SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 62
PRESENTED BY
M.VELVEENA
MSC NSG 1 YEAR
CON,AIIMS,BBSR
NEURO
ENDOCRINOLOGY
PITUTARY AND THYROID
GLAND
• Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interaction between
the nervous system and the endocrine system, and the effects
of various hormones on cognitive, emotional, and behavioural
functioning.
• Human endocrine functioning has a strong foundation in the
CNS, under the direction of the hypothalamus, which has
direct control over the pituitary gland
• The hypothalamus, located at the most rostral region of the
brain stem in the diencephalon.
• The hypothalamus contains several groups of cells that are
defined as neuroendocrine, meaning that they have both
neuronal and endocrine features. Neuroendocrine cells in the
central nervous system have a neuronal phenotype, and release
a peptide or neurotransmitter in response to a depolarizing
stimulus.
• These neuroendocrine cells in the brain are true
endocrine organs in the sense that their targets are a
vascular system. Although the substances released by
most neuroendocrine cells are peptides and
neurotransmitters, they are also appropriately referred
to as hormones because they are released into blood
vessels to act remotely at a target organ.
The primary
target of
hypothalamic
neuroendocrine
cells is the
pituitary gland
• The hypothalamic cells that regulate the
anterior pituitary are referred to as
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting cells.
These neurons have their cell soma in the
hypothalamus, and they have a nerve process
that extends to the median eminence at the
base of the hypothalamus.
• The hypothalamus is divided into three regions
(supraoptic, tuberal, mammillary) in a parasagittal
plane, indicating location anterior-posterior; and three
areas (periventricular, medial, lateral) in the coronal
plane, indicating location medial-lateral.
• Hypothalamic nuclei are located within these specific
regions and areas
• It is found in all vertebrate nervous systems. In
mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in
the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic
nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neuro-
phypophyseal hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin.
• These hormones are released into the blood in
the posterior pituitary.
• Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells,
neurons of the paraventricular nucleus,
release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other
hormones into the hypophyseal portal system where
these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary.
• The median eminence is highly vascularized by a
blood system called the portal capillary plexus.
Hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormones are
released into the portal capillary vasculature, which
then transports these neurohormones to the
anterior pituitary gland.
• For the five hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting
hormonal systems that control reproduction, stress,
metabolism, growth, and lactation, each system has a
hypothalamic neurosecretory cell, a corresponding
pituitary hormone, and a target organ and/or hormone
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
•The endocrine system is a network of glands that
produce hormones to regulate various bodily
functions, including growth, development, and
metabolism. It includes the pancreas, thyroid,
adrenal glands, and gonads. Hormones are
chemical messengers that travel through the
bloodstream to reach their target cells, where they
regulate cellular activities
COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE
SYSTEM
Both serve for internal communication
– Nervous: both electrical and chemical
– Endocrine: only chemical
Speed and persistence of response
– Nervous: reacts quickly (1 to 10 ms), stops quickly
– Endocrine: reacts slowly (hormones release in seconds or
days) effect may continue for weeks
Adaptation to long-term stimuli
– Nervous: response declines (adapts quickly)
– Endocrine: response persists (adapts slowly)
Area of effect
– Nervous: targeted and specific (one organ)
– Endocrine: general, widespread effects (many organs)
THE PITUITARY GLAND
• The pituitary gland is suspended from hypothalamus by a stalk
called the infundibulum
• It is housed in sella turcica of sphenoid bone and its size and
shape of kidney bean.
• It is composed of two structures with independent origins and
separate functions
– Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)
– Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
• It constitutes anterior three-quarters of pituitary .
Has two segments
– Anterior lobe (pars distalis)
– Pars tuberalis—small mass of cells adhering to stalk
• Linked to hypothalamus by hypophyseal portal
system.
– Primary capillaries in hypothalamus connected to
secondary capillaries in adenohypophysis by portal
venules .
–Hypothalamic hormones regulate
adenohypophysis cells
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
• It constitutes the posterior one quarter of the
pituitary
– Three parts :Median eminence,
infundibulum, and the posterior lobe (pars nervosa)
– Nerve tissue, not a true gland
• Nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus pass down
the stalk as hypothalamo–hypophyseal tract and
end in posterior lobe
• Hypothalamic neurons secrete hormones that
are stored in neurohypophysis until released into
blood.
PITUITARY AS MASTER GLAND
• The pituitary gland is frequently referred to as master gland
because most of its hormones are tropic hormones, which
influence the release of hormones from other glands.
• Eight hormones produced in hypothalamus
– Six hormones are regulated in the anterior pituitary
– Two are released into capillaries in the posterior pituitary
when hypothalamic neurons are stimulated (oxytocin and
antidiuretic hormone)
• Six releasing and inhibiting hormones stimulate or
inhibit the anterior pituitary – TRH, CRH, GnRH, and
GHRH are releasing hormones that affect anterior
pituitary secretion of TSH, PRL, ACTH, FSH, LH, and GH –
PIH inhibits secretion of prolactin, and somatostatin
inhibits secretion growth hormone and thyroid-
stimulating hormone by the anterior pituitary
GROWTH HORMONE
It also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone
produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain.
Its functions are as follows
FUNCTIONS OF GH
Growth and development
Metabolism
Tissue repair
Immune function
Regulation of blood sugar
Maintenance of organs
 Release is stimulated by growth hormone releasing
hormone (GHRH) and suppressed by growth hormone
release inhibiting hormone (GHRIH), also known
as somatostatin, both of which are secreted by the
hypothalamus.
 Secretion of GH is greater at night during sleep and is
also stimulated by hypoglycaemia, exercise and anxiety.
 The daily amount secreted peaks in adolescence
and then declines with age.
 Inhibition of GH secretion occurs by a negative
feedback mechanism when the blood level rises
and also when GHRIH is released by the
hypothalamus.
THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
 This hormone is synthesised by the anterior pituitary
and its release is stimulated by thyrotrophin releasing
hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus.
 It stimulates growth and activity of the thyroid gland,
which secretes the hormones thyroxine (T4) and tri-
iodothyronine (T3).
 Release is lowest in the early evening and
highest during the night.
 Secretion is regulated by a negative feedback
mechanism .When the blood level of thyroid
hormones is high, secretion of TSH is reduced,
and vice versa.
ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE (ACTH,
corticotrophin)
 Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus
promotes the synthesis and release of ACTH by the anterior
pituitary. This increases the concentration of cholesterol and
steroids within the adrenal cortex and the output of steroid
hormones, especially cortisol.
 ACTH levels are highest at about 8 a.m. and fall to their lowest
about midnight, although high levels sometimes occur at midday
and 6 p.m.
 It is associated with the sleep pattern and adjustment
to changes takes several days, following, e.g., changing
work shifts, travelling to a different time zone .
 Secretion is also regulated by a negative feedback
mechanism, being suppressed when the blood level of
ACTH rises. Other factors that stimulate secretion
include hypoglycaemia, exercise and other stressors,
e.g. emotional states and fever.
Stimulating the
Adrenal Cortex
Regulating
Glucocorticoid
Production
Regulating
Mineralocorticoid
Production
Circardian rhythm Feedback Regulation
PROLACTIN
 This hormone is secreted during pregnancy to prepare the
breasts for lactation (milk production) after childbirth.
 The blood level of prolactin is stimulated by prolactin
releasing hormone (PRH) released from the hypothalamus
and it is lowered by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) and by
an increased blood level of prolactin.
 Immediately after birth, suckling stimulates prolactin secretion
and lactation. The resultant high blood level is a factor in
reducing the incidence of conception during lactation.
 Prolactin, together with oestrogens, corticosteroids, insulin and
thyroxine, is involved in initiating and maintaining lactation.
 Prolactin secretion is related to sleep, i.e. it is raised during any
period of sleep, night or day.
GONADOTROPHINS
 Just before puberty two gonadotrophins (sex hormones) are
secreted in gradually increasing amounts by the anterior
pituitary in response to luteinising hormone releasing
hormone (LHRH), also known as gonadotrophin releasing
hormone (GnRH).
 At puberty secretion increases, further enabling normal adult
functioning of the reproductive organs; in both males and
females the hormones responsible are:
- follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - luteinising hormone (LH).
In both sexes :FSH stimulates production of gametes (ova or
spermatozoa) by the gonads.
In females :LH and FSH are involved in secretion of the hormones
oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle. As the
levels of oestrogen and progesterone rise, secretion of LH and FSH
is suppressed.
In males :LH, also called interstitial cell stimulating hormone
(ICSH) stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete the
hormone testosterone.
POSTERIOR PITUTARY
 Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) are
the hormones synthesised in nerve cell bodies in the
hypothalamus and then stored in the axon terminals within
the posterior pituitary gland .
 These hormones act directly on non-endocrine tissue and
their release from synaptic vesicles by exocytosis is stimulated
by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus.
OXYTOCIN
• Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide
produced by the hypothalamus and released by the
posterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays several
important roles in the body, primarily related to
social and reproductive functions.
• Uterine
• contra
ct-ion
• Milk
• ejectio
n
• Social
• bonding
• emotion
al
• regulatio
n
ANTI DIURETIC HORMONE
• Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as
arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a hormone
produced by the hypothalamus in the brain
and released by the posterior pituitary gland.
FUNCTIONS
Anti
diuretic
hormone
Water
balance
Blood
pressure
regulation
Thirst
stimulation
THYROID HORMONES
• Thyroid hormones are a group of hormones produced by the
thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the
front of the neck. The primary thyroid hormones are
thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which play crucial
roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body.
Here's a brief overview of the anatomy and functions of
thyroid hormones:
• They control the rate at which
cells use energy (calories)
from the food we consume.
Metabolism
regulation
• Influence the production of
ATP(adenosine triphosphate),
Energy
production
• Regulate body temperature by
influencing the rate at which
the body generates heat.
Body
temperature
regulation
• Promote the development of the
nervous system, bone formation,
and overall physical growth
Growth and
development
• They can influence heart rate,
cardiac output, and blood
pressure.
Cardiovascular
function
• Maintains cognitive function and
mood.
Brain function
• They influence muscle
strength and tone
Muscle
function
• Insufficient thyroid hormone
levels can lead to elevated
cholesterol levels, which are
a risk factor for heart
disease.
Cholestrol
metabolism
CONCLUSION
• Neuroendocrinology encompasses a wide range of topics,
including the control of the gonads, influence of corticosteroids
on the brain, and peripheral neuroendocrine regulation. It has
contributed to our understanding of basic principles in
neuroscience and physiology. Neuroendocrinology plays a crucial
role in understanding neurobiological brain disorders and is used
in the treatment of mood symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid of
some schizophrenia patients has been found to have a
transthyretin problem, highlighting the relevance of
neuroendocrinology in brain disorders.
JOURNAL REFERENCE
Endocrine Disorders and Psychiatric Manifestations
Abstract
The relationships between endocrine and psychiatric diseases are
bidirectional. Most endocrine disorders are associated with
psychological disturbances, and, conversely, psychiatric entities
induce changes in hormonal activity, as is the case for adrenal and
thyroid hormones. In some cases psychiatric manifestations
precede organic symptoms of endocrine dysfunction, allowing an
early diagnosis. Moreover, biochemical control on endocrine hypo-
or hyperfunction is not always associated with normalization of
quality of life (QoL), due in part to persistence of psychological
problems.
• Direct effects of hormonal imbalance, insulin resistance,
and inflammation on neuronal structures such as the
limbic system represent crucial mediators of central
nervous system injury leading to mood disturbances and
cognitive impairment. Main psychiatric manifestations
associated with endocrine diseases are depression,
anxiety, mania, and eating disorders.Psychosis and
suicidal thoughts may appear in severe cases. Cushing’s
disease and thyroid dysfunction states are commonly
associated with mental disorders, which in some cases
are not reversible even after hormonal imbalance has
been corrected, suggesting permanent neuronal damage
Changes in body appearance, such as those occurring in
acromegaly, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity, play
a significant role in the development of psychiatric
manifestations. Diseases that affect lifestyle and require
chronic self-monitoring such as diabetes and obesity are
commonly associated with psychological problems. In
general, treatment of endocrine dysfunction improves
mood, but sometimes, psychiatric conditions remain
requiring specific therapy.
Inadequate hormonal treatment may also induce
psychiatric symptoms. Coexistence of psychiatric
disturbances with endocrine diseases may reduce
therapeutic adherence, impair treatment outcomes, and
increase healthcare costs. Endocrinologists, internists,
primary care doctors, and psychiatrists should be aware
of bilateral interactions between psychiatric and
endocrine disease to program a multidisciplinary
approach so promoting early diagnosis and treatment as
well as QoL improvement.
NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M

More Related Content

Similar to NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M

Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
Cleophas Rwemera
 

Similar to NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M (20)

Role of hypothalamus and Pituitary-1.pptx
Role of hypothalamus and Pituitary-1.pptxRole of hypothalamus and Pituitary-1.pptx
Role of hypothalamus and Pituitary-1.pptx
 
endocrine system.pptx
endocrine system.pptxendocrine system.pptx
endocrine system.pptx
 
Functions of Endocrine system - 2.pdf
Functions of Endocrine system - 2.pdfFunctions of Endocrine system - 2.pdf
Functions of Endocrine system - 2.pdf
 
Endocrinesystem1
Endocrinesystem1Endocrinesystem1
Endocrinesystem1
 
Endocrine System
Endocrine SystemEndocrine System
Endocrine System
 
CHEMICAL COORDINATION AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BIOLOGY CLASS 11TH
CHEMICAL COORDINATION  AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BIOLOGY CLASS 11TH  CHEMICAL COORDINATION  AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BIOLOGY CLASS 11TH
CHEMICAL COORDINATION AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM BIOLOGY CLASS 11TH
 
Endocrine system
Endocrine system Endocrine system
Endocrine system
 
Pituitary gland
Pituitary glandPituitary gland
Pituitary gland
 
Endocrine system 1
Endocrine system 1Endocrine system 1
Endocrine system 1
 
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
ENDOCRINE SYSTEMENDOCRINE SYSTEM
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
 
230 endocrine system
230 endocrine system230 endocrine system
230 endocrine system
 
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamusAnatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
Anatomy - pituitary gland and hypothalamus
 
Neuroendocrine system and Neurosecretion
Neuroendocrine system and NeurosecretionNeuroendocrine system and Neurosecretion
Neuroendocrine system and Neurosecretion
 
General introduction and pituitary gland Secretion, Function and Regulation
General introduction and pituitary gland Secretion, Function and RegulationGeneral introduction and pituitary gland Secretion, Function and Regulation
General introduction and pituitary gland Secretion, Function and Regulation
 
Johny's A&P endocrine system
Johny's A&P endocrine systemJohny's A&P endocrine system
Johny's A&P endocrine system
 
The endocrine system
The endocrine systemThe endocrine system
The endocrine system
 
Endocrinology
EndocrinologyEndocrinology
Endocrinology
 
Endocrine system
Endocrine systemEndocrine system
Endocrine system
 
Hormones
Hormones Hormones
Hormones
 
Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
Chapter45hormones 151125145030-lva1-app6892
 

Recently uploaded

CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancementsCAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
Naveen Gokul Dr
 
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Abortion pills in Kuwait Cytotec pills in Kuwait
 
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsCytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
MedicoseAcademics
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Dindoli 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂ...
Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Dindoli 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂ...Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Dindoli 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂ...
Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Dindoli 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂ...
 
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in IndiaDR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
DR. Neha Mehta Best Psychologist.in India
 
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
Report Back from SGO: What’s the Latest in Ovarian Cancer?
 
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Salem 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Surat ℂ...
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Salem 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Surat ℂ...Young & Hot ℂall Girls Salem 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Surat ℂ...
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Salem 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Surat ℂ...
 
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancementsCAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
CAD CAM DENTURES IN PROSTHODONTICS : Dental advancements
 
Kamrej + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7...
Kamrej + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7...Kamrej + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7...
Kamrej + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7...
 
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing WellnessSigns It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
Signs It’s Time for Physiotherapy Sessions Prioritizing Wellness
 
Drug development life cycle indepth overview.pptx
Drug development life cycle indepth overview.pptxDrug development life cycle indepth overview.pptx
Drug development life cycle indepth overview.pptx
 
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time  modality -Dr Ayman Se...
Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury -time modality -Dr Ayman Se...
 
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
Unlocking Holistic Wellness: Addressing Depression, Mental Well-Being, and St...
 
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Patna 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Patna ℂ...
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Patna 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Patna ℂ...Young & Hot ℂall Girls Patna 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Patna ℂ...
Young & Hot ℂall Girls Patna 8250077686 WhatsApp Number Best Rates of Patna ℂ...
 
Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Vesu 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂall...
Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Vesu 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂall...Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Vesu 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂall...
Young & Hot Surat ℂall Girls Vesu 8527049040 WhatsApp AnyTime Best Surat ℂall...
 
Stereochemistry & Asymmetric Synthesis.pptx
Stereochemistry & Asymmetric Synthesis.pptxStereochemistry & Asymmetric Synthesis.pptx
Stereochemistry & Asymmetric Synthesis.pptx
 
Quality control tests of suppository ...
Quality control tests  of suppository ...Quality control tests  of suppository ...
Quality control tests of suppository ...
 
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
NDCT Rules, 2019: An Overview | New Drugs and Clinical Trial Rules 2019
 
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifierOverview on the Automatic pill identifier
Overview on the Automatic pill identifier
 
Vesu + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7 C...
Vesu + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7 C...Vesu + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7 C...
Vesu + ℂall Girls Serviℂe Surat (Adult Only) 8849756361 Esℂort Serviℂe 24x7 C...
 
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
Best medicine 100% Effective&Safe Mifepristion ௵+918133066128௹Abortion pills ...
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 1, Physiological Principles of Hemodialysis - Dr.Gawad
 
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose AcademicsCytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
Cytoskeleton and Cell Inclusions - Dr Muhammad Ali Rabbani - Medicose Academics
 

NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY CONTENT BY VELVEENA.M

  • 1. PRESENTED BY M.VELVEENA MSC NSG 1 YEAR CON,AIIMS,BBSR NEURO ENDOCRINOLOGY PITUTARY AND THYROID GLAND
  • 2. • Neuroendocrinology is the study of the interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system, and the effects of various hormones on cognitive, emotional, and behavioural functioning. • Human endocrine functioning has a strong foundation in the CNS, under the direction of the hypothalamus, which has direct control over the pituitary gland
  • 3. • The hypothalamus, located at the most rostral region of the brain stem in the diencephalon. • The hypothalamus contains several groups of cells that are defined as neuroendocrine, meaning that they have both neuronal and endocrine features. Neuroendocrine cells in the central nervous system have a neuronal phenotype, and release a peptide or neurotransmitter in response to a depolarizing stimulus.
  • 4.
  • 5. • These neuroendocrine cells in the brain are true endocrine organs in the sense that their targets are a vascular system. Although the substances released by most neuroendocrine cells are peptides and neurotransmitters, they are also appropriately referred to as hormones because they are released into blood vessels to act remotely at a target organ.
  • 7. • The hypothalamic cells that regulate the anterior pituitary are referred to as hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting cells. These neurons have their cell soma in the hypothalamus, and they have a nerve process that extends to the median eminence at the base of the hypothalamus.
  • 8.
  • 9. • The hypothalamus is divided into three regions (supraoptic, tuberal, mammillary) in a parasagittal plane, indicating location anterior-posterior; and three areas (periventricular, medial, lateral) in the coronal plane, indicating location medial-lateral. • Hypothalamic nuclei are located within these specific regions and areas
  • 10. • It is found in all vertebrate nervous systems. In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neuro- phypophyseal hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin. • These hormones are released into the blood in the posterior pituitary.
  • 11. • Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells, neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system where these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary.
  • 12. • The median eminence is highly vascularized by a blood system called the portal capillary plexus. Hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormones are released into the portal capillary vasculature, which then transports these neurohormones to the anterior pituitary gland.
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15. • For the five hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting hormonal systems that control reproduction, stress, metabolism, growth, and lactation, each system has a hypothalamic neurosecretory cell, a corresponding pituitary hormone, and a target organ and/or hormone
  • 16.
  • 17. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM •The endocrine system is a network of glands that produce hormones to regulate various bodily functions, including growth, development, and metabolism. It includes the pancreas, thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to reach their target cells, where they regulate cellular activities
  • 18. COMPARISON OF THE NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Both serve for internal communication – Nervous: both electrical and chemical – Endocrine: only chemical Speed and persistence of response – Nervous: reacts quickly (1 to 10 ms), stops quickly – Endocrine: reacts slowly (hormones release in seconds or days) effect may continue for weeks
  • 19. Adaptation to long-term stimuli – Nervous: response declines (adapts quickly) – Endocrine: response persists (adapts slowly) Area of effect – Nervous: targeted and specific (one organ) – Endocrine: general, widespread effects (many organs)
  • 20. THE PITUITARY GLAND • The pituitary gland is suspended from hypothalamus by a stalk called the infundibulum • It is housed in sella turcica of sphenoid bone and its size and shape of kidney bean. • It is composed of two structures with independent origins and separate functions – Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) – Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
  • 21. ADENOHYPOPHYSIS • It constitutes anterior three-quarters of pituitary . Has two segments – Anterior lobe (pars distalis) – Pars tuberalis—small mass of cells adhering to stalk
  • 22.
  • 23. • Linked to hypothalamus by hypophyseal portal system. – Primary capillaries in hypothalamus connected to secondary capillaries in adenohypophysis by portal venules . –Hypothalamic hormones regulate adenohypophysis cells
  • 24.
  • 25. NEUROHYPOPHYSIS • It constitutes the posterior one quarter of the pituitary – Three parts :Median eminence, infundibulum, and the posterior lobe (pars nervosa) – Nerve tissue, not a true gland
  • 26.
  • 27. • Nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus pass down the stalk as hypothalamo–hypophyseal tract and end in posterior lobe • Hypothalamic neurons secrete hormones that are stored in neurohypophysis until released into blood.
  • 28.
  • 29. PITUITARY AS MASTER GLAND • The pituitary gland is frequently referred to as master gland because most of its hormones are tropic hormones, which influence the release of hormones from other glands. • Eight hormones produced in hypothalamus – Six hormones are regulated in the anterior pituitary – Two are released into capillaries in the posterior pituitary when hypothalamic neurons are stimulated (oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone)
  • 30. • Six releasing and inhibiting hormones stimulate or inhibit the anterior pituitary – TRH, CRH, GnRH, and GHRH are releasing hormones that affect anterior pituitary secretion of TSH, PRL, ACTH, FSH, LH, and GH – PIH inhibits secretion of prolactin, and somatostatin inhibits secretion growth hormone and thyroid- stimulating hormone by the anterior pituitary
  • 31.
  • 32. GROWTH HORMONE It also known as somatotropin, is a peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain. Its functions are as follows
  • 33. FUNCTIONS OF GH Growth and development Metabolism Tissue repair
  • 34. Immune function Regulation of blood sugar Maintenance of organs
  • 35.  Release is stimulated by growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and suppressed by growth hormone release inhibiting hormone (GHRIH), also known as somatostatin, both of which are secreted by the hypothalamus.  Secretion of GH is greater at night during sleep and is also stimulated by hypoglycaemia, exercise and anxiety.
  • 36.  The daily amount secreted peaks in adolescence and then declines with age.  Inhibition of GH secretion occurs by a negative feedback mechanism when the blood level rises and also when GHRIH is released by the hypothalamus.
  • 37. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)  This hormone is synthesised by the anterior pituitary and its release is stimulated by thyrotrophin releasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus.  It stimulates growth and activity of the thyroid gland, which secretes the hormones thyroxine (T4) and tri- iodothyronine (T3).
  • 38.  Release is lowest in the early evening and highest during the night.  Secretion is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism .When the blood level of thyroid hormones is high, secretion of TSH is reduced, and vice versa.
  • 39. ADRENOCORTICOTROPHIC HORMONE (ACTH, corticotrophin)  Corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus promotes the synthesis and release of ACTH by the anterior pituitary. This increases the concentration of cholesterol and steroids within the adrenal cortex and the output of steroid hormones, especially cortisol.  ACTH levels are highest at about 8 a.m. and fall to their lowest about midnight, although high levels sometimes occur at midday and 6 p.m.
  • 40.  It is associated with the sleep pattern and adjustment to changes takes several days, following, e.g., changing work shifts, travelling to a different time zone .  Secretion is also regulated by a negative feedback mechanism, being suppressed when the blood level of ACTH rises. Other factors that stimulate secretion include hypoglycaemia, exercise and other stressors, e.g. emotional states and fever.
  • 43. PROLACTIN  This hormone is secreted during pregnancy to prepare the breasts for lactation (milk production) after childbirth.  The blood level of prolactin is stimulated by prolactin releasing hormone (PRH) released from the hypothalamus and it is lowered by prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH) and by an increased blood level of prolactin.
  • 44.  Immediately after birth, suckling stimulates prolactin secretion and lactation. The resultant high blood level is a factor in reducing the incidence of conception during lactation.  Prolactin, together with oestrogens, corticosteroids, insulin and thyroxine, is involved in initiating and maintaining lactation.  Prolactin secretion is related to sleep, i.e. it is raised during any period of sleep, night or day.
  • 45.
  • 46. GONADOTROPHINS  Just before puberty two gonadotrophins (sex hormones) are secreted in gradually increasing amounts by the anterior pituitary in response to luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), also known as gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH).  At puberty secretion increases, further enabling normal adult functioning of the reproductive organs; in both males and females the hormones responsible are: - follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) - luteinising hormone (LH).
  • 47. In both sexes :FSH stimulates production of gametes (ova or spermatozoa) by the gonads. In females :LH and FSH are involved in secretion of the hormones oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle. As the levels of oestrogen and progesterone rise, secretion of LH and FSH is suppressed. In males :LH, also called interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH) stimulates the interstitial cells of the testes to secrete the hormone testosterone.
  • 48. POSTERIOR PITUTARY  Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH or vasopressin) are the hormones synthesised in nerve cell bodies in the hypothalamus and then stored in the axon terminals within the posterior pituitary gland .  These hormones act directly on non-endocrine tissue and their release from synaptic vesicles by exocytosis is stimulated by nerve impulses from the hypothalamus.
  • 49. OXYTOCIN • Oxytocin is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide produced by the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland in the brain. It plays several important roles in the body, primarily related to social and reproductive functions.
  • 50. • Uterine • contra ct-ion • Milk • ejectio n • Social • bonding • emotion al • regulatio n
  • 51. ANTI DIURETIC HORMONE • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also known as arginine vasopressin (AVP), is a hormone produced by the hypothalamus in the brain and released by the posterior pituitary gland.
  • 53. THYROID HORMONES • Thyroid hormones are a group of hormones produced by the thyroid gland, which is a butterfly-shaped gland located in the front of the neck. The primary thyroid hormones are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which play crucial roles in regulating various physiological processes in the body. Here's a brief overview of the anatomy and functions of thyroid hormones:
  • 54. • They control the rate at which cells use energy (calories) from the food we consume. Metabolism regulation • Influence the production of ATP(adenosine triphosphate), Energy production • Regulate body temperature by influencing the rate at which the body generates heat. Body temperature regulation
  • 55. • Promote the development of the nervous system, bone formation, and overall physical growth Growth and development • They can influence heart rate, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Cardiovascular function • Maintains cognitive function and mood. Brain function
  • 56. • They influence muscle strength and tone Muscle function • Insufficient thyroid hormone levels can lead to elevated cholesterol levels, which are a risk factor for heart disease. Cholestrol metabolism
  • 57. CONCLUSION • Neuroendocrinology encompasses a wide range of topics, including the control of the gonads, influence of corticosteroids on the brain, and peripheral neuroendocrine regulation. It has contributed to our understanding of basic principles in neuroscience and physiology. Neuroendocrinology plays a crucial role in understanding neurobiological brain disorders and is used in the treatment of mood symptoms. The cerebrospinal fluid of some schizophrenia patients has been found to have a transthyretin problem, highlighting the relevance of neuroendocrinology in brain disorders.
  • 58. JOURNAL REFERENCE Endocrine Disorders and Psychiatric Manifestations Abstract The relationships between endocrine and psychiatric diseases are bidirectional. Most endocrine disorders are associated with psychological disturbances, and, conversely, psychiatric entities induce changes in hormonal activity, as is the case for adrenal and thyroid hormones. In some cases psychiatric manifestations precede organic symptoms of endocrine dysfunction, allowing an early diagnosis. Moreover, biochemical control on endocrine hypo- or hyperfunction is not always associated with normalization of quality of life (QoL), due in part to persistence of psychological problems.
  • 59. • Direct effects of hormonal imbalance, insulin resistance, and inflammation on neuronal structures such as the limbic system represent crucial mediators of central nervous system injury leading to mood disturbances and cognitive impairment. Main psychiatric manifestations associated with endocrine diseases are depression, anxiety, mania, and eating disorders.Psychosis and suicidal thoughts may appear in severe cases. Cushing’s disease and thyroid dysfunction states are commonly associated with mental disorders, which in some cases are not reversible even after hormonal imbalance has been corrected, suggesting permanent neuronal damage
  • 60. Changes in body appearance, such as those occurring in acromegaly, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity, play a significant role in the development of psychiatric manifestations. Diseases that affect lifestyle and require chronic self-monitoring such as diabetes and obesity are commonly associated with psychological problems. In general, treatment of endocrine dysfunction improves mood, but sometimes, psychiatric conditions remain requiring specific therapy.
  • 61. Inadequate hormonal treatment may also induce psychiatric symptoms. Coexistence of psychiatric disturbances with endocrine diseases may reduce therapeutic adherence, impair treatment outcomes, and increase healthcare costs. Endocrinologists, internists, primary care doctors, and psychiatrists should be aware of bilateral interactions between psychiatric and endocrine disease to program a multidisciplinary approach so promoting early diagnosis and treatment as well as QoL improvement.