Endocrine system basics

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  • 1. Endocrine system Basics
  • 2. The regulating systems of the body are: Nervous System electrochemical impulses rapid control Endocrine System hormones slow controlEndocrine System => maintains the body in balance
  • 3. Hormones= substances secreted by endocrine tissue into the blood act on the target tissue produce a specific response
  • 4. http://antranik.org/the-endocrine-system/
  • 5. CNS control viaHypothalamo – Pituitary axis http://www.ksshopfitters.co.za/hypothalamus-definition&page=3
  • 6. Hypothalamus• location -lines the walls of 3rd ventricle - above the pituitary gland www.truthonthenet.com
  • 7. Hypothalamic nuclei
  • 8. Paraventricular Nucleus Contains 2 types of cells: – Parvocells Medial - neurons secrete hypothalamic releasing hormones Dorsal and ventral - some neurons secrete oxytocin and vasopressin – Magnocells Neurons control endocrine function by secreting oxytocin and vasopressindirectly into the posterior pituitary gland.
  • 9. Hypothalamo – pituitary axis
  • 10. Hypophyseal (pituitary) hormones http://www.bio.miami.edu/tom/courses/protected/ECK/CH09/figure-09-15.jpg
  • 11. Released hormones from the anterior pituitary :• Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates the thyroid gland;• Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH): stimulates the adrenal glands;• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): promotes development of eggs within the ovaries stimulates the secretion of estrogen stimulates the sperm production in the testes;• Luteinizing hormone (LH): causes ovulation in women and prepares the uterus for pregnancy;• Prolactin (PRL): causes the development of breast tissue and the production of milk;• Growth hormone (GH): causes growth in almost all tissues in the body promotes increase in cell size and cell number.The posterior pituitary hormones :• Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH): causes the kidneys to keep more water in the body;• Oxytocin: causes contractions in the uterus of a pregnant woman causes the release of milk from the breast.The paraintermedia hormone:• Melanocyte – stimulating hormone: stimulates melanogenesis
  • 12. Thyroid gland two major hormones: Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T3) + Calcitonin - keeps normal calcium levelswww.vcahospitals.com
  • 13. Thyroid hormones - metabolic actions• regulate Basal Metabolic Rate• ↑ oxygen consumption in most target tissues• ↑ sensitivity of target tissues to catecholamines → by elevating lipolysisglycogenolysisgluconeogenesis
  • 14. Thyroid hormones - development actions• critical for normal development of the skeletal system and musculature• essential for normal brain development• regulates synaptogenesis neuronal integration myelination cell migration=> neonatal hypothyroidism → Cretinism
  • 15. Parathyroid glands PTH - parathormone ↓ increases blood calcium blogs.scientificamerican.com
  • 16. Adrenal Gland - located above the upper pole of the kidney - consists of the adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla regulation of fluid volume stress responsehttp://physicianjobster.com/physician-guidelines/pathophysiology/the-anatomy-and-physiology-of-adrenal-gland/
  • 17. HPA axishttp://kcampbell.bio.umb.edu
  • 18. cholesterol–steroid ring Adrenal CortexSteroid Hormone Production • Mineralocorticoids • Glucocorticoids • Sexosteroids
  • 19. Steroidogenesis in the human adult adrenal cortex Keegan CE, Hammer GD - Recent insights into organogenesis of the adrenal cortex, Trends in endocrinology, Vol 13, issue 5, 2002, pag: 200-208
  • 20. Adrenal cortex - hormones Mineralocorticoids ↓ aldosterone hydro-electolitic balance
  • 21. Adrenal cortex - hormones Glucocorticoids ↓ cortisol hydrocortisone stim. gluconeogenesis & h blood glucose anti-inflammatory anti-immunity anti- allergyhttp://www.wardelab.com
  • 22. Neuroendocrine regulation of adrenalglucocorticoid (GC) and its physiological roles Hoon SG et al. - The adrenal peripheral clock: Glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system, Front in Neuroendo, 2011, Vol 32, issue 4, pag: 451-465
  • 23. Multiple mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of glucocorticoid (GC) biosynthesis and secretion Hoon SG et al. - The adrenal peripheral clock: Glucocorticoid and the circadian timing system, Front in Neuroendo, 2011, Vol 32, issue 4, pag: 451-465
  • 24. Adrenal cortex - hormones Sexosteroids (small amounts) ↓ ↓ testosterone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) development of secondary sexual characteristicsKennedy, MJ - Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence; ClinicalPharmacology & Therapeutics 84, 662-673 (December 2008) |doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.202
  • 25. Developmental ontogeny of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal(HPG) axis and adrenal androgen secretion. GnRH, gonadotropinhormone–releasing hormone; LH, luteinizing hormone. Kennedy, MJ - Hormonal Regulation of Hepatic Drug-Metabolizing Enzyme Activity During Adolescence; Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 84, 662-673 (December 2008) | doi:10.1038/clpt.2008.202
  • 26. Adrenal medulla(modified sympathetic ganglion) http://faculty.pasadena.edu
  • 27. Adrenal medulla - hormones Catecholamines ↓ adrenaline (epinephrine) noradrenaline (norepinephrine)http://www.angelfire.com/sc3/toxchick/endocrinology/endocrinology03.html E – major determinant of response to metabolic or global challenges NE - response to reflexive changes in cardiovascular tone
  • 28. Adrenoceptor-Signal transduction php.med.unsw.edu.au
  • 29. Adrenal stress response http://encyclopedia.lubopitko-bg.com/AdrenalGlands.html
  • 30. Gonads ovaries - testes Sexual hormones ↓ testosterone estrogen progesterone (corpus luteum, placenta) promotes protein syntesis maturation of sex organs sperm development maturation sex organshttp://health- menstrual cycle7.com/Textbook%20of%20Endocrinology/HYPOPHYSEOTROPIC%20HORMONES%20AND%20NEUROENDOCRINE%20AXES/13
  • 31. Prolactin Oxytocin ↓PRL - milk synthesisOxt - milk ejection
  • 32. STH – Somatotropin - Growth hormone ↓ growth of almost all tissues in the body that are capable of growing promotes increase in cell size cell numberwww.hghbodybuilding.com
  • 33. ADH antidiuretic hormone vasopressin ↓ regulates the body’s retention of waterbio1152.nicerweb.com
  • 34. Pineal gland melatonin ↓ sleep-wake clockwww.coe.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp
  • 35. Melatonin effect www.jpp.krakow.pl
  • 36. Pancreas insulin glucagon ↓ normal level of blood glucose
  • 37. www.precisionnutrition.com
  • 38. anjungsainssmkss.wordpress.com