna Chakra is located between two eye brows. called Chakras in Yoga books.It is symbolized in Puranic stories as the 3rd eye of Lord Shiva. Autonomic nerve ganglia control spinchtors of internal organs of digestion, heart rate, rate of respiration, excretions and sex organs. If a Only after development of Kundalini, a Yogi should try for the last worry-less peaceful state of mind is maintained the inner systemstwo steps of Yoga called Dhyana and Samadhi. At this point he might function normally and the person lives a long healthy life. This is theget divine inspirations or awakening of spiritual powers which give him aim of Yoga study and practices.ability of giving commandments like a prophet. He becomes a noblepolitical leader like Mahatma Gandhi or a spiritual leader and founder of In Anatomical terms, Kundalini could be looked upon as thereligions like Jesus, Moses, Mahavira, Buddha, Mohammed, Corpus Callosum part and nearby areas of brain. These look likeShankaracharya, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Swami Sahajananda etc.,. petals of a white lotus or thousand heads of a snake to nacked eyes when brain is opened. Through Corpus Callosum pass white fibers of Unfoldment of "Aagna Chakra" makes a person a Siddha- ascending and descending nerves crossing from right and left parts ofPurusha (Vibhooti), a great leader in any field. The elephant brain. Their cells are located in higher brain and spinal cord whichheaded Hindu deity God Ganapati is symbol of such a leader. A produce a network of millions of nerves. In this way right and the leftgood leader is respected by all people. People obey his hemispheres of brain, the frontal and occipital (back) lobes, mid braincommands. Leadership brings self esteem and prosperity. Siddhi and spinal cord are connected like net work of a gigantic telephoneand Riddhi (success and wealth) are two wives of Ganapati. exchange. Through Corpus Callosum area run afferent and efferent nerve fibers which carry messages to and from brain cells and spinal cord. 47
  • 56. When sliced like a bread, the Corpus Callosum and nearby brain area The diaphragm is a dome shaped muscle plate. It separateslook like a lotus to naked eyes. lungs and heart located in chest from abdominal organs like liver, Human body is equipped with a wonderful nervous system. Today stomach and intestines. It has a double nerve supply, thethe exact functions of different areas of brain which control body’s voluntary nerves from near by spinal nerves and involuntaryvoluntary muscles, speech, sight, and thoughts are fairly well known to nerves from the Vagus (the 10th cranial nerve). This nerve startsmedical science. Autonomic nerve centers are located in medulla from brain and ends in sex organs. It controls blood flow in sexoblongata, which is a part of brain stem connecting Brain and spinal organs in both sexes during sex activity.cord. They control all vital systems like respiration rate, blood pressure,heart rate, body temperature etc. The rate of respiration and heart, all digestive sphincters and movements of intestines are regulated by the balancing actions of This mid-brain area function like a computerized subconscious parasympathetic nerves like Vagus, sympathetic nerves, and hormonescontrol room of respiratory, excretory, digestive, reproductive and like adrenaline etc.,. The muscles of bronchi in lungs, spinchtors ofcirculatory systems. These systems are referred to as five Maha- stomach, bile duct, bladder and anus are regulated by autonomicPranas (vital systems) in Upanishad texts. nerves. The words used for these vital systems are Prana, Apana,Vyana, Udana and Samana respectively. In fire rituals (Yagnas) Sex desires (Kama) arise in mind from sight of sex parts orHindu priests chant these five words and speak SWAHA, SWAHA smell of perspiration of opposite sex in all animals (includingafter each word, without understanding of any meaning of these human beings) during reproductive age period. They are conductedwords, or the significance of the fire ritual. to brain via olfactory nerves (Ida and Pingla Nadies). The real fire is the body-heat and curiosity of learning new ideas. Similarly the secretions collected in seminal vesicles and prostateWhatever we eat is converted into body-heat by these systems. All glands, arouse sex desires. The change of erection occurring in malethese five vital systems work in harmony, if we do not worry, do not sex organs is regulated by the Vagus nerve. Kundalini and Agnahave any tensions and keep peaceful mind. Chakra decide proper time and place, and teach denial of sex act at improper time, wrong place and student age period. This can be looked Blood circulation to different organs occur according to their upon as Chakra Bhedan of Muladhara Chakra. It means gaining controlneeds by automatic adjustment of heart and respiration rates. or mastery over the organs of passing stool and organs of sex activity.Brain cells and Nerve cells of autonomic nervous systems are greatly God could be understood as a maker of all wonderful organsinfluenced by smoking, alcohol and many drugs. Chemical substances in body. We hardly think (meditate) about such wonderful gifts oflike calcium, potassium, sodium and internal secretions like insulin, God and the amazing internal functions.male and female hormones, pituitary hormones, adrenal secretions,thyroid etc., also regulate internal systems and general metabolism. If Kundalini could be understood at three different levels.mind is peaceful the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and 1. At body level we can easily understand it is awareness of achemicals work in perfect order, harmony and balance. full urinary bladder and stool in rectum. Its control means diaper The parasympathetic nerve centers are located within the brain training in childhood, and ability to with hold these desires for someand spinal cord, whereas the sympathetic centers and ganglia are time till proper rest room is found. As one grows old, one learns tolocated outside the brain, skull and vertebral bodies. Two chains of control desires of hunger and thirst arising in stomach and abdomen.sympathetic ganglia run by the two sides of vertebral bodies in neck, Control of sex desires (Vasana, Vrutties) is celibacy. When any personchest, lumber and sacral regions. is able to control such natural animal urges and functions, he has The adrenal glands in abdomen are the biggest sympathetic mastered Muladhar-Chakra and Ganesh or Nabhi Chakra.(Chakra) ganglia. They secrete adrenaline which regulates the tone of 2. At average human beings mind level. By meditation andblood vessels and maintains normal blood pressure. The Manipura religious training, one learns to control rate and depth of breathing andChakra of Yoga books could be looked upon as different ganglia desire of speaking. Gradually one learns to conquer the likes andin abdominal region. dislikes of smell and taste of different food items. 48
  • 57. 3. At psychological level. By practicing meditation in the higher Manushyanam Sahatreshusteps, one learns to control animal emotions like anger, jealousy, Kaschit yatati siddhayahates and selfish desires. The 4th step of Pranayama immediately Siddhanam api sahatranammakes the mind thoughtless and peaceful. It helps to induce sleep, and Kaschit mam vatthi tatvatahaend worries and tensions. Prayers and the simple method of OM (The Gita Ch-VII- V-3).chanting cures many psychosomatic diseases and insomnia. By meditating upon past experiences and use of higher intellect, “Only one in a thousand tries to get some material successgreat discriminative ability develops. It is called wisdom (Pragna). A (Siddhi) in life, and out of such thousand successful Siddhas onlywise man is called Pragna-Chakshu person. Higher meditation for one knows ME (God) perfectly”.Samadhi should only practiced after mastering first seven steps. Bahunam Janamnam ante Gyanvan mam Prapadyate. KUNDALINI POWER MEANS A THREE-TENSE TIME (TRI-KAL- “After many lives only one person can touch me by the pathGYANA) AND PLACE SENSE OR PERFECT ORIENTATION OF of self-knowledge”TIME-PLACE. (The Gita Ch.VII-18) When a student (Sadhaka) reaches the seventh step of Dhyana, awonderful awareness and the art of perfect attention in doing the Remember the meaning of the word Siddhi.present job or learning new skills develops with some practice and It means material successes like victory in war, sports, financial, orexperience. political achievements, getting name and fame in any field like music, Never become a hypnotized disciple of any Indian Guru or dance, acting, knowledge etc.,.any religious teacher. Remember that he is also a mortal humanbeing just like you. A religious teacher is supposed to teach goodmorals like truthfulness, honesty, nonviolence etc,. He can also giveyou worldly knowledge like all teachers in schools and colleges. The self-knowledge (Adhiyatma Vidya) can be learned by self-study alone. A non greedy teacher who has studied scriptures like theGita and some Hindu Upanishads can teach a few points about moralsof religion. These teachings ultimately lead to understanding of equalityof all non-living and living beings and universal creations, their qualities(Goona) limitations and bondage of Time-Space etc,. Remember that No Guru can ever show you God. It is a wrong belief that a Guru is needed for seeing the God.One has to do his or her own efforts and study of Yoga inscientific manner. Never spend money for so called spiritual Guru’sclasses which ask for donations for building temples or Ashramas inIndia or costly audio and video tapes. They are Half-Self Realizedmisguiding teachers. The following Gita verses give statistical figures of a trueGuru. Such a person is one in a million. It is rare to find a trueYoga Guru, who has seen the God’s Light. 49
  • 58. Section: II and should not be practiced by any intellectual person. Long term fasts weaken digestive and other vital organs. Short term fasts are good for every body. Children trained in this manner during young age remain calm and can bear hunger easily for few hours and days in adverse circumstances. Ashtang Yoga: Various Diet practices are dictated in many religions. Religious fasts are linked with many holy events. People observe them with great 17. DIET AND YOGA faith. They remain hungry and thirsty for weeks. Such fasts are followed by feasts and celebrations. In the month of Ramadan (in Yukta-ahar Viharah ch Yukta Karmacha Chestasu, Islamic calendar) devoted Moslems observe strict fasts during day time Yukta swapnavabodhascha Yogo bhavati dukhkhaha. and break them at night. In India the Jains observe 24 hours Gita; Ch-VI-17. continuous fasts for 8 days during Paryushana week, in monsoon "Proper diet, proper movements (from one place to another), season. Hindus observe fast of one day on a fixed week or a fortnightproper actions (Karma), proper gestures and expressions (on face, day.speech), proper dreams (goals) and correct knowledge of self liberates The aim of Yoga study (and religion) is to live a healthy, happya person from many unhappy situations in life". and active life, with good name and fame. Yoga prepares a student to Body, mind, Intellect and Ego. achieve all above goals by correct training of body and mind. Bhumiraponalovayu kham mano buddhirev ch A Yogi achieves many successes (Siddhies) during 100 years of Ahamkarm eetiyam may bhinna prakruti ashtadha. life, spiritual upliftment leading to Moksha or Nirvana in later years and Gita- VII- 4. vision of God. There is voluminous literature on the subject of Yoga Lord Says: "From different 8 elements of mother nature (prakruti), and Hatha-Yoga in English. One will find about 50 books on thisnamely, Earth (Food), Water, Air, Energy (Agni), Space, Mind, Intellect subject in any average library in USA. Every author has his ownand Ego - I have created physical bodies and mental make up of all understanding of this complex subject. He presents and teaches in theliving human beings. way he has learned from his Guru (teacher) or from some ancient Annad Bhvanti Bhutani. Gita Ch-III-14 scriptures. Physical bodies of all creatures are made by food. All living beings Many Yoga are described in the Gita. They teach correct mentaldepend on proper food, water, air and energy. If some one over-eats, attitudes and duty bound actions. By learning and doing correct actionshe/she becomes fat, and not strong; and if one starves, he/she looses (Karma Yoga) an ordinary person becomes an extra-ordinary person, astrength and normal health. Physical strength depends on muscle noble soul, a divine angle or a super soul (Vibhooti).mass, power and condition of mind and energy obtained from food.Knowledge of proper food items in Yoga practices means Yoga of Body More vegetarian foods, plenty of fruits, developing control of theand Mind. taste and smell of foods are a few early vows needed in Yoga study. Short fasts and feasts are good for health. Choice of food items, taste, quality and quantity of food,short term fasts, missing one meal in a week, taking only fruits for Attend regularly religious meetings and share food as gift of Godfew days, remaining thirsty for few hours are some simple (Prasadum) in groups. This is Yoga of divine food and diet. Proper goal(Tapascharyas) Yoga practices. These should be practiced by the oriented dreams and correct actions to achieve them are advised inparents and taught to their children. Linking them with holy events Gita.creates a divine will power. Long term fasts of weeks and months are practiced by many JainYogies and their followers. Physiologically these are wrong practices 50
  • 59. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. Yama is an imaginary deity God of Death in Hinduism. Knowledge and practice of Yama and Ni-Yama guidelines postpone death (No-Yama) and bring good mental and physical health. Beside fear of death, people live in many worldly fears, like loss of money, loss of job, loss of high political position, old age and diseases, etc. Such 18. SANATAN DHARM IN YAMA NIYAMA fears create tensions and worries. “Santoshat Param Sukham”. But moral advises always need Lesson 1. Yama niyama & Sanatan Dharm some practical examples. Following short story explains the correct Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. meaning of word Santosh, preached in Niyama. Lesson 3. Yoga is science of self study (atmagyana or Most people are always unhappy even with their present good swadhyay) and art of living a divine perfect life. situations in life. On Sunday if there is hot Sun, they complain it is very hot. On a cold Monday, they want a hot Sun. In a Lesson 1. Yama Niyama & Sanatan Dharm rainy season they want clear sky, and in summer they want Rain. Yama is afraid of Niyama. If one wants to keep Yama (Death) Some people have got everything in their life and family, inaway, Niyama (No-Yama) must be observed. material terms. The following event will explain this mental The first two steps of Yama and Ni-Yama teach “Ten Eternal attitude of ever dis-satisfaction, worries and tensions. TheyMorals” or Sanatan Dharm”- the correct name of Hinduism. Morals are are never Satisfied with what they have got Today.like Eternal good guiding principles. They apply at all Places, at allTimes in all countries. Such preachings are observed in all worldreligions. During one of my trip of India I met an old school friend after 30 years. I will refer him as Mr. Santosh Kumar. He kept C grades in our "Shariramadyam, khalu Dharma sadhanam". class. But by divine grace he inherited a million dollar worth business Good health of Body is the first and most important thing for all and estate of a childless distant relative.religious practices (Dharma). He got married to a beautiful good nature girl and had three grown Most Indian Yoga Gurus, Yoga books and Yoga schools in USA up sons, all married by now. His well-educated sons had taken over allmainly teach Body postures or Asana, a few Breathing Exercises and responsibilities of businesses and estates. His two grown up daughterssome age old tricks of meditation. The third step of Yoga Asana were studying in medical college. I had learned about his weath andteaches “Different Postures” to preserve good mobility of all joints for family from a common friend.good health of body. We entered in a nearby café and I congradulaed him for his Before we learn Asana, let us summarise practical message of present status and family. In reply he tells me following story.Yama and Niyama. In later five steps we will learn how to liberate Mind "Oh my friend, dont ask me anything. Life is very miserable. Theand Intellect (Buddhi) from material attachments and develop last week was a hell of experience and the worst time in my life”.concentration (Dhyan) in present job, unfold spiritual self and Self I was shocked and thought something serious must haveUpliftment by meditation. happened in Mr. Santoshi’s life. Karma Yoga (Gita-Ch-3) teaches how to achieve material He said. "My eldest son Puranchandra has four daughters. Hissuccesses (Siddhies) and enjoy material happiness at youth age pregnant wife was admitted in hospital fifth time, for delivery. Doctorperiod. Money and Material pleasures are not denied in Yoga Study. told she needed a C-section. We were worried. But the operation went Truth and Non-violence are first two words in the step of smooth and a grand son was born. For last 4 day I have not slept,Yama. By observing truthfulness and nonviolent attitude one becomes because I was busy delivering sweets to relatives for the birth of a sona good person in any society. in family”. All world religions preach these two important religious doctrines. He continued his story without a pause. “Yesterday the war “Don’t Kill and Speak the Truth”. between India and Pakistan ended. We had expected a crash in share 51
  • 60. market and great loss. I was in great tension. But my second son 2. Think and Meditate about only Todays important jobs andRamesh told me that we had made a good profit of half a million. But obligations.now we will have to pay 50% in the taxes”. Save time by avoiding fruitless talks and chit-chatting. Give an “While I was worried about this tax problem, my daughter Shila order of priority (ak-agrata). Make a list of jobs to be done and points tocame home and introduced to me a smart and handsome boy of other be discussed with friends, relatives and other people. Do not postponecaste, studying with her. She wanted to marry Him. We were in search important jobs for tomorrow, if you can do them ‘today and now’.of a suitable match for her since last one year. But this news shocked 3. Punctuality. Keep a perfect Time sense. Niyam meansme. How she can finalize her life partner without my consent?” Punctuality. Try to be punctual at all jobs and meetings. A daily time- “You see my friend, I am most miserable person living in hell table, according to one’s job needs, can be prepared. But the mosttoday. I dont know what will happen to the newly born grand son, how important thing is to adhere to it. Punctuality means sense of time.we will pay the taxes, and worried for my daughter’s choice of life Lord Shiva is God of Universal Time. Maha-Kaleshver. This ispartner. Will she be happy with the boy whom we dont know at all? We most important requirement for achieving any social, economic orwill have to arrange for Dowry and lot of marriage expenses". political success. After hearing above story of my friend I perfectly understood theexact meaning of the word Santosh preached in the 2nd step of 4. DIET. Drink about 20 ounces of Luke-warm water as firstNiyama. thing after getting up from bed. Take breakfast, lunch and dinner at proper times and avoid eating In fact all good events had happened in Santoshilal’s life during anything in-between. Yoga teaches how to conquer attachments ofthat week. Yet he was an ever dis-satisfied soul. taste, smell and look of food. Take pure and healthy foods, drink clean My grand daughter wants pizza from Pizza-Hut only, and any water and breath fresh air at all times.other pizza is “Yaki”. She misses Pizza while in India. When she is 5. Quit habits of smoking, alcoholic drinks and drugs.back from India, she wants “Pani-Puri” an Indian dish not easily Liberate SELF from such vices. You have no right to say you are aavailable in USA. liberated man, if you are slave of vices like smoking or drinking. What is Develop Good Food habits and learn to be Satisfied with any the meaning of the statue of Liberty in New York harbour?food. Does it mean one could behave in any manner as one likes? We Observe simple regulations of proper food, drinking habits, all live in bilateral family relations. Men and women are always inter-exercises etc., These are important for health. A daily time-table, dependent and never independent.according to needs be prepared, but the most important thing is to 6. Try to learn daily new skills like computers car driving,adhere to it. music, etc,. welcome new thoughts. Vegetarian foods and proper intervals between meals are simple During free times read books, magazines etc. Keep learningand easy Niyama. Observe proper timings of breakfast, lunch and curiosity alive and remain a busy student. Develop some creativedinner. Then health will remain in a fairly good and happy mood. activity and hobby. Never remain idle. Either Learn something orNiyama are best learned in a week’s well planned Yoga camp. Earn something, but don’t waste time. 7. MATRU AND PITRU KARMA. Parents are deity Gods near Lesson 2. Ten practical points for a happy life. by is preaching of Hindu Upanishads. Respect and take good care of mother, father, brothers, sisters, well-wisher friends, trust worthy For practical understanding of good manners (sad-aachar) relatives, and wise men in the neighborhood (Gurus). Also find time topreached in Yama and Niyama, I suggest a ten point formula for a look at the progress of children and remain alert about their company ofhappy healthy, successful and long practical life. good or bad friends. 1. Find time for Asana, Prayers, OM and Mantra Chanting and 8. Don’t smoke or talk while driving, and Don’t answerPranayama. mobile phones. Any accident can occur if attention is lost even for a These are health preserving vital rituals. Do them daily for about second. The law of “Fullest attention in the present Job or Karma” gets30 minutes, preferably in early morning. violated if you talk while driving vehicles like cars or airplanes etc. 52
  • 61. Any one can do one thing at one time. Do it best is the golden 4. If you can do tomorrow’s work today, then finish it TODAY.rule for material success. Keep record of thoughts and important works to be done in next Keep a pocket diary. Record good thoughts as they crop up hours, next day or week.in mind during days work. 5. Keep company of good friends (sat-sang) and keep ears, 9. Listen well. Maximum knowledge is gained by listening. Pay eyes and mind open.full attention (listen well) when others are speaking. If you do not Many good Niyama can be mastered by attending a week in aunderstand, do not feel shy in asking questions in a group. You can trust worthy Yoga camp, and by the study of Gita and good religiousbecome a good leader if you listen well. discourses. The symbolic meaning of elephant head Hindu deity GodGanasha (Ganpati) is a good leader. It suggests “Keep Big Ears like an Lesson 3. Yoga is science of self study and art of living aelephant and a Big head symbolizes- a man of great knowledge”. divine perfect life. (Atmagyana or swadhyay)Become a great leader with good knowledge of many subjects and helpothers is message of Ganesh. Yoga is science of Self study SWADHYAY (Atma-Gyana) and 10. SAT-SANGA. Remain in company of good friends and avoid art of living a Divine life.fruitless political and religious discussions with colleges having different Yoga is one of the six Hindu Darshans or philosophies belongingbeliefs. Try to attend spiritual discourses of well read teachers of all to group of Spiritual scriptures of India. Yoga has developed duringreligions, whenever possible. millenniums in Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism. The Upanishads An Upanishad Mantra says; (about 240), 6 Hindu Darshans and the Gita, all make this group of “Swadhyaya Pravachanabhyam ma Pramaditavyam”. spiritual scriptures. It is called Brahm-Vidya or Adiatma-Vidya. “Do not remain idle towards lectures and discourses of spiritualsubjects”. Try to attend such lectures at all times. This is called Sat- Brahma Vidya means knowledge of soul (spirit of life) in allSang. living beings. Biology is the correct translation of Brahm-Vidya. Keep Curiosity to learn and revise right or wrong beliefs about Yama and Niyama teach a well disciplined life-style. Body is like a religion, politics, sociology etc. Yoga teaches all these bycar. It needs daily service and good steering and breaks. Religious meditation and SELF knowledge.discourses provide daily or weekly tune up service of intellect andmind. The Correct meaning of popular word ATMA. Note that the above 10 rules and steps indicated are not difficult. The word Atma is commonly understood as Spirit or Soul. Let usNiyama form the basis of successes in present and all future times of first learn about different meanings of this most important word ATMA,life ahead. frequently used in many Indian religious scriptures. Remember Five Ps in Life. Most Gurus and 99.99 % Indian people understand the word Peace of mind, Atma as Soul or Spirit of Life. It is wrong. Patience (Dhiraj), Preservation of life (non-violence), In the Vedas the word Brahman was used in meaning of Spirit or Persistence of actions and Soul. Brahaman and not Atma is the correct word for Soul or Spirit. Punctuality. Atma, Chetana, Jiva, nameless That (Tat), Sah, Tatva, are the These 5-Ps bring every successes in life. different words used to mean Brahman (soul or spirit). In some scriptures the word used for soul is only pronoun ‘tat’ meaning “That”. Summary: 1. Keep perfect Time and Place sense. The Sanskrit word Atma is understood in four different meanings 2. Always Listen well. Learn something, or Earn something, during the millenniums of evolution of Hindu scriptures.but Don’t waste Time. 3. Find time of 15 to 30 minutes, for exercise and meditation,daily prayers, in morning, noon, and night. 53
  • 62. ‘Thesaurus’ of the word ATMA. Agyan (Tamas) means ignorance, lack of information. 1. Soul or Pure Spirit. A child is ignorant about names of many material things, and laws All Indian Gurus and scriptures that came up after the period of of society and country. Adults possess this average worldly information,Adi-Shankara (7th cent AD) understand and explain the word ATMA in but they have only superficial knowledge of all universal bodies andthe popular meaning of soul today. A yoga student has to search and perfect laws of Mother Nature. Agyana can be removed by company ofunderstand soul as a separate element from Body by Self-meditation. good teachers, spiritually enlightened souls, Buddha Jana andSoul is Divine, changeless, undying, unborn, immortal innermost spark Satsang.of life in living beings. It is easy to remove Agyana but it is difficult to remove Body + Soul = a living creature. Avidya. Body – Soul = a dead body. In Kathopnishad, a famous Upanishad, the word ATMA is used as 2. SELF: changeless soul. In the ending dialogue between Yama (deity God of This is correct translation of the Vedic word ATMA, and Not Death) and Nachiketa, (a curipus young boy), - Body is symbolized asSoul or Spirit. ATMA = Body + mind + Intellect + Ego + Soul. a Chariot, Five senses are the horses, Mind or Conscious Self is the rider (Arjuna). 3. Manifest Soul (Vyakta Atma). The reins must be in hand of Unbiased Unattached Intellect Any one living creature, an animal, a plant or a tree. (Krishna). Intellect must be the driver of all desires arising in Mind. The horses (senses) symbolize the five senses, namely, Ears, Eyes, 4. One living human being, one individual (Vyakti). Vyakta Tongue as taste organ, Nose and Skin. Mind is always filled withmeans manifest as opposed to Avyakta or unmenifest, formless, endless desires, (kama), fears (Bhaya) and emotions like Angers.invisible etc. These must be controlled by Intellect or Higher Mind. Albert Einstein declares that the Sun Light (Energy) is also fine Atma-Gyana (=Self Knowledge) teaches “Who am I?” as one matter particles (atoms) traveling in Universal Space at great speed.individual. These fine Atoms unite and make Air, Water and Earth. All visible living By Yoga Meditation one has to search an answer to this standard bodies and non-living objects like rivers, oceans and mountains arequestion. The union of ‘Body with Spirit’ and TIME-SPACE bondage of made-up of fine atoms.body can be understood by self-meditation only, and search of Divine He has proved by his famous equation of Relativity that “Time andSelf within. This leads to Self-realization and understanding of the Space” are relative concepts of human mind. If there are no materialperfect laws of Mother Nature (Prakruti) or God of Universe. bodies in universe, then there is nothing like “Time and Space”. The changes occurring in all physical bodies are perceptible with Yoga study removes - Avidya and Agyana of Atma or SELF. five senses which can be understood by mind and intellect in a Space-Agyana and Avidya appear like synonyms but they have different Time continuum. By deep meditation (Samadhi) one perfectlymeanings. understands that events like death and birth also occur according to Avidya means wrong information, incorrect knowledge, false perfect laws of God. Then the fear of death is gone forever.beliefs and wrong opinions, half knowledge etc,. Most people live with In ending words Yama says,Avidya- particularly, wrong and rigid (Jad) beliefs in religious field. This “There is nothing higher than divine soul (or self) within”.is due to a fact that most people do not study their own scriptures with Intellect (Buddhi) is the unique human ability not present inopen mind and in a systemic manner. animals. Intellect (Nyaya Buddhi) is the discriminative power by which Eastern religions declare that without Atma Gyana even a highly one arrives at judgment. It can be called common sense also. This iseducated person remains in Avidya and does many wrong activities the ability of reason or logic within all of us. But most people never use(sins) in name of Religion and God. True understanding of Religion and intellect in revising their wrong religious beliefs and remain attached toconviction about One Omnipresent God occurs to any individual their wrong religious beliefs for entire life.(Vyakti) by Self Realization in Yoga study. 54
  • 63. Yoga teaches how to use intellect for developing self-control Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES.(Sanyama), and will power of positive thinking. God Search andknowledge of true Religion comes only by use of Intellect and not byreading books. No human being is perfect. Beliefs regarding God and religionswill vary with all individuals. Ignorance and Idleness are ever present in 19. ART AND SCIENCE OF MEDITATIONall human beings. But there is a hidden spark of God Divine within allhuman beings. This God Nature or Good nature gradually unfolds by Article 1.Yoga meditation. By developing a helping nature and attitude of forgiveness and th Before we study the 5 Step of Pratyahara, let us learn somethingrenunciation (Tyag) of all Ego-centric desires (Vasana), instincts about Art and science of Meitation.(Vrutties) and Selfish attitudes (Swarthi Swabhav), any one can reachthe mental level, Nirvana. This was reached by all great religious Meditation is a mental exercise or “scientific way of thinkingfounders of past like Buddha, Jesus, Muhhamod etc,. and reasoning to find consciously, answers for “causes of effects seen and events occurring in daily life”. Speech and hands are important human “Karma Indriya” not The answers are confirmed by studying Karma done by self andpresent in animals. Karma are done by Body. Hands and Feet are most others, and meditating about events of past and present positions inimportant organs with which all human beings do their daily actions. life. Only a few intellectuals possess this faculty and achieve material Indian Yoga Gurus, books and Yoga schools in USA mainly teach successes, fame and prosparity (Siddhi and Riddhi)) in life.Body postures or Asana, Pranayama or Breathing exercises and some Out of such thousand successful people only a rare soul iswell-known tricks of meditation. interested in knowing Spiritual Divine Self (soul) within, the Eternal Religion (Sanatan Dharm) and God. Om Tat Sat. God Is Truth. Some Guidelines for Meditation. The student must find a quite isolated place. He will sit there with closed eyes in meditation posture for 30 mins to one hour in beginning. The student must remain physically and mentally fit, but isolated during meditation from friends and relatives. Start with chanting some Mantra, long OM, and a few Pranayama like MPs described in the 4th step, for few minutes. This will pacify wandering mind and create a void or ‘thoughtless consciousness’ for a few minutes. Observe this important psychological effect subjectively during Pranayama which is an entry step for higher Meditation. It works like a magic pill. Random thoughts cropping up in conscious mind disappear immediately. Mind becomes fresh and pacified. There is no need to pay high fees to Yoga Swamies, Saints, Babas and/or Pundits. Think by writing your thoughts about the present worrying situations of your life. Think about their causes, various possibilities and probabilities. You will soon find Right answers and correct plans of actions about solving all present problems and situation. A student has to try these tricks upon his or her self to experience and get convinced that mind does become thoughtless and pacified by 55
  • 64. such practices. Breathing is partly voluntary and partly involuntary vital During early sleep one sees vague dreams (Swapnastha mana).system of the body. When breath stops we all die. Pranayama develop During sound sleep mind is sleeping or is in a state of zero“voluntary control” over an involuntary physiological system and will consciousness. This is comparable to anesthesia. All voluntarypower. Before learning higher steps of Yoga a student must learn and muscles are relaxed and the person does not respond to externalmaster some Pranayama. stimuli of noise and mild pains. Thoughts in mind usually run after short term pleasures derived 5. Samadhi state of mind.from the five senses. When mind is peaceful, the higher mind or This is reached only by a few great prophets like Buddha,intellect (Buddhi) starts working in a positive manner. Waves of new Mahavira, Jesus, Mohammed or true saints in all countries of the world.thoughts and new ideas will start flowing in your conscious mind. The word Meditation needs correct understanding. There is great What is Yoga Meditation? misunderstanding about some key words. They are vaguely and poorly In Yoga Meditation the student searches answers to translated into English by Yoga Gurus or their English knowingquestions like “Who am I?, Where is God, What is true Religion disciples. Only a few common Yoga words are listed here.and its need in life- for days, months and years. By Self Meditation a student studies his body, mind, true and Exact or nearest English meanings of some Sanskrit andfalse Egos and conscious Self. The subject of study and the Yoga words.object of study is one and same- viz., ones own Self. Atma. This word is translated and understood as soul by most Yoga meditation starts with the 4th step of Pranayama and ends religious Gurus and also Indian people. The correct translation ofon reaching the 8th step of Samadhi. Pratyahara, Dharana and Dhyana ATMA is SELF and not Soul. The second meaning of Atma is ‘Oneare middle three steps and different zones of mind. The final aim of Living Individual’ or Vyakti. Most Indian Gurus translate Atma in senseYoga meditation is to discover Divine Pure Soul within, and unite with of Spirit or soul. Correct Sanskrit word for Spirit (soul) is Brahmanthe maker of Universe (God). Self realization by meditation is not as (Bios- as pure element, devoid of any matter).easy as it sounds. Mana = Mind. Psyche. Chitta is a frequently used word in Yoga books, Gita and Sanskrit Levels of Mind Consciousness in Meditation. texts. Its closest English word is sub-conscious mind. It is the second Five different levels of consciousness states of mind are described side of conscious mind like two sides of a coin. Chitta is like a “Store-for understanding Yoga Meditation. These states merge into one- House” of past memories (Smruti) or a Read Write Memory -Disc ofanother. They are not rigid water tight compartments. The terminology, human brain’s computer. In subconscious mind all past experiencesexamples, explanations, and meanings explained in different Yoga are stored as memories. When Chitta is not working properly onebooks, Gurus and teachers vary a great deal. forgets the sense of time-place, events of past, names of relatives etc. To understand these levels, imagine a 100 volts electric bulb This is called Amnesia (Chitta-bhrama), Dementia or Memory loss.regulated by a rheostat switch. It shines at 100 volts when full switch is Buddhi = Intellect. This is a unique human faculty not present inopen. Any other state is less than 100 % light are lower zones of lower animals. Intellect is the ability of logical thinking with data of pastsubconscious mind or Chitta. Total darkness is deep sleep or deep memories stored in Chitta. The religion of Buddhism is based upon useanesthesia state. of this ability of Human brain. During meditation this mental power is to The following description will help any intellectual student to be activated to its maximum limit.understand these levels. Ved, Gyana = Knowledge of material objects gained as past1. Conscious mind. (Jagruta mana). experiences with five senses. This is mostly Audio Visual information Perfectly waking normal state of mind during day time. recorded in Chitta. This provides a data-base for logical thinking,2. Sub-conscious mind. (Chitta or Ardha-jagruta mana). imagining and reasoning during meditation. Knowledge (Veda) means Randomly thinking and/or worried mind. simple memory (Smruti) of events of past life, presence of material3. Day dreaming or imagining mind. (Diwa-swapnastha mind). objects and their properties (goona). Thinking about past or future events.4. Dreaming mind or hypnotized mind (Tandrit mana). 56
  • 65. Dhayan means perfect attention in the present job of learning or Manan (Remembering and Speaking other’s thoughts) does notactivity. Dhyan is not meditation. Every Yoga Guru has his own create positive thoughts. There is no originality in talks of averageconcept, ways, notions and ideas about Meditation. priests who give religious lectures from verses of scriptures. They are Two Sanskrit words- Manan and Chintan must be well in business of religion for earning money and building their privateunderstood before learning more about meditation. The nearest English temples.word translation of Meditation in Sanskrit will be Chintan and notManan. Article 2. What is Manan The art and practice of memorizing a verse, a poetry, scriptural Manan. Manan and Chintan are quite different mental exercises.stories, or Math Tables in schools by repeated chanting and cramming The closest Sanskrit word for meditation is Chintan- very close to, butis called manan. Manan is a familiar practice to all public orators, not a 100% translation.actors, religious priests, politicians, and Yoga Gurus. Children Chintan is art of pin pointed thinking for finding hidden qualitiesmemorize math tables in schools by repeated chanting. within objects or effects perceived by five senses (Karya Karana Repeated chanting of short sentences (Mantra) like ‘Om Namah Siddhanta).Shivaya, Hare Krishna Hare Rama etc., or of long prose or poetry isManan. By reciting simple Mantras like OM, loudly or silently in mind, What is Chintan?agitated mind becomes pacified. Mantra Jap and prayers in groups in Science roots from Intellect and Chintan.religious places create temporary peace in worried minds. This works Sir Isaac Newton saw an apple falling from a tree. By constantlike a rubber eraser clearing shabby writings from a paper and making Chintan he discovered its cause - the natural laws of inertia, motionsit clear for new writing. All agitated minds become pacified, calm and and gravity. Re-thinking about some past event with a new angle isthoughtless for a short time by Mantra Jap. Constant Mantra Jap done also Chintan. Searching symbolic meaning of deity God’s idols, historyfor 10 to 15 minutes arrests vague and worrying thoughts and helps to of old monuments or a possible plan of future actions is Chintan. Theerase bad memories of events of past. Worries and tensions of the highest ability of human mind is intellect (Buddhi). Memory of pastpresent time get reduced or come to end for a few moments or events and perfect conscious state of mind and intellect are needed forpermanently. This well known time tested trick is used by many Gurus Chintan. This is called Kundalini Shakti or power. It does not develop inin India. For receiving a ‘Mantra’ from a Guru, ignorant disciples pay a day, a month or even years.lots of money to Indian Gurus. All kinds of Karma like walking, running, singing, playing some "WHO AM I?" (Adiatma-Vidya)musical instrument, clapping, dancing with music etc., also make mind Yoga meditation first teaches to look towards own Self. Bythoughtless. Then one learns how to direct the flow of vague thoughts constantly thinking about Self, the student tries to find an answer to ato a new event or another object. standard question "WHO AM I ?" The subject and the object of study is Manan is an age-old way for developing memory powers. By one and same- viz., ones own Self.repeated speaking, chanting or writing any one can remember long Adhiatma Chintan = Self Meditation, finding an answer to aparagraphs, phrases, slogans, verses and poetry or long passages of question “Who am I? What do I understand or refer to when I speak “I”?prose. Actors and lawyers who memorize dialogues do Manan. Yoga is a science of self knowledge (Atma-Gyan). ‘I’ is first personReligious students commit to memory verses of scriptures like singular pronoun in all languages. Sanskrit word for I is ‘Aham’, whichRamayana, Gita, Koran and Bible by Manan. Later on when they speak also means EGO. Removal of all false Egos and development ofwith emotions and acting, the audience is carried away in a zone of correct Egos is learnt by Yoga practices.religious trans. They become professional priests or popular story Some answers to the above question are given in scriptures. Theytellers (Kathakar) and earn great wealths. A few Swamies hypnotize are confirmed by observing own self in daily life. "I am a very smallrich people and turn them blind followers of their personal Guru faiths. living being. I am ever bound to a Zero Time and occupying ZeroThere are such countless Guru cults (Sampradays) in India Today. Space in Universe. I can be present only at one Place at one time on Earth; But I am also one Unique Unit within this perfect Universe. The 57
  • 66. bondage of Time - Place (desh-Kal), that apply to my body also apply forgiveness and compromises. Develop a habit of ‘Thinking withto all living beings on the Earth - a king or a beggar, any great priest, Perfect Sense of Time and Place’.Guru or a Satan”. Now answer these questions about your future. What will happen “I want to be myself”. "Be yourself" is a popular phrase in the to my property, family and city and the world when I die? Will it go onWest. Yoga meditation teaches exactly this particular subject. Yoga is without me? How big would be my funeral? How or in what manner Ian art of first knowing and than becoming ‘one-self’. Meditation creates would like to die? If I am given to choose a disease before my death,self uplifting positive thoughts and removes all negative emotions. If what choice I would make? If you know that you are going to dieYoga is studied with devotion it creates courage and self esteem. exactly after seven days what will you do? Write in your notes a few Meditation is not as simple as it appears in Yoga books and points about such a situation.classes of Yoga teachers. Devoted effort for five to twelve years is an There is a mystic or symbolic story in the Bhagvat Purana.average time needed to realize pure spiritual self and reach Samadhi. Parikshit, some ancient king in North India, gets a curse from a Saint’sEight Steps of Yoga are like a ladder. A student cannot jump to last son for his egoistic behavior with his saint father. The curse declaredstep in short time. He is advised to climb the ladder slowly step by step. that king will die on the seventh day by snake bite. Apply this message. to your own self. Yoga Meditation and Kundalini? The Gita declares a perfect law of God. Kundalini Shakti in Yoga study means ‘ability of thinking about, “Jatasyahi dhruvo mrutu”past, present and future events with perfect awareness and vision of Every born has to die”.sequence of past events in a time-place frame and awareness of the We all know this law, but we are not conscious of this law andorder of sequence’. behave as if we are not going to die at all. We make endless plans of future and forget this. “I can die today evening, or this very night. I may Write Your Own Auto-Biography. not see the morning of Tomorrow“. A simple and easy trick for meditation is to write yourautobiography. It is not difficult to write about memories of childhood,teenage, adult life and events like marriage, deaths of relatives,different job experiences, financial gains and losses etc., etc. Start with your birth date. Then try to answer these questions.How and when I came in this world and got this body? Had I any choiceto select my sex, beauty, physical fitness, nationality, race or religion? How small I am in universal dimensions of TIME and SPACE?How small I am in this village, city, country and globe earth. Whatchanges have occurred in my body after my birth in an ever changingendless show of universe?" What is my present age and how long I amlikely to live? Now think about dreams of childhood. Ask yourself if most of yourpast wishes and dreams of young age are fulfilled or become trueTODAY or not? Try to create in mind a perfect picture of remainingwishes and definite goals of future and ways and means of fulfillingthem. Make a short term plan of near future, which will be Tomorrow. This mental ability develops by regular practice of self-meditation.Unbiased Intellect (Buddhi) eliminates negative emotions like angers,greed, hate and jealousy etc,. Understanding of limitations and equalityof all human beings creates positive emotions of love, compassion, 58
  • 67. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. My Memories of Childhood. We were financially hard pressed in my young days. My father Kantilal died at his age of 19 years, when I was only six months old and my mother Sitaben was 17. In Hinduism a woman generally cannot re-20. SELF-REALIZATION - WRITE AUTOBIOGRAPHY. marry after death of husband. She remained widow for her entire life. She died in 1974. SAMPLE By Swami Dwiroopanand Born in 1869, (the birth year of Mahatma Gandhi) my grand-father (Dr H. K. Gandhi in Past Life!) Ambaidas Gandhi was an adventurous and successful business man. Old records indicate that he was running three firms in the year of his Part I. death 1910. One in Rangoon (Burma), second in Bombay, and third in Ahmedabad. After his death two firms were taken over by local Who are you? (Who Am I?) partners. If some one asks this question, what will be your answer? My grand-mother Roopaliba was a very beautiful but illiterate lady You will say I am Mr. Gandhi H. K. or Mr. George B.J. (Name). having no knowledge of business. Her second son Mangaldas had diedSomeone will say I am a “Doctor or an Engineer”.(Knowledge). Others at young age of 13 by drowning in a lake. She lived for 25 years afterwill say I am American or an Indian (Nationality). But in fact one really the death of my grand father and gave me wonderful love and moraldoes not know his or her true SELF or real “I”. support to my mother. Our Ahmedabad firm was managed by cousin Do you think that you really know your true self better than your brother of my grand father. He was made a partner by my grand father.spouse or kids and friends? No, you really do not know your true self. You will know it better after writing your own short biography in I see a dead body. (1934).your own hand writing and words. I present a sample of my auto- After the death of my father in 1925, Roopaliba managed ourbiography. You can also try and write a few pages in this manner. home until her death in 1934. I remember her beautiful Mona Lisa like face and immense love for me. Up to age of six years I used to sleep My Birth Date. with her. I remember all events of her death as if it occurred only It was the ‘Last Day of Universal Time’. Yet people called it yesterday. I was 10 years old. It was a moment of great grief and“TODAY”. When I have written all events of my past years and of sorrow for me and my widow mother. I remember I had cried for daysyesterday, my story will come to an end. It will be a day, called and months.“Today”. We all have memories of past only and existence at For the first time I was looking at motionless and speechless deadpresent moment. This law applies to every living human being on body of my loving grand-mother. Being the only male son in family, IGlobe Earth. was forced by relatives to walk to the cremation place on the bank of I was born on Nov.-16-1924 in Naroda, a village near city of river Sabarmati for performing final fire rites according to HinduAhmedabad, in Gujarat, India. I will write about my childhood, young custom. After her death our financial conditions worsened. It was aage and student days in school and college. I will write about my challenge for my mother to run home and arrange funds for my schoolmarriage, births of children and death events of family members and education and other needs. Her only hope and goal was my goodfriends. I will write about independence movement of India and part I cultural growth and education.played. I will write about my failures, successes and achievements and After the death of grand-mother in 1934, my mother wanted tolessons I learned. know details of business and annual balance sheet from the cousin Thus it is not difficult to write an autobiography. Only thing needed grand father. We used to receive only Rs. 25 ($4) per month from ouris your ‘will and desire’. Start with determination and continue in "A.C. Gandhi and Brothers" firm in Ahmedabad in 1934. Accounts andnonstop manner. Everyone has something to remember, share, enjoy any increase in monthly maintenance were denied by the managingand some story to tell, and some message to give to growing young partner. So my mother filed a court suit. It went on for next ten years.generation. 59
  • 68. Ultimately we had to make some compromise in 1944 and give up the and compassionate lady. Seeing a poor beggar she would give alms,right over the firm after getting some cash money only. clothes, food etc. When I retired from private practice, I converted my clinic into a My brave widow mother Sitaba. charitable medical center and created a charitable trust in her name in "Behind every successful man there is a woman". Most people 1981. But I had to close it within two years, for want of service mindedunderstand that this woman is wife. But now I understand that it is the doctors and devoted staff.mother and not the wife. Mother is the greatest teacher, living Goddessin the world, as our scriptures say. Wife enters the life of a man in late Marriage, children and family.twenties. By this time 90 % of the personality make up of a boy is After the death of grand mother, my mother Sitaba and me werealready formed, is very firm and not easily changeable. only two individuals in our home. So I was married on March-8-1943, A hand that rocks the cradle, rules the world. The cultural mind of due to wish of my mother and relatives. It was an arranged marriage bychild is molded more by the mother than the father. A good mother relatives. Mostly we stayed with joint family of four maternal uncles atgives love and a good father gives money for education and teaches Naroda. It was a village located 5 miles from Ahmedabad, now a partdiscipline. My mother Sitaba had played both the roles. She was very of mega-city of Ahmedabad. My maternal grand father Ishverbhai Patelstrict. She will not allow me to play in the street with other boys if I had was a leading farmer (Mukhi) in Naroda. It was a big and caring family.not completed my home work. She taught me truth and honesty, self I became father of first daughter Ila, in 1946, the first year ofrespect, endurance of hardships, but above all faith in God. medical college. My second daughter Varsha was born in 1950, the Sitaba faced many difficulties and hardships in her young age. But last year of medical college.her penance (Tapascharya) were rewarded in later life. She was a Let me explain, why I got married during my student age.fighter of truth and a woman of self-respect. She filed a court case to We have a custom of early marriages. I had passed with goodget our due share and money from grand fathers firm. In spite of grades in high school. Boys of my age were getting married. To add apoverty she was very hospitable and social. She always welcomed family member, moral support and help in the legal cases going on inguests and treated them well. Sitaba took interest in finding husbands the courts, my mother and uncles wished I should get married. Shefor her many nieces and daughters of many relatives. In India selected the girl and I got married without dating, arguments or protest.marriages are arranged by parents and elderly people and not by The moral support and good advice of my father-in-law Kunvarlaldating. Bapuji worked. All court cases got settled with his compromising I can never forget the discipline, devotion, love and care she gave attitudes, guidance and wisdom in 1944-45.me in young age. I will never be able to repay her debts. She hadraised me with great moral and financial support, which she received Part II.from her mother and four brothers in Naroda. She always guided meon the right path of family love and respect for the elderly uncles. I am always a student. She was very happy to see her five well educated grand-children I joined school at age of seven, but I have always secured Aat the time of her death (at her age of 67), in 1974. She suffered a grades in class from the start. My rank remained first or second in allshort illness of stomach cancer. My two daughters Ila and Varsha, who grades. Today in India and abroad I see three year old kids sent towere in America, rushed to India on hearing the news of her terminal K.G.. I feel piety for them. This is the age for playing. Parents wantillness. their children to become genius doctors like Doughy Houser and We moved from Naroda to Ahmedabad in our own bungalow on scholars like Einstein. But they forget that geniuses are born and notC.G Road in Ellisbridge area in 1961. She was very happy at this place made by sending children to school at very early age. Parents andwith her grand children. She did many religious activities. Now she teachers can only mold their characters by teaching good morals andstarted her pilgrimages and visited many temples of India. She has teaching history, maths etc.written a nice travelogue of her pilgrimages. Day and night she would I remember all the good grades in schools and colleges I scored. Ising devotional songs. Daily she would go to a nearby Shiva temple in was first in Ahmedabad center (among 42,000 students) in the highearly morning at 5 a.m. to offer prayers to Lord. She was a devoted school graduation test (Matric) of Gujarat State in 1941. I was first 60
  • 69. class first in biology- Intermediate Science (B-Group) examination of changeless soul within me is same. It does not change and myGujarat university in 1945 and third among all the students admitted to knowledge is ever increasing. These changes occur according to fixedmedical college in Bombay State of British India. Bombay State laws of God, but I was not aware of this in my young days and youthincluded districts of Sindh (today in Pakistan), Gujarat, Vidharbha, and period. All material things are constantly changing according to fixedState of Maharastra. laws of mother nature. This is nicely said in the following verse. I can never forget the days of economic difficulties (Tapas) that abright student has to face for getting education in early years of life. I Lords says:-had to get loans for books and fees from relatives and friends besides Mayaadhyakshane prakrutihi sooyete sacharaacharamsome scholarships from charitable institutions. I did part time jobs to Hetunanena Kaunteya jagat viparivartatecontinue my studies. Finally I graduated in medicine from K.E.M. The Gita. (Ch. IX- 10).Hospital, Bombay in 1950. I wanted to continue my studies and "I pervade inside and outside every (non-living and living- Jad andbecome a surgeon. But I had to give up my dream of surgery and start Chetana) object in the universe. Constant changes occur in the grossfamily practice in a village for earning money due to family needs, and bodies according to fixed rules (laws of mother nature - Prakruti) madefinancial responsibilities. and supervised also by ME". Economic conditions now improved. To fulfill my dream of This is an ever changing universe. All material bodies undergobecoming a surgeon, I enrolled as an external PG student in 196O fixed changes. A new born baby becomes a child, then a teenager, aafter 10 years of practice, at suggestion of my old friend Dr. P. P. youth, and an old man. The diseases and death also occur accordingMehta. He was a good teacher and popular physician of Ahmedabad. I fixed design of God. With spoken words and knowledge gained we canpassed M.S (part I) at the first trial. Regular students needed two or understand these changes. With our own eyes we can see, understandthree trials to pass this. I appeared for final part II in 1964 (after 3 and experience these changes.years). For the first time I failed in this exam. I know it was due to Once I was son of my mother and father, and grand-son of myincreasing practice, family responsibility and lack of time for studies. grand-mother. Then I was a student of many teachers (Gurus) in After coming to America I appeared for the E.C.F.M.G. in 1983. schools and colleges. After my marriage in 1943, I became a husband,My score was 66 % without great preparations. I joined computer then a father of five children. Today I am grand-father of 10 grand-courses, medical billing courses and income tax courses in USA to children. But I am still a young and curious student.learn the tax laws of this country. I always read new thoughts from any There is a blank unrecorded empty disk in every brain. There iscorner on any subject. But now I spend more time in reading and always plenty of room for new thoughts and new ideas. If you do notwriting on religious subjects. Because I know that if I dont give out my learn new thoughts and views of other people, and learn new skillsthoughts, views, and gained knowledge and personal experiences by every day, a good portion of your memory disk (called Chitta) everwriting or speaking on audio-tapes, my acquired knowledge will die remains blank. The following verse of great wisdom has alwayswith me. It is with this kind of self realization, I write books, magazines, inspired me during my entire life.booklets and short flyers since last 10 years. I have no aim of any Na chor choryam, na ch raj haaryamfinancial gains. I also do not know who will read my literature. But I feel Na bhratru bhajayam na ch bharkarilike writing and I write. This kind of attitude is described in the Gita as Vyaye krute vardhat ave nityam“NishKama Karma Bhav”. Vidya dhanam sarva dhanam pradhanam Hopes and dreams of bright future give courage and keep us "Knowledge is the greatest wealth of any individual. A king cannotalive. We do many activities (Karma) for survival, gaining knowledge, tax it, brothers cannot divide it, a thief cannot steal it, and it isprogress and getting financial prosperity for self and family members. weightless. But above all, knowledge is such a wonderful wealth that itBut we forget God until diseases, old age and difficulties arrive in life. increases by spending!".We are never conscious of the constant changes occurring in our body, Keep your mind, eyes and ears open and daily learn new things.mind, intellect, knowledge and ever changing human relations. Give gained knowledge to others who want it. Give it free, without With passage of time my gross body, places where I lived, expecting any rewards. Do not sell knowledge. Knowledge is God withrelatives and my economic conditions have changed. But the you and within your self. Vidya- education or knowledge is the greatest 61
  • 70. wealth of any individual. Give its benefits to others at all times. It will After marriage in India, my third daughter Daksha (M.A. born inincrease and not decrease. 1951) came to USA in 1978. Then my doctor son Pankaj (born in 1953) Learn new thoughts and remove wrong beliefs by self knowledge and his wife Kshama came to USA in 1980. In 1981, me, my wife(Atma-Gyana) and the Gita study in a scientific manner. Read the life Jashoda and youngest son Rupesh (born in 1963) came to USA.. Myand thoughts of all great men of divine vision like Jesus, Buddha and dream of 1958 became a reality in 1981.Mahatma Gandhi. Read scriptures of all religions like Bible, Koran, In 1981 I decided to close my practice and stay permanently instories from the Ramayan and Mahabharat etc. Remember that divine USA. with children. My will (Hath-Yoga) to come to USA was veryknowledge cannot be sold. This is Real Hindu Heritage or Vedic strong. According to our joint efforts and accumulated (Sanchit) Karmaculture. we (my family) were rewarded in 1982. Karma done by all the family Good thoughts must be propagated free without expectations members get accumulated. TODAY we all are in USA, a different placeof money or rewards. Develop your (Sad-Buddhi) unbiased than Ahmedabad or India. I do not know about tomorrow. The laws ofintellect to think with broad vision without any material Karma have worked so far. Joint efforts (Purusharth) of familyattachments. members are visible as progress, achievements of set goals, ALWAYS REMAIN A LIFE LONG STUDENT IS MY MESSAGE prosperity, and some failures also. But we should forget allFOR EVERYONE. disappointments and failures, and always keep positive attitudes. We are all fairly well set and happy in USA. We immigrate to USA. People staying in any country are like a big family. United hands I do not know why, but by some inner instinct I wanted to send all of the people of a country (national unity), lead to countrys prosperitymy children to USA.. That dream always remained in my sub- and progress. The attitude of caring, sharing and sense of sacrifice isconscious mind (Chitta). For the college education of growing children, called LOVE. Love is fostered by giving cultural training and moralwe moved our residence from Naroda to Ahmedabad in 1960. The discipline (religion). For family unity and prosperity leadership, correctstudent in me also was inspired. I also joined the medical college as decisions and right Karma by all family members are necessary. Itexternal part time student to fulfill my dream of becoming a surgeon. I brings joy and happiness to all members.failed in my last examination of surgery. But I was able to give best Hinduism is not an organized religion. But it is a worth studyingeducation to all my children in the colleges located in our area. To age old culture and heritage. It has many Scriptures, and Stories ofachieve this duty bound goal, I daily drove 15 miles two ways, two practical messages of true religious life (Kul-Dharma) for happy andtimes to run my well established practice of ten years in Naroda area. I united family living.continued this life style and driving for next 20 years, until I closed myclinic in 1982. Part III. The dream of sending my children to USA became a reality in1972 when my eldest daughter Ila graduated in pharmacy as first class Memories of medical practice.first student in her college. She got the 3rd preference Visa for USA. After my graduation in 1950, I started first private practice in theShe was my first child who came to USA. One by one, other children city of Ahmedabad which I shifted to Naroda within six months. Ifollowed. practiced at this place for next 32 years, from 1951 to 1982. (TIME- Sweet and sour memories of joys, difficulties, separations and PLACE BONDGE).reunions are linked with the years between 1972 and 1980. My second Economic conditions improved in course of TIME. There weredaughter Varsha (Dentist) and her husband Mahesh Patel (Ph.D. in successes and failures in profession and other businesses, which Icomputer engineering) had immigration problems due to our ignorance tried. I have mentioned earlier that I wanted to become a surgeon. Itof immigration laws. After studying Immigration Laws from this was my dream of college days. In 1957 I tried to enter into politics,experience, I wrote my first book on immigration laws of USA. in simple contest an election and become a congressman. Sometimes I thoughtGujarati language to help average people. A medical doctor wrote a of leaving medical practice and start business of building construction,book on immigration laws of USA, without going to any law school. pharmaceuticals and radio dealership and so on. I became a partner in 62
  • 71. a radio-agency and a pharmaceutical company. But I lost money as I by honest tax payers and the healthy people. A complicated billingWAS A SLEEPING PARTNER. I had no knowledge of those trades. system and many text books of availability of benefits have emerged. I had many dreams and plans of becoming rich in a short time in One most important factor in mental healing of a patient is sacrificed,the early days of my slowly growing medical practice. No plan worked. viz.,. “the doctor patient relationship and faith in doctor”. This vitalOnly my medical knowledge was rewarding me slowly but steadily. element has practically disappeared. For 32 years as medical doctor, I have treated hundreds and Our patients were highly satisfied with what ever we gave. Ifthousands of patients. Naroda in those days was a central bigger something went wrong, there were no mal-practice law suits. Except forvillage between 30 surrounding smaller villages. During first ten years I an occasional mishap, due to drug reaction or non-availability of properwas the only qualified medical doctor in this area. drugs, our overhaul results were fairly good. We were respected like I had to make home visits to villages within range of 20 to 30 angles (living Gods), by the families, our patients, and the villagemiles, at nights, in rainy seasons, and during hot summer days of community.tropical climate. The facilities of transport were poor. During early I have forgotten the memories of thousands of patients and theiryears, I used bicycle, then a two wheeler motor cycle. In 1957 only, I illnesses. But all my patients remember me as their savior. My patientswas able to buy my first second-hand car for Rs. 1700. I used it for next had great faith in my (little) knowledge and in my honest practice. Faith8 years. Some people could not afford fees for car expenses so they in the words of a family doctor is a very important factor in healing andbrought their bullock carts. I had to accept this method of transport and recovery from sickness. This I have experienced in thousands ofmake home visits in surrounding villages nearly daily or on alternate cases. It was not my medicine nor the diagnosis, but their faith in medays. was the greatest factor in their cure. If a doctor treats his patients with As required by the need of local people, my office hours were from devotion and care, the memories of a doctor always remain8-30 a.m. to 1-30.p.m. first session; and 5-30 p.m. to 9-00 p.m. as permanently engraved in minds of his patients. This is the greatestsecond session. I used to treat nearly 100 to 150 patients per day, earning of any doctor. I think and believe this after my experiences andseven days a week. (Only half day holiday on Sundays). It included all conviction after 32 years of family practice.types of cases, medical and surgical, children, adults, gynecology, Once I was visiting my nephew in Chicago, who had moved in hiscases of delivery, ophthalmology and orthopedics, burns and injuries new home. An Indian neighbor came to meet me.and what not! We had to make a quick clinical judgment, and treat the "Dr. Uncle, do you remember this young guy? He is from our placecase immediately with whatever medicine was available. Naroda". My nephew asked. There was no medical insurance system. There were no "No, I dont remember" I replied.pharmaceutical drug stores in Naroda. We examined patients and gave The visitor said, "Dr. Uncle, You can forget me but how can Iall the medicines from our clinic. My fees were only One Rupee, for forget you. I am Ramesh, son of Krishnakant Joshi. You were ouradults and 50 paise (cents) for the children. We charged Rs 2 to 5 for family doctor for many years. I had tuberculosis in childhood. Myinjection shots. Home visits charge was Rs. 3/- during day time and Rs. parents had lost all hopes of my survival. But you had cured me from a5/- during night hours. There were no separate consultation fees. serious disease. Whenever my mother brought me for shots, I used toEverything was included in the fees for medicines dispensed from the cry at the top of my voice, abused and cursed you. It created anclinic. atmosphere of a thunder storm in your clinic. But you have given me a When I compare this style of medical practice with the prevalent new life. When Deepak (my nephew) informed me that you weremedical system in foreign countries like USA, Canada and UK, etc., I coming here, I wanted to meet and see you after 25 years andfeel that we did a far better job with less equipment, fewer diagnostic apologize for the misbehavior of my young age".tools and limited transport facilities. Today the practice of medicine in It was a moment of great surprise, unexpected joy and divineadvanced countries is getting more and more complicated by the entry happiness for me to meet that naughty boy Ramesh and see himof intermediate agencies like the health insurance, HMOs and healthy and well placed in life. I recollected immediately the memoriesMedicare systems. The patients pay premiums in advance for receiving of his abuses, mischievous behavior and the drama he used to createtreatment in future, but the doctors also pay premiums for mal practice in my clinic. To see such a patient healthy after 25 years was alaw suits. Ultimately the costs get accumulated, and the burden is born moment of great joy, and a sense of satisfaction and pride. There were 63
  • 72. no ill feelings in my mind either then or now. I believe that the true social, legal and other difficulties we faced to bring this high school toearnings of a doctor is to see such cured patients and the sense of its present status.gratitude and joy of life on their faces. Now I will record some of my I had ever remained active in educational field during my medicalpublic life and social activities. practice. The high school in Naroda area was started in 1958. It has grown into a big tree having classes from K.G to 12th grades. It has I start a new branch of IMA. nearly 3000 students, and the classes run from KG to early college After a few years of practice, I have always remained active in grades.medical politics and activities of Ahmedabad Medical Association; and At this point I wish to pay my respect and tributes to its firstlater on in the Naroda Medical Association, a branch of Indian Medical principal Mr. V. D. Chandarana. He was an average school teacher inAssociation (IMA). Once I was Jt. Secretary in Ahmedabad, a branch of nearby Sabarmati high school. I invited him to join our budding highIMA, having nearly 1500 members. I was active on its Working school. We gave him fullest freedom and tried to meet all financialCommittee for five years or more. needs. We agreed with his all reasonable and good decisions in the Doctors staying and practicing in Naroda area were not able to interest of students and community. I have learned from thisattend the clinical meetings held during the night hours in Ahmedabad. experience that when the trustees of a charitable institution give suchIt was a distance of 15 miles. So I decided to start a new branch of freedom to a visionary teacher, he works with his fullest devotion andIndian Medical Association in Naroda area. I took the initiative and zeal. The institution grows, prospers. All are benefited in long run.enrolled nearly 40 members. We started an independent NarodaBranch of Indian Medical Association. I became first founder president Part IV.of Naroda branch of IMA. I remained active in its growth and all itsacademic, humanitarian and social activities until I came to USA. My Social public-service Activities and memories of Naroda This activity brought unity, harmony and friendship among the Lions Club.medical community in Naroda area. It helped us to solve local God gave me a chance to serve the community from which I wasproblems and was very instrumental in avoiding unfair competition. We earning. A new Lions Club, a branch of Lions International was startingarranged regular clinical meetings by inviting leading doctors from in Naroda in 1970. It gave me many good friends and opportunities toAhmedabad. We learned many new things in fast developing medical serve people. I joined it as a Charter Member. Then I became itsscience. We arranged family gatherings of local doctors. Once I treasurer, secretary, and president in 1975. I visited Lions Internationalbecame the vice president of the Gujarat State branch of IMA. head quarters in Chicago during my first visit of USA. in 1976- the year of bicentennial celebrations of Americas independence. I have My Educational activities in Naroda. memories of Mr. Reagan loosing the presidential nomination against There was no high school in Naroda. I had faced great difficulties Mr. Ford in the republican party.during my student days for high school education. I had to waste nearly Naroda was rapidly transforming into an industrial township. There3 hours daily in going to and coming from school. I had to walk daily a was no maternity facility or ambulance service. Delivery casesdistance of three miles, and travel by train or bus from Naroda to requiring emergency treatment were at great risk. Under the auspicesAhmedabad. My eldest daughter Ila - now 12 years old- was facing of Lions Club we started a maternity facility and a free polio vaccinationsimilar difficulties for going to a high school in Ahmedabad, during the center. Both these projects are nicely running today. We arrangedyears 1957-58. every year free diagnostic camps and sometimes Free cataract I believed in giving the best education to my children, children of operation camps. Naroda Lions club started an English medium schoolrelatives and all the people of Naroda. So I took an initiative and for the Non-Gujarati Indian families working in different industries.started a non-profit charitable education trust with the co-operation of During these years (1970 to 1981), I became close friend of alocal people in 1958. We collected donations and purchased a good devoted Lion, Mr. Himatlal Shah. His noble nature always inspired me.plot of land. The high school was started with five classes and 250 We worked hand in hand during all humanitarian projects and activitiesstudents. I have memories of fund raising projects, its growth and many of Naroda Lions Club. He was general manager of the Ruby coach builders. In the year 1981, one communist minded worker assassinated 64
  • 73. this divine soul. Mr. Himatlal Shah was a friend of poor and ever Baroda, Cambay, Anand and sometimes at holiday resort places. Thehelping brother of all Lions. He was a living angle of kindness, love and local Ahmedabad group started regular monthly dinner meetings anda true servant of suffering humanity. In a small matter of trifling family gatherings. I remained its permanent president, secretary anddemand, not agreed by the management, the murderer entered his treasurer without any funds to manage. This activity continued for nextcabin with liquid thinner, threw it on Mr. Shah, and ignited fire. He was 15 years and all loved it. It brought many friends and families close.burnt alive in his office. He died within a few minutes on the spot. This Some friends became in-laws when their children started knowing eachdivine soul died performing his duties like a martyr on the battle field. other, dating and got married. I had always doubts regarding the mercy and omnipresence of Sorrowful memories of many friends who died during these yearsGod. It was a day of great sorrow and mourning for his wife, my family are also with me. We were able to help their children and widows inmembers, all the Lion members, friends and entire village of Naroda. I many ways, financial, legal and medical problems. I will not recordhave dedicated my first religious book Egos and Desires to this true these events. But I record one sad event of the death of one Inter-LION, a true Jain, and brother of my past birth, Mr. Himatlal Shah. He Science group friend, Dr. K.G. Mehta. He was a busy family physicianwas a family member for my children and a brother, friend philosopher of Ahmedabad. He would leave his home in the morning at 6. a.m. andand guide for me. He was younger than me in age but he was my Guru return at mid-night. This was his routine for 360 days of a year. No rest,in many social and economic matters. He was a true Lion, an no vacation, only devotion to duty and work.inspiration for all Lion friends and all who came in his contact. One day KG got a minor heart attack but with God’s grace recovered from the first attack. He reduced the pace of work. Now oft Re-union of old college friends. and on for check up he would visit our common friend Dr. P. P. Mehta The memories of friendship of school and college days are always (MD.). Dr. P P. Mehta was a famous teacher, physician and a leadingselfless, divine and cherished at all places. The story of Krishna and cardiologist of Ahmedanbad.Sudama tells us such inspiring messages. I do not remember names of Dr. KG. was once on the examination table in the office of Dr. PP..many school friends, but the memories of many college friends are Cardiogram machine was recording heart beats. Everything was fineever in my heart. and within normal limits at the start. Both old friends were chit chatting In 1964 I started a re-union of the old class friends who studied in about medical politics of the city. But in a fraction of second, DR. PPthe Inter-Science class of Gujarat college in 1945. With the help of noted unusual waves suggesting ventricular fibrillation (Heart changessimilar minded friend, Mr. P.M. Patel, we prepared a list. Mr. Patel had before death). Before KG could speak a word, and PP could doworked as police officer in the crime branch of Bombay for some years. anything, heart of KG stopped for ever. When the news were disclosedAfter division of Gujarat and Maharastra States in 1958, he had to family members and friends, no body was ready to believe it. Theresigned from a good government job, and started a packing industry death of a healthy doctor in this set of circumstances was impossible.of his own in Naroda area. Today when I reflect upon this event, I can only say that the One day we were gossiping about old friends- who is where and PLACE and TIME of death (destiny) of Dr. KG. Mehta was pre-writtenwhat he or she is doing. We could remember many old friends and the by God. A cardiologist and personal friend could not save his friendsidea of re-union gripped our minds. We started working on it. The first life with all the facilities at his hand. Nor he could extend KGs life span,grand re-union of nearly 50 college friends was arranged within six even for a few more minutes or seconds.months. All were in different walks of life, like doctors, lawyers, During my trip of India in 1988, I had the misfortune of attendingengineers, judges, politicians, business-men, teachers, professors, and the cremation ceremony of my great buddy, and renowned cardiologistgood positions in government. Most of us were meeting after an of Ahmedabad- Dr. P P. Mehta. He was four years younger than me.interval of 20 years. It was a day of great joy and jubilation for all of us. Dr. PP was a chain smoker, even after knowing as a cardiologist thatThey came from distant places with their families. At this age period of smoking is harmful for the heart. He could not quit this most addictiveour lives, our sons and daughters were studying in the Inter-science habit. After suffering from some pancreatic trouble, he had reduced theclasses of different colleges. number of cigarettes per day but not stopped completely. We decided to continue this activity and arrange one annual re- Dr. PP got a severe heart attack. I went to see him at hisunion every year at different places. They were arranged in Bombay, residence while he was recovering from this attack. Always jolly, smart, 65
  • 74. active, cheerful and ever talkative Dr. PP appeared silent and Doctors are poor accountants. In those years I learned Indiandepressed. He wanted to hear from me talks on religion and God. I style double entry book keeping. It helped me to file my income taxadvised him to withdraw from very busy practice and partially retire. He returns, and I knew my financial position and assests. I taught thisagreed. But on the third day of this meeting, I received news that the simple Indian method of book keeping to some doctor friends. Afterheart of a famous cardiologist of Ahmedabad had stopped for ever. learning it some doctor friends thanked me for teaching this accountingThe time of death for every born is today and now. The Gita says, system."Jatasya hi Dhruvo mrutum". Every born has got to die. Most of usforget this eternal law of God, and run after temporary sensual Part V.pleasures like smoking, drugs and alcohol. We think of impossibledreams and improbable events to happen in our future lives. But we I come back from heaven.forget that the laws of Karmas, actions done good and bad, binds every After immigrating to USA in 1981, I had come to India to close myindividual slowly and steadily to his or her destiny in a perfect but clinic. I established a charitable trust in the memories of my mother andinvisible manner. converted my private practice into a charitable clinic where only cost of medicines were charged. The salary of doctor, staff, utilities and rent My economic positions and attitudes. were paid from the trust funds. I had no bank balance to start my practice. I had started my first My date of return to USA was Jan 17, 1982. Air flights wereclinic in Ahmedabad in 1951 by borrowing money from relatives and confirmed. Two days prior to this date, I got little fever in the afternoonfriends. In the city practice of India, doctors have a system of giving and became completely unconscious in the evening. It was a seriouspersonal credits to patients. Only a few new and unknown patients sicknesses. I was admitted to V. S. Hospital, and my family members income and pay cash. In this way the families remain attached to USA were informed by phone. All children and wife were in USA. Mydoctors. Some families pay their bills on monthly basis, but many pay closest doctor friends like PP and many other doctors treating me inon yearly basis. Compared to insurance system abroad, the fees are the hospital had lost all hopes of my recovery.paid after receiving the treatment and not in advance of some expected I was completely unconscious, in a state of total paralysis. It was asickness. In a city like Ahmedabad, a new doctor has to wait for some severe brain stroke. I was practically a dead person. The control overyears before he is able to enroll some permanent families and make the urinary and stool functions was lost, pupils were dilated and notboth ends meet. I had to close my Ahmedabad Clinic within six months reacting to light. All the signs suggest a state of deep coma and poor orfor these reasons. no hope of recovery. I shifted my practice to a less competitive but known place, During that week of deep unconscious state a big crowed (nearlyNaroda. It was a village without electricity in those days. But it was my 1500 people) of relatives, friends, and patient families from Naroda andbirth place. I had lived there as an orphan child. Every one knew me in surrounding villages was gathering in the premises of the Hospital.Naroda. From the very first day my practice started with a good swing. They were praying for my recovery. God heard their prayers and gaveBut for the first ten years, there were many obligations and debts to be me a new birth!paid. My wife and two sons came running at a moments notice. After a Only after 10 years in 1960, I was able to purchase a plot and built week of their arrival, I regained little consciousness. I was able tomy residential bungalow in Ahmedabad. My net savings and bank recognize them. My face and left half of body showed paralytic signs. Itbalance after ten years of practice were only Rs. 3000 Rupees, (=$ was an attack of cerebral ischemia, I was informed later. I remained in100). Again by borrowing loans from relatives and friends I completed bed for three months. But with grace of God I am able to drive onits construction in 1962 and I repaid all debts by 1966. In next year I American high ways. I drive from Florida to Michigan, Philadelphia andpurchased a new car and extended 2 fllors on bungalow with Life New York. All the memories of past years are as sharp as one couldInsurance Loan in 1967-68. Now I started investing surplus money in observe from this biography.Shares and bonds. This phase of extra money came nearly after 16 I know with fullest conviction that I am alive today, because Godyears of hard life and active practice. wanted and wants me to live and do HIS work. All my religious books were written and published after that sickness of 1982. 66
  • 75. Many relatives like my maternal grand mother in Naroda, my the Gita and other Upanishads by reading translations of authors likemother, cousins, uncles, friends like Dr. KG, Dr. PP, Mr. Himatlal Shah, S. Radhakrishnan, Swami Chinmayananda, Dada Athavleji and manyand great leaders like Gandhiji and Nehru, great scientists like others. Everyone had some difference in their approach and translationEinestine and many leaders of Europe have died during the span of my of these Sanskrit words and the text. I was always searching thelife. I have perfect memories of all these deaths and all great historic scientific meanings of Sanskrit words.events. Within three months of devoted study of this one chapter of the While I was recovering from that sickness, one day I got Gita, I saw divine cosmic light one night. It changed my mind, attitudes,inspirations to write a prayer in English. It is based upon the theme of life’s goals and activities. I have described this event in all my booksall Upanishads and the Gita - A prayer to One Infinite God of Universe. and magazines. People spend years to see this divine light of God.I published it in 1988, in the first English book-“ABC of Hinduism”. Why I was rewarded in such a short time, and with study of only one (See Sec-III - additional informative articles for this poem). chapter of the Gita? Why I was selected by God to see the “light of holy Cross of Jesus An atheist turns to spiritual study Christ” at a particular date and time of Christian calendar, in India During the days of busy medical practice there was no time for without any background of Christian faith in childhood, while readingany religious study or activity. Besides I had no faith in God, temples or the Gita- a Hindu scripture? This is still an unanswered question forGurus in those days. Once in a while I would attend religious lectures, me.if there was some famous speaker or a noble religious teacher. Sometimes I ask myself. Am I the same individual (Atma) who For nearly two or three years I was under hypnotic influence of was born on Nov.-16-1924 in India, who wanted to be a surgeon, alate Acharya Rajanish. He was a great scholar. He spoke on religious politician, a businessman, and struggling to be rich in short time,subjects with intellectual appeal and logical approach to religion and having many dreams?. All these years I was slave of sensual joys andGod. But when he declared himself as Bhagavana (Living God), I was circumstances. I practiced medicine for 32 years in a small village,disappointed. This was during the years 1965 to 1970, I think. though I wanted to be a great surgeon in a big city. People who knowEducation, medical aid, service of the needy, poor and suffering me could never imagine that an atheist doctor would be writing bookshumanity as preached by late Swami Vivekanand, Mahatma Gandhiji, on theology, religion and God in his later life. Sometimes I say to myJesus, Buddha and also preached in the Gita, is worship of God. This I friends that God inspires me to write this type of spiritual literature. HEbelieved during the years of sixties and seventies. The mythological wants me to become HIS spokesman and instrument. But I also knowstories of Hindu Puranas, narrating magical wonders of Bhrama, that nobody believes such statements and remarks.Vishnu and Shiva, never inspired any faith in my mind. Once in Oct., 1979, I heard a weeks discourse on the 3rd Chapter My present activities.of the Gita, Karma Yoga, by Rev. Swami Shree Chinmayanandji. It was To keep my self busy, I write books on Hinduism, and worldarranged on the historic and famous open ground of Gujarat College, religions. I do not worry who will read them and what rewards they willAhmedabad. I had studied in this college during my pre-medical years bring to me. During last ten years I have wrote and published fourof college. A crowd of nearly 25,000 people was gathering daily. In chapters of the Gita, two books on Yoga-Vedanta Darshan in Gujaratimorning hours Swamiji was teaching the famous text of Vivek- and one book in English, ABC of Hinduism for the Indian childrenChudamani of Adi-Shankaracharya. I was attending both these staying abroad. During my interim visits of India, I had started a bi-sessions with fullest devotion and attention. I used to close my evening monthly magazine "Vignana-Dharma Sandesh" (Science and religion).clinic to attend these lectures. But after four issues I had to close it due to lack of devoted staff. To These lectures ignited a spiritual quest for the first time in my write and publish my thoughts and experiences is the only goal of mymind. I memorized the Sanskrit verses of Karma Yoga- the 3rd chapter remaining life.of the Gita, and constantly meditated upon the scientific meanings of In 1992, I published my dream book, “Mahatma Gandhi”, -key words like Dharma Karma, Atma, Bhraman, Jagat, Vishva, etc,. Ambassador of God for the 21st century. It is a religio-political book. In What do we understand when we use the word Karma? It is it I have given my observations of the post -independence years ofgenerally translated as actions, acts or deeds. I started real study of India and the causes of economic down fall of Indian currency. I have 67
  • 76. made constructive suggestions regarding the changes to be made in Another Way of writing Autobiography.constitution of India. It will bring true world peace. I have suggested a new idea of International Gita- Gandhi Dharma Become a third person and tell your story.Sangh, (IGDS) for religious education of the future generation in any This is a new method. I just suggest for them who want topart of the world. Such new and radical religious thoughts take some understand - Real Spiritual-Self (Soul) and world of material objectstime to get well rooted, to grow into a big tree and give fruits. I know seen and perceived by five senses. To gain this knowledge, calledthis but this a mission of my remaining life. I will try my best to Adhiatma Vidya, people in India renounce family life, go to Himalayaspropagate this idea of IGDS as long as God permits me to breath in His to find some Guru, who can show them God by path of Selfworld. Realization. Now I perfectly know the exact date of my death. Signs and I indicate a simple method of self realization.symptoms of old age and physical limitations are visible. Relations, This is not difficult. Try to write only one or two pages. Write a fewactivities, needs, knowledge, places and time are ever changing. But lines as if a third person is giving your introduction to your familymy conscious and inner most Self has become enlightened. I now members or to some unknown audience.understand the short proclamations of Upanishad Rishies like; "I am "Born in 1924, Dr. H.K Gandhi was a poor boy. His father diedBrahaman, I am the immortal soul or undying ‘ATMAN’. My soul is when he was six month old child. He was raised by a widow mother.changeless, imperishable, immortal and divine in nature. It was, is and He became a medical doctor and practiced as a family doctor for 32shall ever be at all times and at all places, even after it leaves my years in a village, Naroda. He believes in giving good education topresent physical gross body". In the Mahatma Gandhi book I wrote children. He wanted to send them to USA.second English poetry, “Immortal Soul”. It is based upon a famous In later life at age of 55, he turned to religious study. Today heUpanishad Mantra, from Bhrad-Aranyak Upanishada, “Mrutor mam writes books on religious and philosophical subjects. His worldlyAmrutam Gamaya”. knowledge has increased with age. His Karma have given him all (See Sec-III - additional informative articles for this poem). desired fruits. His places of residence and goals (Desires) in life have changed many times. In 1982 he suffered from a severe brain stoke Now I know that my body and soul - both are part and parcel of but he recovered. He is alive today in 2008, which he now believes isthe supreme Brahaman or GOD. God is within every human being in due to wish and grace of God.the heart as love, in the mind as sympathy and compassion, in intellectas common sense and good thoughts. After 15 years of study of world religions Dr. Gandhi, now Like humble words of Sir Isaac Newton on his death bed, I also Swami Dwiroopanand, believes that TODAY is the last day ofsay, "I have tasted a teaspoonful of water from the endless ocean of Universal TIME or “Dooms day”, or “Day of Judgement” for alldivine knowledge. I know many things about my past, present and the living beings on Earth.world history. I have clear memories of all events that have occurredduring my life. This is the story of every human being and his or her His imperishable (Akshara-atman) soul has not changed and notlimitations of place and time. The journey of life has reached this last left his ever changing body. But now he knows with conviction that heday of creation of universe. It is TODAY and NOW. It is like a rigid and is going to die on a day called “Today".un-tresspassable dead end. Anyone can know and learn many things, This “Perfect Law of God”, applies to every human being whosubjects and skills. Yet the endless ocean of knowledge ever remains refer her/him Self , as “I”.unknown. No one knows what is going to happen “TOMORROW”. * * * * *Even Lord Rama did not know, though he was God incarnate. Summary:- I pray God only this “Please keep me a life long student". After writing these events of life (autobiography), I have come to understand my true Self, and fixed rules of God. This is Self Realization. 68
  • 77. 1. Entire mankind was, is and shall ever be bound to the last day (Above notes were written in 2000. I wish to start a Gandhi Gitaof universal time. We all are equally created human beings. We all will Dharm Sandesh Magazine in India and USA).die according to His fixed rules. Last Note. During last 8 years (From 2001 to 2008), I have 2. The eternal laws of God could only be understood by the path published Gita Ch-12 and 15, Magazines, 5000 copies each, and fourof self realization, and a few more words, like Atma, Karmas, Dharma, more books. Two are in Gujarati, -‘Prarabdh and Purusharth, andJagat (world), Vishva (Universe) and SPACE AND TIME. Vignanna Rushio’, and two books are in English -“Will Power of Positive Mind” and this last one “Ashtang Yoga” in May, 2008). 3. Death of every born occurs at a fixed moment, the last dayand moment of universal time. This moment is always TODAY andNOW. My cardiologist son will not be able to change the moment of mydeath even if I am under his care in the Mayo clinic of USA. 4. Thinking positively, looking back on my past and the life I livedso far, I can say this. I have not wasted my life. Besides dischargingfamily responsibilities, I was able to help relatives, friends and thecommunity. By writing religious books today, I am trying to help thefuture generations. I have earned good will, respect and blessings ofcountless patients and friends. 5. I was instrumental in starting a high school and maternityfacility in a rural area like Naroda. The blessings of innumerablestudents and countless mothers is the real earning of my life. They donot know me and I do not know them. 6. I have a dream of starting a college, a hospital and a YogaAshrama in Naroda area, and a Gandhi-Gita Ashrama some where inUSA. 7. I am aware of the political system in India, the minds of thepeople, the teachers, the doctors and business community at large arenot ready TODAY for my radical religious and political thoughts. 8. Politicians of India are not ready for decentralization of centralpowers, political changes and vision of India of Mahatma Gandhiji. I have a dream of starting some service projects in the places ofmy grand parents and places from where I have earned my wealth andliving. To repay such debts is my religion, duty or Dharma. This I haveunderstood after study of scriptures for last 20 years. These are some dreams of Swami Dwiroopanand TODAY. -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 69
  • 78. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. *There was going to be a debate in the open court next day. Swetketu entered the hall with a sense of ego and pride. He was looking at Pandits as if they were little cats and rats. In opening the discussion, the king humbly said these words to Ashtang Yoga: Swetketu. "Great grandson of Aruna and son of a great Rishi Gautama, 21. BEGGER OF KNOWLEDGE. respected Swetketu, I ask only five questions to you”. Q. 1. What happens to all human being’s souls after death? (A story from Upnishad) Where do they go ? Swetketu said, "I do not know." In the land of ancient India, there lived a great Rishi, Gautam. He Q. 2. Having gone to different places (Lokas), how do those samewas son of Aruna, a man of great wisdom and learning. Swetketu was souls come back in this world again and again?a young son of Gautam. The learned father gave all the knowledge of Swetketu had to admit he had no answer to this question, also.Vedas, the ancient holy scripts to his son Swetketu. After learning all Q. 3. Since times immemorial, many millions souls after deaththe Vedas Swetketu started moving around in the country from one have gone to the same unknown land (Parlok) heaven or hell). Yet whykingdom to another to earn money, good name and fame. It was the there is no over crowding in that region? Do you know the reason forstyle of those days. this? Swetketu replied, "No, I do not know." Noble kings used to invite scholars of knowledge and arrange Q. 4. After how many transformations (Changes) andscriptural debates of religions and morality in their courts. In the transmutations (Aahuties), a little water (meaning semen, VIRYA indiscussions at the courts of different kings, Swetketu used to defeat Sanskrit), assumes the form of a human embryo (Garbha)? Do youmany Brahmins who were men of average learning. They were not well know anything about this?read in the Vedas. Gaining many victories in this manner in different No, Sir" was the answer from Sweketu.kingdoms, Swetketu became very arrogant and egoistic. Q: 5. Do you know the ways and the means of following the path Traveling in this manner, Swetketu came to a region known as of (DevMarg) divine life, or that of following path of parent worshipPanchal (Old Panjab, Panchaab = land of five rivers). This ancient land (Pitru-Marg)? It is said that ‘Father is Heaven’ (Swarga) and Mother isis associated with the name of Panchali. (It was Draupadis second Land (Prithvi). In between these two paths there is a constantly movingname. She was daughter of the king of Panchal). A well read and noble object. Do you know the name of this object?king Pravahan, used to rule that land in those days. He encouraged With great humiliation Swetketu had to admit that he had nolearned people in his court and kingdom. Daily he arranged knowledge of the spiritual field. Having understood his complete defeat,conferences of Pandits, (men well read in scriptures) and gave prizes Swetketu left the court. The king asked him to join the royal lunch thatto all winners. Swetketu had heard this news. day and tried to give him some gifts. But living there with the shame of So he came to the court of king Pravahan and gave an open a defeat, he had no mood to wait for a moment in the court. Hechallenge to all Pandits. "Is there any body who can defeat me in straightaway walked out and went home.knowledge of Vedas He declared. He complained to his learned father and told that you had given Hearing such arrogant words from a young boy, the king me all the knowledge of the Vedas in this world. The king asked meimmediately recognized that this boy has great Ego of Vedic only five questions. But I could not answer a single question of anknowledge. The king inquired about the teacher who gave knowledge ordinary king. It was a moment of great dishonor and shame for me".to Swetketu. Swetketu told that he was the son of a well-known father Father learned about the five questions from Swetketu.Gautama, who was his teacher. He was also a grand son of famous Then he told, "Swetkelu, my dear son, even I do not know theAruna Rishi. answers to any of these questions. Let us go to this king. I think that Learning all such great family names the king welcomed Swetketu only the king knows the true answers.and offered him a respectful chair in the court. Knowledge is no bodys monopoly. Knowledge is like an endless ocean. One must try to gain knowledge from any body, who 70
  • 79. has some knowledge. A life long attitude of a student should be conclude this short story of Swetketu and his father Gautam Rishi, withcultivated. This king seems to be a man of great knowledge and a verse from "Bhartuhari Niti Shatak." This verse beautifully shows thewisdom. Let us go to him and beg for this divine knowledge". relationship between knowledge and humbleness. But the egoistic Brahmin boy Swetketu, did not agree to theproposal of his father. He told his father “You may go alone. I will not "yada kinchid gyno aham,come with you”. dwipeve madandha samabhavam, The great seeker of true knowledge, Gautam Rishi approached tada sarvagnosmi eeyi bhavadthe king Pravahan. The King gave great respect and welcome to the valiptam mama manah!Rishi and inquired about his mission for coming to his court. yada kinchit kinchit Gautam said, "I have come to you to learn the answers of the five budh jana sakashadvagatamquestions that you had asked to Swetketu, my son." tada murkhosmi eeti jwar eve The king was in a great dilemma. He was a Kshatriya (warrior). It mado may vyapagatah !!was against the religious and ethical tradition of those times. AKshatriya cannot teach a Brahmin. In those days this divine knowledge Meaning: When I knew little, like a small frog in a well, my mindof body and soul relationship (Upanishads) was known to Kshatriyas was living in great pride. I thought that I knew everything in the world.only. But gradually on various occasions, when I came in contact with wise The king requested Gautam Rishi, that he should ask the Devas and learned people; then I realized that I was a great fool. Then myfor this knowledge. He was a mortal human being. He could give him false ego of knowledge vanished like fever coming down with a tabletmaterial wealth that can help him a great deal in this worldly life. of aspirin (antipyretic). But the curious Rishi, begged and begged only for the spiritualknowledge. Being a Brahmin, he needed only one wealth, and that was Message of the Story.the Divine Knowledge of soul and body. 1. This short story carries a great message, about the knowledge Here we see some similarity between the story of Nachiketa and in the Vedas. The ancient Vedic Bhramins did not know muchthis Gautam Rishi. They are not attracted by the worldly wealth. Their about the spirit or soul.eagerness to get knowledge about the spirit or soul is very great. Only 2. It is in the Upanishads that we get some glimpses of the greatsuch students can get this divine knowledge from self-realized and heritage of Hinduism. The Upanishad Rishies lived family life and didknowledgeable teachers. not take Sanyas (Priesthood), at early age. They taught whatever they Looking to the real quest of learning, from this great Rishi, learned from their fathers to their sons and to all curious students. InPravahan, agreed to give "The Alms of the Knowledge". this manner accumulated knowledge was preserved and passed over The king said, "Oh great Rishi, it is going to take a long time to from generation to generation.give you this knowledge. I am Kshatriya and you are Brahmin. For any 3. The kings were knowledge worshippers, and encouraged well-moment during your studentship, never allow this difference to enter in read people in their kingdoms. They used to pay respect to Brahmins,your mind. Otherwise you will never learn." The rishi agreed to be a and used to give them gifts etc.true pupil of the king. He stayed there for many years and learned the 4. The class system appears to be present in those days also. Butdivine knowledge from a Kshatriya. untouchability was not there. It has become a great evil in Hinduism * * * * * today. This has played a great roll in deterioration of the noble ethical heritage. It is time that we all try to reorganize true religion for Gautam Rishi was the first person to get this Divine knowledge. meeting the needs of our children in U.S.A., the land of great religiousBut his arrogant son Swetketu, remained devoid of this supreme freedom.knowledge. It was in this way that the Knowledge of Soul, Brahman 5. Knowledge must be gained from any country or person. Inwas made known to Brahamins. this matter an attitude of respect and humbleness towards the teacher After that time it was passed over to true seekers, from great is a must. No body is born knowledgeable. With gaining of knowledgemasters to genuine students, in a teacher-pupil tradition. We will humbleness must enter our mind and not an “Ego of Knowledge”. A 71
  • 80. constant self-evaluation is a good practice, which can be cultivated by Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES.meditation. 6. Knowledge is the real Wealth of an individual. Human mind hasa wonderful capacity to stock a heap of knowledge. Curiosity (Jignasa),interest, (Gyana Pipasa) and continuous effort (Purusharth) to gainknowledge, learn new things, is the only way to a higher path of living. 0m Shanti Shanti Shanti 22. ONE INFINITE GOD OF UNIVERSE (Prayer-1) (From Book ABC of Hinduism) A PRAYER ON UPANISHAD THEME FOR GROWING CHILDREN (Knowledge, Gyan or Veda, is an endless ocean. Hindu (1) Oh Lord! Almighty, Oh Lord Oh Thee,Upanishads had developed after the Vedic Era and four class system With Folded Our Palms and Bent our Knees,kingdom of an Aryan King Manu (2500-BC). Veda knowing Brahmins Together, Together, Together We Pray,possessed a false Ego of knowledge of Vedas. This story teaches a Shall Share, Shall Care, Shall Bear WE Say.great message to all students and Vedic rituals minded Indian Bhraminpriests. (2) You are Father and Mother, and Brother Oh Lord, Remain a life long student is the message of this story). You are Friend and Guide, Oh Merciful God, You are Near and Far, and every where Oh Lord In the Smile of a Child You are Present my God. (3) You are Mountains and Trees, and Rivers and Sea, You are Water and Land, and the Air I Breath, You are Stars and Suns and Moons I See, You are Clouds and Rains and Sky and ZEE. (4) You are Cows and Cattle, and Birds and Bee, You are Plants and Flowers, and Food for Me, I Praise Thy Glory, with Bent my Knees Forgive me, Forgive us, for Sinful Deeds. (5) You are TIME and SPACE, So Life and Death, Beyond Heaven and Hell, and Mind and Brain, Thy Sound I Hear, and Feel THY Smell, In Wisdom and Hearts, of Saints You Dwell. (6) Thou Sendth Thy Message of Love and Faith, Through Brave and Noble, Thy Sons Oh! God, A Message of Courage and Confidence, in Giving, To Depressed and Needy the Joy of Being. (7) In North and South, and West and East, As Tao, and Buddha, and Moses and Christ, As Krishna and Rama, and Mohammed and Me, In Mecca, and Mithra, In Bethle Oh Thee. 72
  • 81. (8) Thy Cross let Enrich Our Scripts and Spirits, Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. Thy Mercy as Conviction, with Love Divine, Beyond Nations and Flags, and Cults and Creeds, I Feel thy Presence, in Truthful Deeds. (9 As Father and Mother, and Knowledge and SHREE As Friend, and Brother and Teacher you help Me, 23…JESUS & MAHATMA GANDHI ARE Thy kingdom is Perfect, and Amazing Oh! God, IMMORTAL SOULS. (Prayer-2) In Unity and Diversity, I SEE THEE Oh Lord. (Based on famous Upanishad Hymn (10) I Thank THEE Oh Lord for THY Gift of Life, Mrutor Mam Amrutam Gamaya) With Folded my Hands and Bent my Knees. Together, Together, Together, I Pray Someone is Coming and someone is Going, Shall Share, Shell Suffer with Joy, I Say Someone is Awaking and someone is Sleeping, Someone is Sitting and someone is Running, Someone is Leading and someone is Following,ZEE = Zero. (I AM VERY SMALL Zero in universal diamentions).SHREE = Wealth, Money. (Laxmi- in Sanskrit) Someone is Wedding and someone is Separating, Someone is Laughing and someone is Crying, I wrote this prayer in 1983 while I was recovering from a serious Someone is Barking and someone is Singing,attack of hemiplegia. Its theme comes from a popular Gujarati poem of Someone is Jumping and someone is Stumbling.poet Nanalal, which I learnt during my school days. It covers the themeof all Vedas, all Upnishads and the Gita. This prayer expresses Hindu Millions are Blue and Millions are Red,belief of One Invisible Supreme Infinite God, who is visible in HIS Only a few are Green but Millions are Pale,diversity of forms and qualities. They are called Devas (angles) and Only a few are Strong but Millions are Weak,Devies in scriptures. Formless invisible God could only be realized by a Millions are Bitter, only a few are Sweet!.path of Bhakti, practice of Karma Yoga and Self -Meditation. For Free Yoga Classes and Week End workshops; I search Thee Oh Lord, and Mystery of Thy joy, By Swami Dwiroopanand. Contact : My Death is near, shall I SEE THEE Oh God? THY LIGHT if seen, and my ignorance if gone, Phones: Then Fear of Death is gone, and courage is born. USA:- (1) C/O (904)-733-1579 in FL (2) Mob: 904- 472-6857. Millions do not know what things they need, INDIA: Only Wise really know what one should Seek. (1) Mob: 94290-24051. No human can give, all things people want, C/O (2) Mob: 94260-51251 Mr. K.K. Shah. Only a few are conscious of the gifts theyve got. C/O (3) Mob: 98245-53043 Mr. Vinod Bhatt. Why people are morose and think of Dying? For more Info. Visit – www.gandhigitadharm.com They know not the Limits, where Eagles are flying. Dwiroop Email. dwiroop@yahoo.com Why few are Blissful and millions so Sad? They know not in fact - The Beginning or The End. 73
  • 82. I dream of that day when all are in Cheers, Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. No Worries, no Hunger, no Guns, no Fears. No one is Crying and Youth is Dancing, And all are singing Divine songs for Living. Who Gives with Faith and holy Vows, With Love Divine, no Hate for Foes. 24. SANKHYA DARSHAN OF KAPIL When Forgiveness of Jesus pervades all souls, A girl can sing, She has Divine goals. Darshan literally means Seeing with Eyes. In religious terminology it means perfect understanding or cosmic vision and experience of a From Hell who came, and to Heaven who went, seeker of God. The word Sankhya means Numbers. Every born has to Die, the Gita has said, There are six major Hindu Darshans. Only Prophets like Jesus and men like Gandhi, (1) Sankhya Darshan is believed to be first Darshan. (1000 BC). True Scientists and Seers (of God) are IMMORTAL SOULS. (2) Poorva Mimansa by Jaimini. (3) Vedanta Darshana by Veda Vyasa Mrutor mam Amrutam Gamaya, is a famous mantra and prayer (4) Ashtanga Yoga or Raja Yoga of Patanjali.to God from Brahad-Aranyak Upanishad. It means “Lead me to (5) Nyaya Darshan of Gautamimmortality from (by) my death”. The spiritually evolved soul asks God (6) Vaishashik Darshan of Kanad.to give him/her the death of a martyr, which will make him/her immortal. Some believe that Poorva Mimansa is the first Darshana, an old Darshan of a Rishi, Jaimini. It is a complicated philosophy based upon People want to go to heaven after death, but they do not want Vedic ways and rituals of Hindu Worship of natural elements as Gods.to die for going to heaven ! Jaimini declares that ‘Veda or Knowledge within us is God’. “Every born has to die”, is Eternal law of God. The above poem shows a path for living with noble goals and Arjuna asks Krishna,dying like a martyr in religious field. One should not be afraid of dying "How can I be happy in all respects?. Show me only one definitefor any good and noble cause. Such a death leads to immortality. way to gain all kinds of success and hapiness. (Shreya)" Ch.III- V.2.People remember such souls for centuries. Lord Krishna Says : Jesus and Gandhiji died as martyrs having firm faith in God "Lokesmin dwividha nishtha, pura prokta mayanagha,and God’s work. Gyana Yogan Sankhyanam, Karma Yogena Yoginam." Ch.III- V.3. The laws of mother-nature or Maker of the Universe (GOD) workin an equal manner upon all human beings, animals, plants, stars, “Oh, Sinless, Previously (in 2nd chapter), I have told you, theresuns, moons and all Galaxies. are two paths by which a person can become happy. One path is of Everything- perceptible with five senses is in a non-stop motion or Knowlwdge of Sankhya (Numbers of objects and their properties) andTIME-SPACE continuum. The possession of money, property, political the other path is of correct dutiful actions. (Karma Yoga = Dutifulpower etc,. creates false Egos and illusions in minds. correct Actions). Such attachments and desires to get more (Lobh) Greed, makes a In Gita, Gyana Yoga mostly refers to Sanhky Yoga, (Chapters 2,person to commit great sins. 13, and 14 of Gita, discuss three Guna- Satas Rajas and Tamas, Prakruti and Purush). The 2nd chapter is called Sankhya Yoga. The 5 Important Words of this Darshan must be well understood, remembered and meditated upon. 74
  • 83. Sankhya Darshana Means :- (These activities are supposed to be done by three mythological Study and Understanding of deity Gods of Hindu Purana. There are 18 Mythological Scriptures Purusha and Prakruti, and Sat, Rajas and Tamas. about Brahama, Vishnu, and Shiva) The name of a great Rishi Kapil is linked with this Darshan. The Kapil never believed in One supreme formless God. Thereforeplace where the Sage Kapil lived is not certain, but it might be on the Sankhya philosophy is called a Nir-Ishver-Vadi Darshana. (Athistriver Ganges in Bengal. The likely period of Kapil is between 10th and Darshan). The great Veda Vyasa (Badarayana) had accepted many8th century B.C. The Gita refers Kapil as one of ‘Gods Vibhooti’ or points of Kapil in his Vedanta Darshan. He also accepts presence ofmanifestations in the 10th chapter. We also find some reference of many natural elemental Gods and tries to merge these deities into OneKapil in Bhagavatum, a popular Hindu Puran. Supreme God. This Darshan is very popular among the western scholars Kapil declares “all human beings are equal and made up of 5-because it is based on sound scientific principles and maths. In Gita Tanmatras (MAHABHUTA), 5- Vishaya, 5- sense organs, 1- Mind,nearly two chapters are devoted to explain the three Gunas (qualities) 1- Ego merged with three Gunas”. These make total of 17.of human nature described by Kapil, namely, Sat, Rajas and Tamas. elements.(Truth, Selfishness and Ignorence). Gita was written in the 5th century Kapil’s ‘Mahat Tatve’ means, higher Intellect or Soul. This is notB.C. Sankhya describes Purusha in the meaning of divine soul and true according to other Darshanik Rishies. Soul is eternal andPrakruti in the meaning Mother Nature and human nature (swabhav) changeless, where as all other material things are subject to fixed andalso. These two words are found in many chapters of the Gita. predictable changes (Vikruti). These are bound with time and place. The word Sankhya means a number. Kapil explains this entire Intellect can judge these changes. A Yoga student must study,Universe and the activities going on in it, by three words, " Sat, Rajas Sankhya and Vedanta Darshans along with the Gita.and Tamas." All visible and perceivable material objects could be No Darshana by itself is perfect including Yoga and Sankhya.understood as having three qualities Goona. Vedanta is called nearly a perfect Darshan. But it also accepets many real as well as imaginary deity Gods which act upon the 10 organs Sat, means existance or presence, (Indriya) in an equal manner. Rajas means activity or actions. Tamas means inaction or inertia. Logic of Kapil. In many verses of the Gita and talks of Indian Swamies, one hears I. Only Living creatures create living creatures. Their physicalthese words very often. Purusha meaning soul is changeless. Prakruti bodies are made of five basic natural elements, called Tan-matras,is ever changing or Rajasic. Body, Mind, and Intellect etc are ever which come from five inert things (Jad) seen in universe. These arechanging things. Akasha (Space), Tejus (Light), Vayu (Air), Aapa (Water), and Bhumi Brahma Sutra or Vedanta is the name given to revised Sankhya (Earth). Purusha of Kapil is the changeless soul within. It is responsiblephilosophy. Vedanta is also called Utter Mimansa, the last Darshan. for life. This is Life-spark or Chaitanya. Human body is looked upon asVedanta means “End of Veda or Knowledge”. When knowledge ends, a physical object made from these five Tamasic or inert objects oftrue faith in God (Shraddha) begins. God is beyond description by Nature.words of any language or any branch of Human Knowledge. II. Prakruti (Mother Nature) is also governed by fixed laws. Sun rises in East and sets in West. There is constant movement of the Kapil explains God and Human life with only two words. stars, planets and galaxies. A bean seed would produce a bean tree. ‘Prakruti and Purusha’. Wheat would yield crop of wheat and not rice. Rice gives crop of rice Prukruti means Nature. Purusha means a human being. The other and not wheat. These dont come from nothing or Zero, but grow withmeaning of word “Purusha” is a male human being or man. (Purusha = help of previous similar seeds only. This law of Mother Nature appliesMale & Stree = Female). Kapil explains “Perfect laws of nature to all living creatures, including human beings. Human beings also(Prakruti)” by three kinds of activities seen in nature. Creation, come from previous human beings only.Maintanance and Destruction. Similar types of human natures Three types of activities are observed in nature. Creation (Birth),(Personalities or Swabhavas), are found in human beings. its existance or presence for some time, and its destruction (Death). 75
  • 84. Three kinds of human personalities are also observed; Creative, constantly take place. The Basic quality of Mahat Tatwa is Sat (good)Preservative, and Destructive. (Three mythological Gods in Hinduism but Intellect according to Kapil.explain these activities. Brahama creates life, Vishnu maintains it and In many Hindu scriptures and Gita, there is reference of ThreeShiva destroys life). Everybody likes to live and live forever. But body is Gunas or qualities. The exact sense in which each author interpretssubject to fixed changes of old age, disease and death. these words is confusing to many students. The sense in which the III. Kapil uses these words to explain his theory of changes Nyaya Darshana uses these three words is different than that used inoccuring in mother nature. Sankhya Darshana by Kapil. Prakruti (In born Nature) -> Vikruti (Changing nature) A student must always keep in mind the following simple English Prakruti + Vikruti (Changes occuring according to laws of translation to understand the meaning of these "Three QualityNature). These are perceived by Self. Indicating Words, "Sat - Rajas - and Tamas”. It is called Anoobhuti (Experience).. Sat = Truth, true knowledge, soul, correct actions with understanding. Sankhya explains human Nature (Prakruti) with following twenty Rajas = Vibrating or Unsteady Mind. Actions done with selfishfive words. desirea. 1. MAHAT TATWA. or higher intellect. Kapil refers to this as Tamas = Darkness, Ignorance, Idelness, Inaction.Totality of Intellect. Actions done in ignorance without proper understanding. Most 2. From this "Mahat Tatwa" becomes the menifest-Vyaktitwa (A people in world live in ignorance or Tamas. They are fooled andhuman personality) or Ego or "Aham" which is wrapped in layers of five misguided by selfish priests in nearly all religions.tanmatras or the five basic Mahabhutas refered above. Physical body What is Veda, Gyana.or Knowledge?.is made up of these five elements. "Ahankara" or Ego cannot exist Kapil expalins knowledge like this. Material Objects make contactwithout these five elements. with sense organs (Sanga), Mind perceives, feels and gets agitated. 3. In between the Mahat tatwa and body there are other things. Intellect starts thinking and the experience (Anubhuti) is stored inThe five organs of knowledge (Five senses) and five organs of actions memory as likes and dislikes (Dwandwa) kind of experiences with that(Karma Indriyas), make the ten important organs of body, or Dash- object.Indriya. Body is symbolized as a chariot. The ten horses that drive this For example, Eye sees an object. That experience is stored inchariot are these ten organs. Memory (Smruti) as object seen. Seeing is believing. This is Truth or 4. The five senses are attached to five subjects (Vishayas) called Sat. Compared to EYE the other senses play a less important roll inGunas. Roop (Shape or Form), Rasa (Taste), Gandha (Smell), Knowledge of material (Vyakta or Sakar) things. Experience of anySparsha (Touch sense, hot, cold, rough, smooth etc.) and Shabda body is always limited. But in human societies, spoken words get linked(Vani or listening spoken Words). with names objects and this makes deep memory of material things 5. Kapil refers to human mind as Purusha, in this Darshan. (The and experiences, These are stored in brain as knowledge or memoryword Purusha exactly translates as a male human being. But in general (Smruti).sense it can be understood as any human being. But it cannot be Thus knowledge in fact is only memories of past events andtranslated as "Atma" or soul, as some well read teachers of Vedanta things, mainly seen with eyes and heard by ears. (Audio visualdo). experiences). Knowledge is a chain of scattered experiences. As age 6. To the above Twenty two words, Kapil adds his three Special advances the memories get build up into ‘Ego of Knowledge’. Thewords. Sat, Rajas and Tamas. The differences in natures of human mixture of three qualities or Guna, and Ego determines the behavior ofbeings that we see is due to varying degrees of mixtures of these the any person. It depends upon knowledge, (which is past experience),three Gunas. These can be understood with analogy of the primary Ego, Mind (Purusha) and Intellect of that particular individual (Vyakti orthree colours; Red, Yellow and Blue. By mixing these colors in varying Atma).proportions, one can create many different colors. In same mannerhuman beings are born with varying mixtures of basic three qualities(Gunas). In this manner changes in nature, (Prakruti – Vikruti) 76
  • 85. Summary of important points of Sankhya Darshan. All pervading soul or pure spirit is changeless. But Soul cannot Chart of Sankhya Darshan.exist independent of Prakruti or physical body- made of five elements; Body is subject to fixed and predictable changes (Vikruties). This PARAM BRAHAMAN. OR ONE SUPREME FORMLESS GOD.we understand as process of ageing. A child is born, it becomes a The perfect maker of universe God, is un-manifest.teenager, becomes an adult, and then turns into an old person. These God is beyond TIME AND SPACE.are predictable changes of physical body. In many verses of Gita, thewords Prakruti and Purusha are used in the sense of body (Sharira) MANIFEST BRAHAMN.and soul (Atma). I AM MANIFEST BRAHAMAN (SOUL) With aid of Vedanta Chart and Yoga charts the understanding ofdesires (VASANAS) becomes clear. Karma Indriyas are organs of PRAKRUTI = Mother nature. [Pancha Mahabhutas= space,action. Understanding of Karma Indriya is very clear in Vedanta light, air, water & earth (5)Darshana only. The picture of self become clear by study of all these PURUSHA = HUMAN NATURE (Atma or Self).three Darshans along with some Chapters of the Gita. ATMA = Pancha Mahabhuta + mind + intellect + Ego or I. Mind was wonderfully studied by the Upanishad and DarshnikRishies. (1) MAHAT TATVA IN SANKHYA IS HIGHER INTELLECT We hear sometimes. "Brahma (God) created this world from (Buddhi, not soul). Pure Buddhi is not attached to senses orZero." Kapil declares that neither this world nor anything can be worldly objects. Intellect is beyond three Guna is called Mahatcreated from Zero. Shankaracharyas (7th century A.D.) statemant of tatva by Kapil. Thinking is done by Buddhi, and not by mind."Brahm Satyam, Jagat Mithya", is not true according to Sankhya (2) AHAMKARA OR EGO is always intermingled with ThreeDarshana. Seeing this obvious mistake some later Acharyas declared, Gunas. Ego exists with Sat, Rajas and Tamo Guna. It is the Lower"Bhahm Satyam, Jagat Satyam". "God is truth and this world is also Intellect.true." (3) MIND or MANAS. Conscious mind is usually linked to five We find two more words in this Darshana. "Purusha and senses. Mind, is inner sixth sense which receives messages from fivePrakruti". Different experts translate these words in English in different senses. Mind feels emotions.meanings and this creates great confusions in the minds of students. (4). FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE (GyanaThe word PURUSHA has many meanings. It means a male in any Indriya) Shrotrum, Chakshu, Sparsha Rasana and Ghrana. (5). Ears,bisexual species, a man, any human being, male or female, an Eyes, Skin, Tongue and Nose bring knowledge of worldly objects whenindividual, soul or Atma or spirit, and only one supreme God of they make contact with the sense organs.universe. Thus the word Purusha is translated as Soul, Brahm, Spirit, (5) FIVE VISHAYA OR SUBJECTS OF SENSUAL JOYS (5)Jiva or a creature, a human being, a male, an individual and so on. For SHABDA, ROOPA, SPARSHA, SWADA AND GANDHA.a student of Indian philosophy this creates great confusions. (Words, Beauty, Touch, Taste, and Smell). The nearest meaning is generally neglected. "Purusha" shouldmean an individual, a human being (male or female). "Prakruti" should Like animals Millions of people live at this level. They are mostlymean mother nature. The second meaning of Prakruti is inborn human attached to senses. When objects make contact with senses, feelingsinstincts or nature (Swabhava). English word Nature, serves both of happiness and unhappiness arise in mind which in turn producepurposes. Meditation upon these two words along with other three angers or frustrations, desires and aversions.other words "Sat, Rajas and Tamas", would explain many events andchanges taking place in the world of material objects and behavior of The above Chart summarizes the Sankhya Darshan in brief.human beings and their nature or mind. 77
  • 86. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. are made by Supreme God, PARAMBRAHAMA, the maker of all living and nonliving things like galaxies, stars, suns moons clouds and rain etc., in universe) FIVE ORGANS OF ACTIONS: (Karma Indriya). 25. VEDANTA DARSHAN OF VED VYAS 1. TONGUE AS ORGAN OF SPEECH: Vani. Its Deva is Fire or Agni. VEDANTA Really means “END OF KNOWLEDGE”.. 2. TWO HANDS: Panihi or Hastayoho. Their Deva is Indra or By this study one Understands that all humans are equal. God of Heaven.This is the aim of Vedant study. 3. TWO LEGS: Padaha. Their Deva is Vishnu.(needs meditation Memorize these 25 parts of body and names of Devas which and explanation by teacher).make trios with various organs. This makes the Gita and Upanishads, 4. EXCRETORY ORGANS: Upastha. Their Deva is Yama- GodYoga and Darshans meaningful. of Death.(Why Yama is linked here?) Remember that Spirit or Brahaman within us is Not Supreme 5. ORGANS OF SEX. Janan Indriyas. (Reproductive organs.God. But the MAKER of 5 Mahabhutas, Body Organs, and Spirit Only here 2 sexes differ). KAMA-deva is God of SEX, also calledand Time Place bondage to all Creations is “Supreme God”. "Prajapati, Brahama". Individual must learn control SANYAMA of 5 Karma Indriya. Note Assotiation of Agni, Indra, Vishnu, Yama and FIVE BASIC ELEMENTS: Brahama with different (Karma Indriyas) organs of actions. (Pancha Maha-Bhuta). 1. SPACE: Akasha. Directionless Endless Sky, or 3-D Empty FIVE INVOLUNTARY PHYSIOLOGICAL VITAL SYSTEMSUniversal Space. Panch Maha Prana. 2. HEAT OR LIGHT : Energy (Power, Strength) within us. Agni, (1) Circulatory system with heart. Samana.Tejus, Ojus, SHIVA-SHAKTI. (2) Lungs & breathing. Prana. 3. AIR: Vayu. Maruta means air in motion or wind. (3) Digestive system. Vyana. 4. WATER: Varuna . Water makes 3/4 th surface of earth and (4) Excretory system. Apana.3/4 weight of body. (5) Nervous System. Udana. 5. EARTH: Pruthvi, Bhumi, Dharati etc. (Gross body and (Hindu priests chant names of these five systems in Yagnas - fireuniverse, both are made of above 5 material things). rituals). Worries, Fears and Tensions produce psycho-somatic LORD VISHNUS UNIVERSAL FORM MEANS TOTALITY OF diseases of these vital systems).ABOVE (5) INERT GROSS MATERIAL ELEMENTS. FIVE PSYCHOLOGICAL WORDS OF VEDANTA. FIVE SENSES OR ORGANS OF KNOWLEDGE Inner Mental Attitudes. Mano Bhava (Pancha Gyana Indriyas.): 1. MIND: (MANAS) Conscious, awareness or JAGRUTA 1. EARS: Shrotrum or Karnas. 10 Digpals or Deva in 10 MAANAS. Deva is Self or Atman. (I am master of my mind).Directions. 2. SUBCONSCIOUS MIND: (CHITTA): Possesses real sense of 2. EYES: Chakshu or Natra. Deva. The Sun or Surya. time and place. Deva of Chitta is universe and Space. Mana and Chitta 3. SKIN: Sparshanam or tvacha. Deva. Vayu or Air. are two sides of same coin. Memory (Smrutee) of past events 4. TONGUE: AS ORGAN OF TASTE. Rasana or Swada (=knowledge) is stored in Chitta.Indriya. Deva. Water or Varuna. Tongue as organ of Speech, falls in 3. INTELLECT:(BUDDHI) Ability of discrimination, logic, reason,next group of Karma-Indriyas). judgement= common sense. Deva of Buddhi is Vasudeva or 5. NOSE: Ghranam or Nasika. Deva "Ashvinikumars" or horse- Krishna. (Krishna in the Gita, is Symbolism of a man who has 3 tenseheaded Gods..(Meditate upon the trios made by different Devas. They sense, and Awareness of Duty. 78
  • 87. 4. DESIRES: (VASANAS): These are natural instincts (Vritties)of hunger and thirst, Expectations (Apekshas), Wishes (Iccha), Hopes(Asha or Trushna), Wants, greed (Lobha) etc. Meditation creates union(YOGA) of Chitta & Buddhi. Analyze your instincts, desires (Word usedin scriptures is KAMA) and behaviours. True divine self will unfold. 5. EGOS: (AHAMKAR). False Egos of physical strength, money,political positions, false beliefs (AVIDYA) and ignorence of God &Religion must vanish. Egos are great obstacles in path of spiritualevolution for a student of Yoga. • Self-realization occurs when one reaches a state of mind likethis: "I am not a doer but only an actor. Nothing belongs to me.Everything I possess TODAY is Gods gift". This is Moksha or Nirvanastate of mind.VEDANTA MEANS END OF KNOWLEDGE(Vedasya antah). Controlling ten organs (Dash-Rath) and mind by ones own pureunbiased intellect (sanyam). makes any person master of himself/herself. • Spiritual upliftment starts when all evil thoughts, materialdesires and wrong beliefs come to an end. • Famous poem “Nirvana-Shtakam” of Shankaracharyadescribes spiritual self (Shiva, Brahaman, Atman or Spirit) in a negativemanner. Above 25 and some more elements and Indriyas aredescribed like this:- “I am not mind, not intellect, not Chitta (subconscious mind),not ahamkara (ego), not hands, not feet, not speech, not organs ofsex and excretions, not air, not water, not earth, not religion, notdesires, not money, not food, not even Moksha, etc, etc, I AM SHIVA -the Formless, Changeless, Eternal Reality. I amBlissful Eternal Joy, “Shivo Aham, Shivo Aham”, I am SATCHIDA-ANAND-SWAROOPA, I am Shiva, I am Shiva. 79
  • 88. Books of DR. H. K. Gandhi. Gujatari Books. Arange Dr Gandhi’s YOGA Classes. Yoga is Science of Spirituality. 1. Ahamkar and Vasana - Gaurav and Purusharth. (Egos & It promises Good Health of Body, Mind, and Desires) (Convert Ego into Pride and Desires into Efforts.) Long Active Successful Life of 100 Years. 2. Mana, Chitta and Buddhi. (Krishna is God of Buddhi in you) (Mind, Memories and Intellect - Yoga & Human Psychology.) • Who can arrange Yoga Classes? Any one interested in 3. Karma Yoga Gita Ch-3. (A Scientific Approach) Yoga, Learning Meditation & Self Knowledge. (Essays on History of Gita and Perfect Laws of Karma). • Form a study group of 5, 10 or more interested students. 4. Bhkti Yoga Gita Ch-12. (A Scientific Approach) • Decide tentative Place and Time. Than Contact Teacher. (Essays on AUM and Spiritual Self - or word Atma) This Study is particularly useful for :- 5. Raj Yoga Gita Ch-9. (A Scientific Approach) () • Medical and Para-medical groups. (Essay on Panch Mahabhuta -5 Basic Universal Elements.) • Social Workers and Business owners and CEO’s. 6. Purushottama Yoga Gita Ch-15. (A Scientific Approach). • Teenagers in Schools and Colleges and their parents. (Einestein’s Theory of E= MC2, and Mystic Hindu Trinity) • Spiritual Study groups in Temples & Churches. 7. Shree Krishna Sharanam Mam. (1994) (5000 Free Copies • God search by path of logic and reason and self- realization. distributed. 3 Different Krishnas in Bhagavatum, Mahabharat and Gita) 8. Prarabdh and Purushartha. (16 Inspiring Stories- (2001) 9. Vignan na Rushio. (2004) A. First FREE Introductory Class. (1 Hr and 30 mins). English Books. Subjects discussed in introductory class: “What is YOGA?”. (10). ABC OF HINDUISM. (1988) • OM Chanting, Prayers and Peace Invocations. A few Breathing Basics of Hinduism for Growing Youth Staying Abroad. Exercises and 1st level of meditation. (Question answers - in end). (11). MAHATMA GANDHI - Ambassador of God- • After first introductory FREE Class, interested students register for For Entire Mankind in 21st Century. (1992). Gandhiji, Religious and Political Problems, & Suggested for B. 1st Primary Lectures Course of the 8 steps of Yoga. changes in constitution of India. Proof of One God. Time required 8-12 hours. (12). WILL POWER OF POSITIVE MIND. • This is a course of 8 theoretical lectures, divided into 4 to 6 Goldin, Gita and God. (2003) Paul Goldin’s book ‘Wind Mill of sessions. The 8 steps of Raj-Yoga explain Morality (Sanatan Mind’ - compared with Yoga Meditation and Positive Thinking Dharma), Good manners, Diet habits, Yoga Exercises and in the Gita. Positive attitudes, and high goals. These are explained with Recently Published English Books: practical examples of Karma Yoga, in daily life. (14). ASHTANG YOGA. – (2008) • One course of 8-12 Hrs. can be arranged on week-ends, (15) PRANAYAMA Cures Blood pressure in 90 % Cases. e.g., Fri-/Sat - Sundays.(2008). Contact:- SWAMI DWIROOPANAND. (Dr. H. K. Gandhi -age 84). ADD. Jacksonville. FL. 32257. Phone No. C/O (904)- 733-1579 - Mob: 904-472-6857 Mobile Ph: (904)-472-6857.Res.C/O (904)-733-1579. Add: C/O. 9120, Beauclerc Cir -W, Jacksonville FL. 32257. Visit www.gandhigitadharm.com. Email. dwiroop@yahoo.com For more information visit. www.gandhigitadharm.com. YOGA Study Imparts Many Benefits Like, Cure of Blood Pressure Contact By Email: dwiroop@Yahoo.com (Dr. H. K. Gandhi). in 90 % cases. * Prevents Heart attacks. Control of angers and passion. * Overcome Depressions, Stress & worries Etc,. 80
  • 89. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. With help of the famous equation of Albert Einstein, E=MC2 Prof. Capra beautifully correlates science and verses of The Gita and Upanishads, Energy, Space and Time. In the preface of his book Mr. Capra writes:- "I saw cascades of energy coming from the outer space, in which particles were created and destroyed in rhythmic pulses; I 26. IS GOD FACT OR FICTION OR MYTH? saw the atoms of these elements and those of my body, Scientists are men of reason. They ask, “Where is God? participating in this cosmic dance of energy; I felt its rhythm and I Questions regarding Omni-presence of God might be satisfied to heard its sound, and at that moment I KNEW that this was thesome extent if one reads the following three experiences occurring to Dance of Shiva, The Lord of dancers, worshipped by the Hindus"three different types of people, of different faiths, at different places, yetin recent times. C. I SEE THE HOLY CROSS. A. North Florida University Student Says:- Now I describe my own experience of seeing “Cosmic Divine First I record here the experience of a young student of North Light of God and HOLY CROSS.Florida University. "It was a cold winter night. I was fast asleep on the second floor of In April (1995), I gave a talk on Hinduism to students of my clinic at Naroda- a suburb of the city of Ahmedabad in the state ofcomparative religions class in NFU. They were mostly Christian Gujarat-India. I woke up perspiring like a moist sponge. My clothesstudents. When I described my following experience of SEEING the were soaked with sweat. Body hairs were raised in elation, amazementHoly cross, in 1979, and then after my life’s turn towards study of world and surprise. I wiped my face and eyes. I saw a shining ball of dazzlingreligions, all students were spell bound. (Read last C). After the light outside the window.question answer session at end of talk, we were dispersing. The brightness of light was greater than thousand suns in the sky. A young girl approached me and placed the following note in my From the East window a ball of dazzling light entered the room. Ithand. She had never studied religious scriptures in depth. But her pervaded in all objects like table, chairs, books etc., and then it enteredexperience of seeing “divine light” is worth reading. my body. For a few seconds I felt and experienced as if I was She wrote: "Thank you for your wonderful seminar. Almost 2 weightless and floating in a soft cloud of light.years ago, I had similar experience, though there was no one My total existence and everything in the room was in tune andreligion which struck me, rather what (after studying) is most oneness with this cosmic light. I realized as if everything was made upsimilar to BRAHMAN reaching ATMAN. As you say seeming crazy; of that light. There was no sun in the sky at night. I knew this wasfor this reason I have stopped trying to tell people. But this seed something else.was planted and I too came to the same conclusion that “all religions I saw at my wrist watch. The time was EXACTLY 12.00 atshould be respected and merged in a way that the world Midnight, The Zero hour between the years 1979 and 1980 and Thecommunity can love one another”. Date was DEC, 31- 1979. Any how if you have any type of mailings please include me. I PERFECTLY REMEMBER THAT I SAW A SHINING CROSS ALONG Amenda Mehrtens. WITH THIS BRIGHT LIGHT IN THE BACKGROUND. AT A LATER DATE I B. Berkly University Professor Sees Lord Shiva. UNDERSTOOD THAT IT WAS COSMIC LIGHT OF GOD, AND THE HOLY SPIRIT OF JESUS CHRIST”. During the year 1981 I read a book, THE TAO OF PHYSICS by I did not understand any significance of that event at that time.Fritj of Capra, Prof. of High Energy Physics at Berkeley University, Even today, after sixteen years I do not know its meaning. Whatever ICalifornia. saw that night was not a dream or imagination. I am very positive about Mr. Capra also describes similar experience of SEEING cosmic this. It was a real experience in fullest conscious state of mind.light and the figure of Lord Shiva (Nataraj), a deity God worshipped by Only three months prior, I attended a week’s discourse on ‘Karmathe Hindus. He saw SHIVA in open sky during daytime. This inspired Yoga’ (Ch-3 of Gita) by Rev. Swami Chinmayanandji in Ahmedabadhim to write his book which discusses eastern religions, science and during October-1979, I got interested in study of Gita for the first time inphilosophies. 81
  • 90. my life. I had no background of Christianity, nor had any attachments to Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES.Hinduism, any religion or even God. I never believed in myth or rituals.My knowledge of Hinduism was hear say, I did not meditate, norpracticed Yoga. But I had started writing notes of my scatteredthoughts on religious subjects after Oct., 1979. I recorded this event and experience next morning in my notebook. It is still a question for me and I have no answers. Why I was 27. WHAT IS I.G.D.S. ?.chosen in India by Almighty God to SEE (Darshana) this light of HOLYCROSS exactly at a particular time of Christian Calendar? International Gandhi- Gita Dharma Sangh. (IGDS) This is called Shakshatkara or DIVINE EXPERIENCE in Hindu IGDS is a study FORUM for systematic study of all religionsscriptures. Today in retrospect, I understand its some meaning. in a scientific manner. International Gandhi Gita Dharma SanghGod had chosen me to be HIS instrument in linking Eastern and (IGDS) is a new idea and movement. All unbiased, educated Gita andWestern religious thoughts. This I say “today” in January 1997, Gandhi lover Gujaraties or people of any Indian State may join thisafter my study of world religions in an unattached manner for last movement in order to learn and practice true culture of India, Sanataneighteen years. Dharma. Indians of faiths like Islam, Christianity, Zoroastrians, Shiks, Devoted Christians believe that the resurrected HOLY SPIRIT OF etc. can also join IGDS.JESUS CHRIST is pervading everywhere. Later I read, Swami The younger generations growing in any place or land haveVivekanand had similar experience of seeing Spirit of Jesus Christ common questions. Where is God? What is religion? These questionsduring his meditation practices under guidance of his Guru Swami Ram are answered in a logical manner in the Bhagavat Gita. The study of GitaKrishna Parmhans. provides understanding of need of religion and proof of One God. After this experience I lost interest in my well established medical Children in 21st century will live in a better religio-political harmony ifpractice of 30 years. I withdrew from practice and social commitments. they understand One God, True Religion and need of some moralsBy the end of 1982 I closed my clinic and immigrated to USA. I was a in a scientific manner. The gifts of science like T.Vs, Tele-crazy reader from the childhood. Now I turned to reading subjects like communications, Internet, International trade and Transport facilitiesworld history, history of religions, history of sciences, life stories of has made world into a global village. Religio-Political Views of Gandhijiscientists and philosophers etc. I had never read these subjects before. will bring real world peace. A man of reason and science wants proof of God, direct or indirect.The theory of Karma, preached in Gita provides a proof of the Laws of Aims and Goals of IGDS:Mother Nature, which govern all individuals in an equal manner. • The main goal of IGDS is to bring peace and happiness toHappiness and sorrows come to a person according to right and wrong every human being on earth by better understanding of religions andKarma done by him or even not done by him (Akrama) at proper times. One God.(Theory of Karma, Akarma and Vikarma). It is time that all intellectual • To establish an ideal political system in all countries of thepeople of reason and spiritual quest must study all world religions with world. IGDS will propagate views of Mahatma Gandhi in political field.open minds as Gandhiji has recommended. • IGDS Members will try to build Gandhi Asramas and many Lord Mountbatton had said these words to Attenborough, the Gandhi Halls in townships, cities and villages of all countries of theproducer of movie Gandhi, “Mr. Attenborough you are making a movie world instead of Temples of Deity Gods.of a man of caliber of Jesus Christ and Buddha. Please see that you donot do any injustice to this great soul (Mahatma).” How you can Start a local IGDS unit ? The Upanishads, Patanjali Yoga and Gita provide a time tested path Find five Gandhi lovers and Gita curious families stayingof SEEING the Formless God (Nirakara but not Nirguna God). nearby. The families will meet every week regularly for prayers and devote 3 to 4 hours followed by nice Lunch or Dinners (Prasad). Do this for 2 or 3 months, by rotation in members homes. Invite more families to join. 82
  • 91. Publish GGDS- magazine of Gandhian thoughts by getting To carry out above activities IGDS will build Gandhi Halls andlocal Ads support. Every IGDS unit must publish GGDS, about Ashrams in different cities and villages of all countries. The Halls andGandhi’s life-events, inspiring quotes and views in local language and Ashrams will also become important centers of Education and spiritualdistribute FREE to people of other religions, institutions, libraries, activities for active seniors.churches, schools etc,. When about 20 devoted families join, form a legal body. Register Who can join or become members ?as non profit religious organization. Name it GGDS of (name of local All people believing in –town area). Adopt Legal Constitution. Appoint trustees and officebearers. Plan a fund raising project for a ‘Gandhi Hall or Ashrama’. • Gandhiji as a prophet, a messiah, an Avatara (Incarnation)Declare firm and clear noms and guidelines before getting donations of God like Jesus, Muhammad, or Lord Buddha.from others. Adopt constitution like Rotary or Lions Clubs. • ** Eleven Commandments and Seven Sins indicated by Mahatma Gandhi. Proposed activities of IGDS. • Believers or Non Believers of “One God of Universe”. Members will observe vows of non-violence and avoid religious • Seekers of vision of God by Yoga and Gita study.and political wars and conflicts. • Gita as a scripture to be studied for moral codes in life, and divine messages of all prophets can join this movement. Main activities of IGDS will be:- • Men and women of any religion, any country, either sex, color, • Moral, ethical and cultural education of young generation. caste, creed and political views can join this international, inter- Loans and scholarships for deserving bright students of members. faith movement without renouncing their religious and political • Free or low cost legal and medical help to needy growing beliefs, methods of worship of God prayers, rituals or their children of I.G.D.S. member families. churches, temples and mosques. • Informative talks on state laws, tax laws and medical • I.G.D.S. has no religious or political taboos or borders. subjects for members, seniors and handicapped. • Residential hostels for students, seniors, guests and short Jai shri Krishna. Long Live Mahatma Gandhiji. times visitors, like YMCAs. OM Tat SAT = God is TRUTH. Build a Gandhi Hall and a Gandhi Ashrama. **. Details in www.gandhigitadharm.com). Gandhi Halls & Ashramas will provide :- More details of I.G.D.S. will also be found in above website. • A cultural facility for Education Courses like dance, music lessons, classes of maths, drawing, sports, painting, sewing and Contact:- fine arts etc. for learning different skills of livelihood to teenagers of Swami Dwiroopanand: (Dr. H. K. Gandhi) local community. This was the dream of Gandhiji of Basic Education, ‘Buniadi Talim’ or real education. Ph No. C/O Dr. Pankaj.Gandhi (904)-733-1579 (FL) • Ashramas will provide Residential/recreational facility for Add: 9120. Beauclerc Cir-W, Jacksonville, FL, 32257. local seniors, visiting guests of local families, IGDS guests, newly arriving students in local colleges from other towns, etc.,. • Run Vegetarian kitchens at low rates for seniors and other residents. • Library for Youth Education. Libraries of religious books, philosophical and Gandhian Books will be maintained in Gandhi Halls and Ashramas. • Free Gita Classes and Yoga Classes at low rates for local residents. 83
  • 92. Section: III ADDITIONAL INFORMATIVE ARTICLES. Aparigraha = No greed (Lobha), not grabbing others things. Freedom from desires of collecting great wealth and estates, kingdoms, by immoral means, etc. Artha = (1) Money; (2) Desire; (3) Meaning, sense,(4) purpose, (5) Aim or goal. Asanas = Static postural poses and exercises. 3rd step of Raj 28. DICTIONARY OF SANSKRIT WORDS Yoga. Asat = False, untrue, transient, Non-existent, unreal; opposite of DICTIONARY OF COMMON SANSKRIT WORDS FOR YOGA Sat or truth. STUDY. Asmita = Egotism, self-esteem, consciousness of ones presence. (Nearest scientific meaning of Sanskrit words used in Yoga study) Asteye = A religious commandment in all religions. No thefts, no stealing. It has a positive aspect of remembering and returning the Aap = (1) Water, (Urdu word Aab). (2) Varuna = Water. One of the debts to creditors. Children are ever indebted to parents and teachers.5 basic body element. They must remember and return the debts of parents by caring for and Abhaya = Fearlessness, Freedom from all fears, worries and serving them in old age with respect, love and a sense of gratitude. (2)tensions. Yoga study leads to this mental freedom. It is called Nirvana Sub-step of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga.or Moksha. Atma = Used in many different meanings. Abhyasa = Study, practice, repeated attempts to memorize a (1). Self; This is correct translation of Vedic word Atma; not soulverse (Manan) or a sentence; or to master some skill, e.g. constant or spirit.practice of hitting a ball or shooting a target by arrows or bullets. (2). Manifest Soul. Any living being; one living individual (Vyakti). Agna Chakra = A Chakra located between eye brows. Ability of (3). Brahaman. Soul or pure spirit. Soul is the pure and undyinggiving commandments or orders, like a commander of army, a boss in innermost life element. One has to unfold and understand it by deepa shop, a king making rules in a country, or a religious leader giving meditation. A soul cannot exist without body, and body becomes acommandments and sermons. dead body without soul. Agni = (1) Fire, heat; (2) One of the 5 basic elements which make Atma Gyana = Knowledge of ones true inner most self, which isall gross bodies- living and non-living. pure Spirit or Bhraman. Self knowledge. Agyan = Ignorance, lack of information. Avidya = Wrong teaching or information, Incorrect knowledge, Ahamkara = 1st person singular pronoun, Ego, self, or wrong beliefs and false opinions. Most people live with Avidya inConsciousness. religious and many other fields. True (spiritual) enlightenment comes Ahimsa = Non violence, Non injury; It is not a negative by correct knowledge. (Agyana and Avidya are quite different words. Acommandment in Eastern religions but has a positive aspect of child is ignorant about laws, but most adults are misinformed aboutuniversal love, brotherhood and friendship. religion. It is difficult to remove Avidya, but easy to remove Agyana). Akasha = Sky, infinite space. One of the 5 basic elements of Bandhas = Fixing and controlling inner organs by fixed bodygross body. postures. Akshara = (1) Alphabets; (2) Imperishable, immutable, Bhakti = Surrender, sacrifices and devotion to duty, God, orpermanent, immortal, eternal, changeless truth, indestructible. Soul is religious beliefs.described in this manner. Bhava = Moods, emotional states of mind resulting from happy Ananda = Joy, blissful state of mind. Joy of leaning, Joy of eating, and unhappy events and situations occurring in daily life. SpiritualJoy of sex, Joy of victory, etc. Joy and happiness are different states of Trance like state.Mind. Happiness is at material level, Joy occurs at spiritual level by Bhaya = Fear, worries. Opposite word is - Abhaya. Yoga removesgetting the results of deeds (Karma) done. Bhaya. Apana Vayu = Exhaled air. Some Yoga books describe Apana as Bhoo = Earth. One of the 5 basic element of gross body.intestinal gases passed out from anus with the act of excretion of stool. Bhoomi = Land, country. (Matru bhoomi = mother land). 84
  • 93. Bija = Seed, sperm or ovum. Darshans, (scriptures of spiritual knowledge) viz., Poorva Mimansa by Bindu = A drop, a small particle, a point, a grain. Jaimini, Nyaya Darshan by Gautama, Vaishashik Darshana by Kanad, Braham Vidya = Knowledge of living beings and Spirit. Biology. YOGA DARSHANA by Patanjali, Sankhya Darshana by Kapil, andSpiritual knowledge. Vedanta Darshana by Ved-Vyasa. Brahama = Imaginary (mythological) creator God of life on earth. Desha = Place, country.Totality of all spirits in plants and animals. Dharana = Goals, dreams, visions, aims. The 6th step of Patanjali Brahaman = Atma, Spirit, soul, Chetana, Jiva, Bios, nameless Yoga.that (Tat). Dharma = This word is usually translated as Religion. But Dharma Brahamchari = One who travels for spiritual quest. has many meanings. (1) Gunas or qualities in material objects. (2)"Brahmaya Charati eeti Brahamchari". By traditional usage this word Consciousness of moral duties. (3) Sectarian religions (Sampradaya;means a boy or a girl who has not done sex act during life, a perfectly = Some Past Prophets started religions) are also called Dharmas. Mostchaste person, Virgin girl, a celibate individual. people today know Dharma as tribal traditions, or secular groups of Brahmcharyam = Chastity in life, no sex at all, celibacy. A Sub- people following strictly scriptural commandments of the founders orstep of Yama, the 1st step of Raj Yoga. prophets. Brahmin.= (1) A man in the highest class in the four class system Dharma Kshatra = Field of religion; like field of medicine,of Manu. (2) One who knows Brahman or soul is a Brahmin. economics, politics. Buddha = A wise and intelligent man, spiritually enlightened and Dharma Shastra = A religious scripture.evolved soul. Dhyana = Attention, fullest concentration in study or action; It is Buddhi = Discriminative ability, common sense, logic, reason, the 7th step of Patanjali Yoga. Complete awareness in the presentintellect. place and the present time. Chakra = Literally a wheel or a circle. Various nerves (Nadies) Dosha = Fault, mistake, sin, error etc.and plexuses located in spinal cord and brain. Dukkha = (1) Unhappiness, (2) Pain, (3) Bad events in life. Chakshu = Eyes. Divya Chakshu = divine eye of mind or pure Dwesha = Dislikes, hatred, animosity, (opposite of Raga = likes).intellect. Eakagrata = Selecting one topic and giving it the top priority. Chandra = Moon. Symbolic 3rd eye of Lord Shiva = sharp time Gandha = Smell, fragrance.sense. Garbha = A fetus or an embryo in womb. Chintan = Meditation: One pointed thinking, about an event or an Guna = Quality, e.g. to burn is Guna of fire, to wet is Guna ofobject. In Yoga meditation the object and subject of thinking is ones water, sweetness is Guna of cane sugar, etc. Mother nature (Prakruti)own self. One gradually understands the ever changing desires in has three Gunas, creation, maintenance, and destruction. There aremind, the different organs of perishable body (Kshara sharira) and three Gunas in all human beings viz., Sat, Rajas and Tamas. Pure souleternal imperishable (Akshara) soul. The bondage of time and place, is Guna-less (Nirguna) or Gunatit (Beyond Gunas).inter-play of emotions, intellect, desires and actions are related to body. Hath Yoga = Search of self by practicing penances and denials toThinking about anything with perfect sense of time and place (Chitta) is comforts. Path of rigorous discipline and self control (Tapas), verymeditation or Chintan. popular in Jainism even today. Chitta = Sub conscious mind. Most Yoga books and Gurus Indriyas = 5 organs of perception (Senses or Gyana Indriyas ortranslate this word as pure intellect, consciousness, thoughts, eyes, ears, nose, skin and tongue as taste organ) and 5 organs ofperception etc.,. Memories of past events and experiences are stored actions or (Karma Indriyas viz. Speech, hands, legs, excretions, & sexin Chitta as knowledge. Chitta, according to Yoga books is totality of organs).ego- consciousness made up by (1) mind and its ability of attention, Ishvara = God or supreme being. One among many names ofselection, and rejection, (2) ability of reason (Buddhi) and (3) ability of God. Gods divine spark present in all living beings, located in heart, ascorrect decision making. Chitta experiences joys and sorrows. A-V node and bundle of HIS. Darshana = Literal meaning Seeing; Vision, observing- thinkingand understanding, the cause of the effects seen. Hinduism has 6 main 85
  • 94. Ishvera Parinidhani = Total surrender to God or destined by God. Napolion are examples of Kundalini Shakti in wars; successfulAll actions to be done as works of God. They are preservation of living business men running big enterprises, heads of states, successfulcreations, including animals and plants. detectives etc. Jagruti = Awakened state, Awareness of surroundings. Life Lobha = Greed of money, political power and wealth.consciousness. Loma = Hair. Loma-Harsha = raising of body hairs during Japa = Repeated chanting of short prayer words (Mantras) or moments of extreme emotions.Gods name. Mada = False egos. Ahamkara. Jignasa = Curiosity, questions. Brahm Jignasa = Questions about Mahat Tatva = Refereed to as higher intellect, spirit and/or soul insoul; Dharma Jignasa= To learn about religion, moral obligations, Sankhya Darshan of Kapil.qualities of material objects etc.,. Mamta = Sense of possessions or my-ness. A kind of ego-centric Jijivisha = Instinct of survival, I want to live not to die. Basic obsession. This is my son, wife, brother, my house, my country, myinstinct in all life. religion, Guru, etc., Jitendriya = One who has conquered 5 senses and 5 organs of Mantra = Short prayer of words, a verse of devotional poetry.actions. The words Jain, Jainism come from this. Maya = Attachments to relatives, children, religion, sect, country, Jiva-Atma = Individual soul, a single living creature, or one property, body etc.human being, I or Self. Moha = Illusions and false attachments encircling intellect. A Kala = Time. Symbolized as Mystic Deity Shiva, with name Maha- person in ‘Moha’ is not able to think and judge without bias and arriveKaleshvara. to correct judgment. Kala Chakra = Wheel of time. Happy and unhappy situations are Moksha = Freedom from sensual attachments and ego centriclinked with body mind and intellect. They Come and Go as the non desires.stop wheel of time spins on and on. Birth and Death are linked with the Moola = Root of a tree, foundation, base.wheel of Universal TIME; only all pervading Pure soul is beyond the Nadi = Different Nerves described in Yoga books. Also meansbondage of constantly revolving Kala Chakra. arteries and veins in anatomical terminology. Kama = Passions, sex urges, lust, desires, wants, hopes, Nidra = Sleep. (Anidra = Insomnia or lack of sound sleep).expectations, ambitions, wishes etc.,. In a broad sense any ego centric Nirvana = Blissful state, Moksha state or Kaivalya state of mind.sensual desire is called Kama or Vasana. This inner most enemy must Niyama = Regularity, discipline, obedience, codes of properbe conquered first during the early steps of Yoga Sadhana. conduct. 2nd step of Patanjali Yoga. Punctuality and observance of Karma = Acts, deeds done by an individual under the drag of rules.desires. Karma always bind all human beings. Nyaya = Justice. Another Darshana like Yoga in Indian Karya = Works done in the past, present, or planned projects of Philosophy.the future. Om (AUM) = Pranava or a long sound made by human phonatory Krodha = Angers, restless mind, agitated mood. Roots from system.unsatisfied Kamas or desires. Pad = step, foot. Kumbha = A pot for storing water. Body filled with desires is Padma = Lotussymbolized as a pot. Padmasana = A sitting meditation posture. Two feet crossed Kumbhaka = Part of Pranayama. A respiratory exercise in which make a lotus like look.inspired air is with-held for a long time like water filled in a pot. Pancha Mahabhutas = 5 basic elements of gross body, namely Kundalini = Susumna Nadis - a sleeping serpent’s - head located earth, water, air, fire or light (energy) and Space (Akasha).in brain (Corpus Callosum). Frontal area of brain, three tense sense. Pragna = Wisdom or perfect knowledge gained by self Kundalini power or shakti = Visualization in mind of past events, experience.arranging them in chronological order, arriving at reasonable judgment. Praja = People, children and grand childrenThen planning for future based upon experiences of past. Time-place Prajapati = Creator, God of people and children (Parents).awareness and order of priority and preference. Military generals like Imaginary God of Sex. Refereed to as Kamadev in some scriptures. 86
  • 95. Prakruti = Mother Nature; Universe; Inborn nature of any Sanskrit = An Ancient and very rich language of Aryans. Mostindividual. Hindu scriptures are written in Sanskrit language. Prana = Spark of Life or spirit. Breathing activity. Sanskruti = Culture: noble, moral or religious heritage. Pranayamas = 4th step of Yoga. Regulation and control of Santosha = Satisfaction, contentment, compromising attitude.respiration. Sanyamas.= Mental control or restrains, developed by Tapas, Pratyahara = 5th step of Yoga. Controlling sensual desires by will Good company, Yogas and Sanskaras.power. Sat = truthfulness, true, real. One of three tree Gunas in human Purusha = Literal meaning a male being. Used in different nature. Good qualities.meaning in different Scriptures e.g., Supreme one God, perfect creator Satva = Pure essence, good qualities (Goona) in any humanof mother nature, pure soul or spirit etc. This creates great confusions being. Sajjana = Gentle people.in minds of students of Gita and Yoga. Satyam = Truth or absolute changeless reality. e.g., God is truth. Purushartha = Efforts done to achieve four goals (Dharanas) in Shaastra = A book of science. (Puranas are books of mythology).life. The 4 goals given to a Hindu are Dharma (Duties), Artha (money), Yoga is a Shaastra, not a Purana. Bhagavatum is a Purana whichKama (Desires) and Moksha (liberty). describes 10 major incarnations of Lord Vishnu a mythological deity of Rachaka = Withholding breath after exhaling in the Pranayama all gross matter seen in universe.practice (See 4th step of Raj Yoga). Shabda = Word. Speech and a language arises from Shabdas. Ragas = Attachments to objects of temporary sensual pleasures, All spoken words root from OM.and joys. (Opp. word is Dwesha). Shakti = Psychic power, mental strength, universal cosmic Raja = A king. A boss, a president, chairman etc., in present energy, also means Shiva’s cosmic Shakti.times. God is the king of this universe. Uniting with this King is Raj Sharira = Physical gross body; also called Karana Sharira;Yoga. Karma are done by Sharira. Rajas = One of the three Gunas of Prakruti. Actions done with a Shaucham = Cleanliness of body and mind and intellect. Sub-desire or a definite purpose. step of Niyama. Rajasik = A quality of human nature (Svabhava) or Prakruti. A Shravan = Listening. Hearing with full attention (Dhyana) isRajasik person does activities for achieving dictating and commanding listening.position in life. Shri = Wealth, money, respect worthy, auspicious, gorgeous. Rasa = Taste. Six different tastes in foods like sweet, sour, salty, Shrotrum = Ears. Important sense organ of learning or gainingpungent, hot (Chilies) and bitter. Tongue gets attached to these in knowledge by hearing words.course of time. Shruties = Audio knowledge. Another name of the earliest Hindu Roop = Form, shape, beauty. scriptures, the Vedas. Rudra = Another name of Shiva = merciful God. Angry Shiva is Shubha = Good, virtuous, benevolent, joy giving.called Rudra. Shukra = Semen, Virile; Planet Venus. Shukracharya is a mystic Sadhaka = Student of Yoga. Mumukshu, Shishya, Vidyarthi etc.,. character in Hindu Puranas who is able to bring life in dead bodies.are other words used for a student of Yoga. Shunya = Zero, Void. Sadhana = Practice, study, search and research. Siddhas = Rishi; Famous person; Successful businessman; Sakshi = A witness or a seer. Sports champion, Film star; famous singer; noble politician; pious Samadhi = Thoughtless consciousness or awareness. The last, religious leader, celebrity.8th step of Raj Yoga. The state of Nirvana or Moksha is reached by Siddhis = Successes or victories.prophets like Jesus, Buddha, Mohammed who give religious Smruti = Memory, knowledge stored in brain. (Opposite Vismruticommandments and sermons after self realization. = loss of memory, Amnesia). A Hindu scripture of Manu Smruti (2500 Sankhya = Number. An important Philosophy (Darshan), to be BC) indicates duties and punishments for the four classes at differentstudied with Yoga. age periods for both the sexes. Sanskara = Moral training given to children during childhood. 87
  • 96. Sparsha = Touch sense. Ability of skin to perceive hot, cold, Vasudev = Name of Lord Vishnu; Father of Krishna in Bhagavatsharp, hard, soft etc.,. stories. 5 basic elements make Vishnus universal body. All forms of Sthita Pragna = A man of firm judgment, wisdom and free from all material bodies of plants and animals are also made up of these 5attachments. basic elements. Surya = Sun. Pingla Nadis other name is Surya Nadi. Vayu = Air. One of the 5 basic elements of body and visible Susupti avastha = Dreamless state of mind during sleep. Deep universe. A Deity God.sleep. Sound sleep. Vedanta = Literally means END of knowledge. It is one of the Swabhava = In born nature of an individual. (Human nature = popular Darshan or Philosophy which is studied as supplement toPrakruti). Yoga. Swadhyaya = Self study, unfoldment of inner self (Anter Atma), Vedas = Most ancient Hindu scriptures, books of knowledge. Alsosoul or ATMAN. called Shruties because knowledge is revealed by speaking and Swapna avastha = Dreaming state of mind. During light sleep a preserved by listening and memorizing.person sees dreams. Vibhooti = A person born with adversities, but achieves great Tamas = Darkness, ignorance; Inborn Guna of human nature. Our heights in any field; a great celebrity.knowledge is very little in fact. Vichara = Thought. Thoughts are mostly expressed by speech or Tamasik = Quickly getting upset and angry type of personality. writings.Does actions in ignorance. Vidya = Knowledge, skill or technique learned by practice. Tapa = Penances done for purification of body, mind and intellect Vigyana = Science. The relationship between cause and effectsby strict restrains and discipline. This develops obedience, tolerance, are searched, studied and confirmed by intellect, reason and repeatedendurance, austerities etc. self experiences. Tat = That. Nameless address to spirit or God. Vishaya = Subject of study; 5 senses have 5 Vishayas, namely Tatva = Essence of a thing or a short summary of a subject of form, word, taste, touch and smell. A person gets attached to thesestudy. Vishayas when objects make contact with 5 senses. By meditation one Tejus = Light, Luster, Brilliance, Glory. recognizes the attachments and tries to get liberated. Tratak = Glazing or fixing eyes at some object without blinking of Vishnu = Puranic God of life preservation and visible materialeyelids. universe. Turya avastha = Thoughtless conscious state of Mind, very close Viveka = Discrimination, reason, logic, judgment ability.to Samadi. Vrutti = Desires, instincts which lead to do activities (Pravutti). Tyagi = A man who has renounced wealth, high positions, political Hunger, thirst, desire to pass urine, sex urge, are natural Vrutties.powers etc. Greed of money, political power, material things etc., are un-natural Upanishads = Spiritual Hindu scriptures dealing with the subject desires, wants and wishes or Vasanas.of soul, spirit and body, mind and self-search. Vyadhi = Disease, illness, sickness. Uttama = Best, excellent, top most, highest. Yagna = Sacrifice; A fire ritual of Hindus; Giving knowledge free is Vac, Vacha = Speech, Act of speaking (One of the Karma Indriya, Gyana Yagna. Serving and helping others without expectation ofVani). rewards is Seva-Yagna. Vairagi = Whose desires of wealth, power or position are satisfied Yama = An imaginary or mystic Deity God of death. The Supremeand over. Gods accountant for all peoples good (Punya) and bad or evil deeds Varuna = Deity God of water. Water is deity God near us. One of (sins). The 1st step of Raj Yoga starts with understanding of this deity.the 5 basic elements. Yoga = To Join; To meet; To unite, to get welded to; To marry, to Vasana = Ego centric desires and passions. Kama is general term remain in family and social bondage and cooperation etc.for all types of desires, hopes, wants wishes, ambitions, expectationsetc. 88