Endocrine glands new

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Endocrine glands new

  1. 1. Endocrine GlandsEndocrine Glands
  2. 2. Endocrine GlandsEndocrine Glands The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands.
  3. 3. Endocrine GlandsEndocrine Glands  Pituitary GlandPituitary Gland  Adrenal GlandAdrenal Gland  Thyroid GlandThyroid Gland  Parathyroid GlandParathyroid Gland  Pineal GlandPineal Gland  PancreasPancreas  Adrenal GlandAdrenal Gland  Gonads GlandGonads Gland  Thymus GlandThymus Gland
  4. 4. HypothalamusHypothalamus  LocationLocation:-:- The hypothalamus iThe hypothalamus i s a part ofs a part of the brain locatedthe brain located anterior to theanterior to the brain stem andbrain stem and inferior toinferior to the thalamus.the thalamus.
  5. 5. HypothalamusHypothalamus  Secretions & FunctionsSecretions & Functions:-:-  1)Hypothalamus produces ADH and1)Hypothalamus produces ADH and Oxytocin that are transported to theOxytocin that are transported to the posterior pituitary for release.posterior pituitary for release.  2)Controls the pituitary gland via a variety2)Controls the pituitary gland via a variety of releasing and inhibiting factors.of releasing and inhibiting factors. – TRH thyrotrophic releasing hormoneTRH thyrotrophic releasing hormone – GHRH growth releasing & inhibiting hormoneGHRH growth releasing & inhibiting hormone – CRH Corticotropin releasing hormoneCRH Corticotropin releasing hormone
  6. 6. Pituitary GlandPituitary Gland  LocationLocation:-Pituitary gland is located beneath:-Pituitary gland is located beneath hypothalamus.hypothalamus.
  7. 7. Posterior PituitaryPosterior Pituitary  Secretions & FunctionsSecretions & Functions:-:- Stores & releases 2Stores & releases 2 hormones produced inhormones produced in hypothalamus:hypothalamus: – Antidiuretic hormoneAntidiuretic hormone ((ADH/vasopressinADH/vasopressin)) which promotes Hwhich promotes H2200 conservation by kidneysconservation by kidneys – OxytocinOxytocin whichwhich stimulates contractionsstimulates contractions of uterus duringof uterus during parturition &parturition & contractions ofcontractions of mammary gland alveolimammary gland alveoli Hypothalamus cells of the hypothalamus Axon Anterior pituitary Posterior pituitary HORMONE ADH Oxytocin TARGET Kidney tubules Mammary glands, uterine muscles
  8. 8. Anterior PituitaryAnterior Pituitary  Secretions And Functions:-Secretions And Functions:-  Growth hormoneGrowth hormone ((GHGH) promotes growth, protein) promotes growth, protein synthesis, & movement of amino acids into cellssynthesis, & movement of amino acids into cells  Thyroid stimulating hormoneThyroid stimulating hormone ((TSHTSH) stimulates) stimulates thyroid to produce & secrete Tthyroid to produce & secrete T44 & T& T33  Adrenocorticotrophic hormoneAdrenocorticotrophic hormone ((ACTHACTH) stimulates) stimulates
  9. 9. Anterior PituitaryAnterior Pituitary  Follicle stimulating hormoneFollicle stimulating hormone ((FSHFSH) stimulates) stimulates growth of ovarian follicles & sperm productiongrowth of ovarian follicles & sperm production  LuteinizingLuteinizing hormonehormone ((LHLH) causes ovulation &) causes ovulation & secretion of testosterone in testessecretion of testosterone in testes  ProlactinProlactin ((PRLPRL) stimulates milk production by) stimulates milk production by mammary glandsmammary glands
  10. 10. Adrenal GlandsAdrenal Glands  LocationLocation:-:- The adrenalThe adrenal glands are a pair ofglands are a pair of roughly triangularroughly triangular glands foundglands found superior to thesuperior to the kidneys:kidneys:  outer is cortexouter is cortex  inner is medullainner is medulla
  11. 11. Adrenal GlandsAdrenal Glands –Adrenal CortexAdrenal Cortex –Secretions & FunctionsSecretions & Functions:-:- MineralocorticoidsMineralocorticoids – AldosteroneAldosterone which stimulate kidneys towhich stimulate kidneys to reabsorb Nareabsorb Na++ and secrete Kand secrete K GlucocorticoidsGlucocorticoids – CortisolCortisol which inhibits glucose utilization &which inhibits glucose utilization & stimulates gluconeogenesis. Inhibitsstimulates gluconeogenesis. Inhibits inflammation, Supresses the immune systeminflammation, Supresses the immune system
  12. 12. Adrenal GlandsAdrenal Glands  Adrenal Medulla:-Adrenal Medulla:-  Secretions & FunctionsSecretions & Functions:-:-  Secretes Epinephrine and NorepinephrineSecretes Epinephrine and Norepinephrine – "fight or flight" response"fight or flight" response causes:causes: – Increased respiratory rateIncreased respiratory rate – Increased HR & cardiac outputIncreased HR & cardiac output – General vasoconstriction which increases venous returnGeneral vasoconstriction which increases venous return – Glycogenolysis & lipolysisGlycogenolysis & lipolysis
  13. 13. Thyroid GlandThyroid Gland LocationLocation:-:- Is locatedIs located just belowjust below the larynxthe larynx
  14. 14. Thyroid GlandThyroid Gland  Secretions & Functions:-Secretions & Functions:-  Secretes TSecretes T44 & T& T33 which set BMR & arewhich set BMR & are needed for growth, developmentneeded for growth, development  Secretes Calcitonin which lowersSecretes Calcitonin which lowers blood calcium levelsblood calcium levels
  15. 15. Parathyroid GlandsParathyroid Glands  Location:-Are 4Location:-Are 4 glands embeddedglands embedded in lateral lobes ofin lateral lobes of thyroid glandthyroid gland  Secretion &Secretion & Function:-Function:- ParathyroidParathyroid hormonehormone ((PTHPTH)) – Elevates bloodElevates blood CaCa2+2+ levelslevels
  16. 16. PancreasPancreas  LocationLocation:-Are scattered clusters of:-Are scattered clusters of endocrine cells in pancreasendocrine cells in pancreas  ContainContain alphaalpha && beta cellsbeta cells
  17. 17.  SecretionsSecretions:-:-  Alphas secreteAlphas secrete glucagonglucagon in responsein response to low blood glucose during periodsto low blood glucose during periods of fastingof fasting – StimulatesStimulates glycogenolysisglycogenolysis && lipolysislipolysis – Increases blood glucoseIncreases blood glucose PancreasPancreas
  18. 18.  Betas secreteBetas secrete insulininsulin inin response to lowresponse to low blood glucoseblood glucose – Promotes entryPromotes entry of glucose intoof glucose into cellscells – & conversion of& conversion of glucose intoglucose into glycogen & fatglycogen & fat – DecreasesDecreases blood glucoseblood glucose PancreasPancreas
  19. 19. Pineal GlandPineal Gland  LocationLocation:-:-  Is located inIs located in basal forebrainbasal forebrain near thalamusnear thalamus  SecretesSecretes melatoninmelatonin inin response toresponse to activity ofactivity of hypothalamushypothalamus
  20. 20. Pineal GlandPineal Gland  Melatonin is involved in aligningMelatonin is involved in aligning physiology with sleep/wake cycle &physiology with sleep/wake cycle & seasonsseasons – Secreted at night & is inhibited by lightSecreted at night & is inhibited by light – Inhibits GnRH (antigonadotropic) inInhibits GnRH (antigonadotropic) in many animalsmany animals
  21. 21. Thymus GlandThymus Gland  Location:-Location:- It is aIt is a triangular organ foundtriangular organ found with the lungswith the lungs  Secretion & FunctionSecretion & Function:-:- Produces thymosin,Produces thymosin, Responsible forResponsible for maturation of T-maturation of T- lymphocytes inlymphocytes in childhoodchildhood  It protects the bodyIt protects the body throughout the lifethroughout the life
  22. 22. Gonads: Reproductive HormonesGonads: Reproductive Hormones  GonadsGonads ((testestestes && ovariesovaries) secrete steroid) secrete steroid hormoneshormones  Location:-Location:- Ovaries:-Ovaries:- Ovaries are almond shaped glands located in pelvicOvaries are almond shaped glands located in pelvic body and superior to uterus in females.body and superior to uterus in females. TestesTestes:-:- Testes are pair of ellipsoid organs found in scrotumTestes are pair of ellipsoid organs found in scrotum of males.of males.

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