View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Paraventricular Nucleus Contains 2 types of cells: – Parvocells Medial - neurons secrete hypothalamic releasing hormones Dorsal and ventral - some neurons secrete oxytocin and vasopressin – Magnocells Neurons control endocrine function by secreting oxytocin and vasopressindirectly into the posterior pituitary gland.
Released hormones from the anterior pituitary :• Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland;• Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands;• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): promotes development of eggs within the ovaries stimulates the secretion of estrogen stimulates the sperm production in the testes;• Luteinizing hormone (LH): causes ovulation in women and prepares the uterus for pregnancy;• Prolactin (PRL): causes the development of breast tissue and the production of milk;• Growth hormone (GH): causes growth in almost all tissues in the body promotes increase in cell size and cell number.The posterior pituitary hormones :• Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH): causes the kidneys to keep more water in the body;• Oxytocin: causes contractions in the uterus of a pregnant woman causes the release of milk from the breast.The paraintermedia hormone:• Melanocyte – stimulating hormone: stimulates melanogenesis
Thyroid gland two major hormones: Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3) + Calcitonin - keeps normal calcium levelswww.vcahospitals.com
Thyroid hormones - metabolic actions• regulate Basal Metabolic Rate• ↑ oxygen consumption in most target tissues• ↑ sensitivity of target tissues to catecholamines → by elevating lipolysisglycogenolysisgluconeogenesis
Thyroid hormones - development actions• critical for normal development of the skeletal system and musculature• essential for normal brain development• regulates synaptogenesis neuronal integration myelination cell migration=> neonatal hypothyroidism → Cretinism
Adrenal Gland - located above the upper pole of the kidney - consists of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla regulation of fluid volume stress responsehttp://physicianjobster.com/physician-guidelines/pathophysiology/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-adrenal-gland/
Neuroendocrine regulation of adrenalglucocorticoid (GC) and its physiological roles Hoon SG et al. - The adrenal peripheral clock: Glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system, Front in Neuroendo, 2011, Vol 32, issue 4, pag: 451-465
Multiple mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of glucocorticoid (GC) biosynthesis and secretion Hoon SG et al. - The adrenal peripheral clock: Glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system, Front in Neuroendo, 2011, Vol 32, issue 4, pag: 451-465
Adrenal cortex - hormones Sexosteroids (small amounts) ↓ ↓ testosterone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) development of secondary sexual characteristicsKennedy, MJ - Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence; ClinicalPharmacology & Therapeutics 84, 662-673 (December 2008) |doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.202
Developmental ontogeny of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal(HPG) axis and adrenal androgen secretion. GnRH, gonadotropinhormone–releasing hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone. Kennedy, MJ - Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence; Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 84, 662-673 (December 2008) | doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.202
Adrenal medulla - hormones Catecholamines ↓ adrenaline (epinephrine) noradrenaline (norepinephrine)http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/toxchick/endocrinology/endocrinology03.html E – major determinant of response to metabolic or global challenges NE - response to reflexive changes in cardiovascular tone
Gonads ovaries - testes Sexual hormones ↓ testosterone estrogen progesterone (corpus luteum, placenta) promotes protein syntesis maturation of sex organs sperm development maturation sex organshttp://health- menstrual cycle7.com/Textbook%20of%20Endocrinology/HYPOPHYSEOTROPIC%20HORMONES%20AND%20NEUROENDOCRINE%20AXES/13