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ROLE OFAGRICULTURAL EXTENSIONINCLIMATE CHANGE OF ODISHASri B.P.SiNGH DEO,rEaDEr iN GEOGraPHy , H.O.DDEPartmENt Of GEOGraPH...
• INTRODUCTION:• Climate change is any long term substantialdeviation from present climate because of variation inweather ...
• The hike in population growth has raised awfully therequirements of the people and consequently theexploitation of natur...
• Out of the various artificial causes, agricultureranks 3rdas a contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect after energ...
Agriculture, the largest human activity depends onclimatic parameters. More than 50% difference incrop yield is due to cli...
VULNERABILITY OF INDIA TO CLIMATECHANGEIndia is most vulnerable to climate changebecause of….• A unique combination of its...
VULNERABILITY OF ODISHA TO CLIMATECHANGEOdisha may be better termed as ‘’DisasterCrown’’of india. (In the last 42 years, t...
CLIMATE CHANGE EXPERIENCED IN ODISHAa) Odisha is getting warmer day by dayb) Monsoon rain pattern is very erratic.( Annual...
S U N D A R G A R HJ H A R S U G U D AD E O G A R HS A M B A L P U RB A R G A R HB O L A N G I RN A W A R A N G P U RK O R...
d) Extreme weather events are increasing.(max. rainfall in a day,increased no of days withheavy rainfall,daily max tempera...
FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF CLIMATECHANGE IN ODISHA (Pasupalak 2008)• Late monsoon onset and more pre-monsoon rainfall.• Reduced...
• Warm and short winter with fewer cold nights in westernOrissa.• More frequent extreme weather events, such as hotextreme...
ADVERSE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGEIN ODISHAThe trend analysis and the future projections agreeto result in reduced yield of...
ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION TOREDUCE VULNERABILITYA range of adoption measures(cropdiversification, introducing new cro...
A large number of technologies (improvedland management ,restoration of degraded land,improved composting, using efficient...
Technology developed in research station isof no use, unless it is appropriately transferredand adopted by the end users. ...
To reduce the vulnerability to climate change,“agricultural extension”can go a long way with:-A. RIGHT EXTENSION POLICY OF...
RIGHT EXTENSION POLICY OF STATE GOVT.I. Need based Revised agricultural extension policy(may now be better termed as Clima...
IV.Orientation training to the newly recruitedpersonnel to get introduced to the neworganization /capacity building traini...
EFFORTS OF HIGHLY DEDICATEDRESEARCH & EXTENTION SCIENTISTSThe organizational set up plays the key rolefor setting up an en...
RESPONSIVE & DEDICATED EXTENTIONFUNCTIONARIES OF AGRICUTURE & ALLIEDSECTORS INCLUDING THE GOVT.DEPARTMENTS & NGOs.I The ex...
III.”Learning by doing” being an effective methodof motivation, a few demonstration projects are tobe used.IV.The extensio...
EFFECTIVE EDUCATION,TRAINING ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS.In order to combat the effects of climate changealongwith the capacity bu...
The different tools for the purpose are :-I. For civil society:The reading materials must reachthe would be benefitted pro...
V.By organizing workshop and seminars : For fasterdissemination to different levels.VI.Using communication media: Newspape...
ConclusionMost of the climate change studies havehighlighted more on macro/global perspectives ofclimate change. In the re...
Let all efforts for the futures to have smiles with greenery
THANKYOU
CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE• Natural causes1] Continental drift2] Volcanoes3] The earth’s tilt4] Ocean currents• Artificial c...
CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE• Natural causes1] Continental drift2] Volcanoes3] The earth’s tilt4] Ocean currents• Artificial c...
Milutin Milankovitch Cycles (1920s)
MILANKOVITCH CYCLES• Eccentricity constantly fluctuating, orbital shape (0 to5% ellipticity, currently 3%) on a cycle of a...
Methane23%NitrousOxide7%CarbonDioxide70%COCO22 Contributed Most to Global WarmingContributed Most to Global WarmingOver Pa...
GREEN HOUSE GASES AND THEIRANTHROPOGENIC SOURCECON OCHCFCBiomass burningFossil fuel combustionSolventRefrigerantsNatural g...
Emission sources of Methane• Natural (70%): Wetlands (110 Tg CH4/yr inworld), including mangroves (India has 3% of worldma...
Entericfermentation,28%Natural gases,15%Solid wastetreatment, 13%Rice fields,11%Waste water,10%Coal, 8%Biomassburning, 5%B...
Avg. emission of GHGs from Agril. At global level is only 13.5%
Carbon flow Pg C yr-1SourceFossil fuel 6.4Land use change 1.1Tropical deforestation 1.6Total sources 9.1SinksAtmospheric i...
AGRICULTURE AS A SOURCE & SINK OF GHGs• Emissions of GHG’s (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from agriculturalsources account for some 1...
Year CO2, ppm2000 3692010-2015 388-3982050/2060 463-6232100 478-1099
Climate change caused by human activities• More than 6 billion tonnes of C as CO2is added annually tothe atmosphere due to...
Abundance & global warming potentialof GHGsParameter CO2 CH4 N2O CFCAvg. conc. 100 yr ago, ppm 290 0.900 0.270 0Current Co...
• Temp. increased by 0.74°C between 19thcentury to 20thcentury & would increase from 1.4-5.8 oC by 2100 (exceedthe change ...
(IPCC 2007)
Variations in the All-India mean annual temperatureduring 1875-2004. (Source: NATCOM, 2004)
• The earth has warmed by 0.74°C [0.56 to 0.92] during last100-years (1906–2005)• Frequency of heavy precipitation events ...
Climate change projections for IndiaYearTemperature change, oC Sea levelrise, cmAnnual Winter Monsoon2020s 1.36 ± 0.19 1.6...
India is most vulnerable to climate changebecause of…• A unique combination of its geography• Diverse population character...
Cold wave (papaya)Heat wave (Mango tree death)FloodFloodDroughtTIDAL WAVESTIDAL WAVES
S U N D A R G A R HJ H A R S U G U D AD E O G A R HS A M B A L P U RB A R G A R HB O L A N G I RN A W A R A N G P U RK O R...
Why climate change is so important to agriculture ?• Agriculture is the largest human activity inthe world which depends o...
Effect of climate change on crops• GrowthCO2 rise-Favours drymatter-Reduces transpirationTemperature rise-Reduces drymatte...
Impact of climate change on crop production• Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration has a fertilizationeffect on C3 plant...
CropTemp. increase1°C 2°C 3°CWHEAT 8.1 18.7 25.7RICE 5.4 7.4 25.1MAIZE 10.4 14.6 21.4GROUNDNUT 8.7 23.2 36.2Yield decrease...
IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WHEATPRODUCTION IN INDIA4045505560657075802000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070YearProductio...
Estimated changes in total rice production predicted bysimulation models for Asia under the three GCM scenariosSimulationm...
Simulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under dif...
Station CropIncrease in waterrequirements(2000-2005)mmAnakapalliMaize 51.7Groundnut 61.3Anantapur Groundnut 70.1Red gram 1...
Changes in crop durationStation CropReduction in cropduration (weeks)(2000-2005)AnakapalliMaize 1Groundnut 1AnantapurGroun...
Effect of high temp. on rice
Anthesis• The response of rice to high temperatures differs according to thedevelopmental stage with high temperature tole...
Ripening phase• High temperature affects cellular and developmental processesleading to reduced fertility and grain qualit...
Spikelet fertility of BKN6624–46–2 exposed to hightemperature of 350C during different stages ofpanicle development for 5 ...
High night temp.• Grain yield declined by 10% for each 10C increase inminimum temperature in the dry season. The decreasei...
Effects of enhanced CO2 on crop growth• C3 plants (Wheat, rice, soybeans etc.) wouldrespond readily to increased CO2 level...
Change in yields of 4 cereals, due to increaseof 2 and 4 °C in average global temp.
Impact of climate change on wheat yield in north India• Grain yields of wheat decreaseby 17% with a 2oC increase intempera...
Impact of climate change on fresh wateravailability• Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation,runoff and soil mois...
Impact of climate change on soil health– Reduces soil organic matter both in quantity & quality– Reduces soil moisture ava...
Impact of climate change on pest• Increasing temp. increases the rate of development of insects therebydecreasing developm...
Effects of droughts, heat waves,wind storms and floods on insects• Drought/Heat waves – Mealy bugs,scales, mites, borers, ...
Effect on Insecticide Use Efficiency• Entomologist predict more generation of insets in warmclimate that necessitates more...
Impact of climate change on livestock &fishery• Affects feed production & nutrition of livestock. Lessfodder production du...
Predicted effects of climate change on agril. over next 50 yrsClimaticelementExpected changes by 2050sConfidencein predict...
Climate change experienced in Orissa• Orissa is getting hotter:– 1.0 oC in the 40 years from 1951 to 1990 and 0.1 oC in th...
NATURAL CALAMITIES IN ORISSA(1964 to 2011)Calamity YearDrought 1965, 1966, 1976, 1979, 1984,1987, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2004*,...
EXTENT OF CROP LOSSYear Loss ( Rs crore)2000 3222001 4532002 18772003 3412004 3462005 3602006 4912007 355
Future climatic projections for Orissa (Pasupalak, 2008)• ce
Projected effects of climate change on Agriculture-special emphasis in Orissa• Reduced yields of crops due to warm days an...
• Less elongation of rice grain and lower quality of rice due to warmnights during post flowering period (basmati rice)• D...
ADAPTING AGRICULTURETO CHANGING CLIMATE• Adaptive mechanism• Mitigating mechanism• increasing soil carbon sink• reducing G...
Adaptive measures• Crop diversification• New crop varieties• New rice culture• Intercropping/Mixed cropping• Altered sowin...
Crop mixture- Nutri millets, Pulses and Oilseed, Agroforestry, IFSEnlarging the Food Basket
WUE of different field cropsWUE of different field cropsCrop WR(mm)Yield(kg/ha)WUE(kg/ha-mm)Rice 1200 4000 3.3Maize 500 40...
Water saving techniques in rice• Proper land leveling and puddling.• Growing rice in a compact rather than in isolated pat...
Productivity and profitability ofnon-paddy crops in rainfedhighlandsCrop Yield (q/ha) Net return (Rs/ha)Maize 45 (grain) 5...
Performance of upland crops innormal & drought yearsPerformance of upland crops innormal & drought yearsCropREY (kg/ha) RW...
"Greater emphasis on tuberous crops such as potato, tapioca and sweetpotato to make them available at cheaper rates"Dr. A ...
Varieties for adverse situationsRice: Drought-Sahabhagi DhanHigh temp. – AnnapurnaFlood: Swarna Sub-1, Varshadhan, Hansesw...
Yam CassavaSweet potatoColocassiaYam bean ArrowrootElephant Foot Yam
New submergence tolerant lines after 17 days of submergence
Management ofManagement of PairaPaira pulsespulses• Proper land levelling of kharif rice• Growing stiff straw rice var.• 1...
Natural Resource Management :• Soil physical, chemical & microbial properties• Soil fertility management• Soil health pas...
RHIZOBIUMComponents of organic agricultureGreen manure Cover cropCrop residuesVermicompost Oil cakeAzolla
0 20 40 60 80 100 120100%NControl50%NPK100%NPK(-S)100%NP100%NPK+ZnNPK (soil test)100%NPK100%NPK+FYMRelative Soil Quality
RCTs for sustainability & climate change mitigationRCT Potential benefitZero tillage Reduces WR, fuel use, GHG emission, i...
Resource conservation equipments• Rotavator saves 50 % fuel and helps in preparation ofbetter quality seed bed• Zero till ...
Capping Methane emission in rice fields• The balance CH4 out of the action of Methanogens &Methanotrophs in rice field is ...
Reducing methane emission from ruminants• Improving productivity (by nutrition, reproduction,genetics)-lessanimals require...
Improved Risk Management :•Early warming system for rainfall, drought, flood,cyclones•Contingency plans•Agrl. credit/mark...
Integration of on farm & non farm activities :•Cooperative farms / Group farming•Contract farming•Value addition / adviso...
• Inter cropping/mixed cropping• Changing varieties / crops / planting time: matching cropphenology with weather/water ava...
To mitigate the problems arising out of climate changevarious adaptation measures should be done by• Continuous monitoring...
• food security,• balance and qualitative food,• high productivity,• enhanced income,• employment generation,• poverty all...
AICRP on Dry Land Agril.,
RICE-BASED FARMING SYSTEMBenefit•The system becomes a micro watershed• Better crop stand at initialstage• Enrichment of so...
Mitigation measures• Improved land management :– (mulching, minimum/zero tillage, FYM, intensive cropping, legumes,green m...
MITIGATION OF GHG EMISSION FROM INDIANAGRICULTUREImproved water and fertilizer management in low landareasCrop Diversifi...
Improved agricultural practices for carbon sequestration
Alternate Land Use System (ALUS)Advantages of tree farming• Trees…• trap moisture from deeper layer• fulfill diverse needs...
Aonla + Guava+ paddy
Hoeing and weeding in mango + G.nutSystem Intercrop NR (Rs/ha)Mango based GingerCowpea28,0005,050Guava based CowpeaFrenchb...
Agri-silvi system with arrowroot in 8 year old Acacia mangium
Horti-silvi-pastoral(Guava + sissoo + stylo)A.mangium+ GuineaTree component Fodder crops1. Acacia mangium 1. Guinea2. Albi...
Energy plantation with Acacia mangiumFast growing Moderately fastgrowingBamboo1. Acacia auriculiformis 1. Acacia nilotica ...
Relative soil chemical quality index (RSCQI) in ALUSRelative soil chemical quality index (RSCQI) in ALUSSystemSystem 0-15 ...
Methane oxidation by different forest soils• Disturbed forest soils - 0.5-2.9 kg CH4/ha/yr• Undisturbed tropical forest - ...
SystemSystem 0-150-15cmcm15-3015-30cmcmSilvi-agriculture 0.95 1.00Silvi-pasture 1.00 0.71Silviculture 0.95 0.73Agri-hortic...
Acacia mangium in farmer’sfield
Effects from land management practices on carbonsequestration potentialTechnological optionsSequestration potential(tonnes...
Gene Bank Seed Bank Water BankGrain/FodderBankConservation - Cultivation –Consumption - CommerceCommunity Food Security Sy...
India’s national Action Plan on Climate ChangeJune 2008, ( 8 core National Missions)• National Solar Mission• National Mis...
Durban climate change roadmap-December 2011• Guide countries towards a legal deal to cutCarbon in 2015• Carbon will have t...
CONCLUSION• It is the bitter truth that ‘what we achieved in thename of development only by the cost of climatechange whic...
Concerns Insufficient information on how climate trendswill affect the suitability of specific crops andcropping practice...
THANK YOU
Scenario-1: Early onset and sudden stoppage of monsoon(There is more likelihood of mortality of sprouts/seedlings and diff...
Scenario-1: Early onset and sudden stoppage of monsoon (cont.)Medium and low land•If rice plant population is less than 50...
Scenario-2: Late onset, uplands not covered till mid July• Sow drought tolerant nonpaddy crop like ragi, greengram, blackg...
B. Mid season drought (1stAug to 15stSept)Scenario-3: Non-paddy crops in uplands affected• Complete hoeing and weeding in ...
Scenario-3: Non-paddy crops in uplands affected (cont.)• Spray 1% urea in brinjal, take up spray against mealy bugs and mi...
Scenario-4: Beushaning of rice delayed• Do not practice beushaning in rice, if the crop ismore than 45 days old• Weed out ...
Scenario-5: Transplanting of rice delayed/seedlings overaged(Generally in this case rice seedlings are overaged)• Seedling...
Scenario-6: Beushaned/transplanted riceaffected at early vegetative stage• Provide protective irrigation• Remove the weeds...
C. Late season drought (16thSept to 31stOct)Scenario-7: Medium and lowland rice affected at vegetative/ reproductivestage...
Pre-flood planning• Suitable variety (Local, improved)• Sufficient seed stock for resowing after early flood• Varieties fo...
Flash flood (Short duration)Strategies Action planJuly flood • Seed bank• Community nursery• Private nursery• Sprouted see...
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
B.p.singhdeo,reader in geog
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  1. 1. ROLE OFAGRICULTURAL EXTENSIONINCLIMATE CHANGE OF ODISHASri B.P.SiNGH DEO,rEaDEr iN GEOGraPHy , H.O.DDEPartmENt Of GEOGraPHym.ramPUr COLLEGE,m.ramPUr, KaLaHaNDi,766102Sri B.P.SiNGH DEO,rEaDEr iN GEOGraPHy , H.O.DDEPartmENt Of GEOGraPHym.ramPUr COLLEGE,m.ramPUr, KaLaHaNDi,766102
  2. 2. • INTRODUCTION:• Climate change is any long term substantialdeviation from present climate because of variation inweather and climatic elements.• The earth’s natural climate is changing continuouslysince ancient times . Presently it has got momentum due tovarious artificial causes of modern technology inagricultural practices, heavy deforestation andindustrialization .
  3. 3. • The hike in population growth has raised awfully therequirements of the people and consequently theexploitation of natural resources has increased abruptlyleading to climate change by the emissions of• Carbon dioxide,• Methane,• Nitrous oxide,• Hydrofluoro carbons,• Perfluoro carbon,• Ozone and• Sulfur hexafluoridewhich have high global warming potential.
  4. 4. • Out of the various artificial causes, agricultureranks 3rdas a contributor to the enhanced greenhouse effect after energy and industry.• Land use related emissions like from Ricecultivation, Manure management, Cropmanagement, Emissions from soils & Entericfermentation currently account for nearly 1/3rdof totalwarming from green house gases, globally.
  5. 5. Agriculture, the largest human activity depends onclimatic parameters. More than 50% difference incrop yield is due to climatic variation. Manipulationof climate is beyond our control.Butwe can manipulate the cropping environment(soil,water & nutrient management practices).Itinfluences the crop-pest equilibrium.
  6. 6. VULNERABILITY OF INDIA TO CLIMATECHANGEIndia is most vulnerable to climate changebecause of….• A unique combination of its geography• Diverse population characteristics• Extremely high dependence on fossil fuels• With nearly 700 million rural population directlydepending on climate sensitive sectors (agril.,forests, fisheries) & natural resources (water,biodiversity, mangroves, coastal zones,grasslands) for their subsistence & livelihoods.
  7. 7. VULNERABILITY OF ODISHA TO CLIMATECHANGEOdisha may be better termed as ‘’DisasterCrown’’of india. (In the last 42 years, the statehas experienced 34 disasters of varied intensity)as it is one of the most vulnerable states to climatechange and the impacts of climate change havebeen serious. It is the hot spot of climate changeand because of the poor people, they are morevulnerable to such changes.
  8. 8. CLIMATE CHANGE EXPERIENCED IN ODISHAa) Odisha is getting warmer day by dayb) Monsoon rain pattern is very erratic.( Annualrainfall decreased between 1950 and 1990 by19 to 225 mm, increasing in the coastal districtsand declining in the interior districts, increasingin May and Oct. and declining in Nov. to March).c)Low pressure numbers over the Bay of Bengal isincreasing( Low pressure reached 12 in 2006and 14 in 2007. Super Cyclone in 1999…..)
  9. 9. S U N D A R G A R HJ H A R S U G U D AD E O G A R HS A M B A L P U RB A R G A R HB O L A N G I RN A W A R A N G P U RK O R A P U TM A L K A N G I R IA N D H R AP R A D E S HG A J A P A T IG A N J A MN A Y A G A R HR A Y A G A D AK A L A H A N D IS O N E P U RB O U D HK A N D H A M A LA N G U LK H U R D A J A G A T S I N G H P U RK E N D R A P A R AJ A J P U RB H A D R A KB A L A S O R EM A Y U R B H A N JK E O N J H A RW E S TB E N G A LD H E N K A N A LC U T T A C KP U R IN U A P A D AB H U B A N E S W A RB A YO FB E N G A LSUPER CYCLONE – 1999(Coastline of 480 km)
  10. 10. d) Extreme weather events are increasing.(max. rainfall in a day,increased no of days withheavy rainfall,daily max temperature is increasing,no.of hot days also increasing)e)Threat to 480 KM long coastal settlements.(Eroded beach, encroached several kilometers tothe land)
  11. 11. FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF CLIMATECHANGE IN ODISHA (Pasupalak 2008)• Late monsoon onset and more pre-monsoon rainfall.• Reduced post monsoon and winter rainfall.• Less rainfall in February, June and October.• More number of cloudy days.• Increased day and night temperatures in all the monthsexcept July.• Maximum increase in temperature in post-monsoonfollowed by summer.• Extended summer up to June.• Increased number of hot, humid summer days in coastalareas.
  12. 12. • Warm and short winter with fewer cold nights in westernOrissa.• More frequent extreme weather events, such as hotextremes (maximum temperature above 450C) andprolonged heat waves.• More number of very heavy rainy days (> 125 mm perday).• Prolonged dry spell due to most rainfall over few days.• More number of low-intensity low pressures at the Bay ofBengal.• More intense tropical cyclones with larger peak windspeeds and heavier rainfall.• Increased risk of drought and flood during monsoon.• Intense storms resulting in loss of the rain water as directrunoff resulting in reduced groundwater rechargingpotential.
  13. 13. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGEIN ODISHAThe trend analysis and the future projections agreeto result in reduced yield of crops, substantial yieldlosses in winter crops, more crop loss, water logging,increased soil structure damage, soil erosion, higherincidence of pests &diseases etc.And thus, future climate change is likely to adverselyaffect agriculture, livelihood, food security and waterresource.
  14. 14. ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION TOREDUCE VULNERABILITYA range of adoption measures(cropdiversification, introducing new crop variety,mixed cropping/inter cropping, altering sowingtime, integrated nutrient management, integratedpest management, draught management, floodmanagement ,land management and integratedfarming system approach) are available toreduce vulnerability to climate change byenhancing adaptive capacity and increasingresilience.
  15. 15. A large number of technologies (improvedland management ,restoration of degraded land,improved composting, using efficient agril.machineries and adopting farm forestry andplantation with due emphasis on natural resourcemanagement developed for sustainableagriculture have strong mitigation potential. Thepractices having mitigation potential cancollectively make a significant contribution toincreasing soil carbon sinks, reducing green housegases emissions, and by contributing biomassfeedstock for energy use.
  16. 16. Technology developed in research station isof no use, unless it is appropriately transferredand adopted by the end users. For the purpose oftransferring appropriate technology to the farmingcommunity, development of competence,consciousness about the roles, possession ofcertain qualities and knowledge about methods foreffective transfer of technology are essential. Herethe term “agricultural extension” comes into theplay. It is the nucleus of the agriculturedevelopment cell. It is not to aim at only ontechnology transfer but also on the humanresource development in agriculture in holisticmanner.
  17. 17. To reduce the vulnerability to climate change,“agricultural extension”can go a long way with:-A. RIGHT EXTENSION POLICY OF STATE GOVT.B. SUSTAINED EFFORTS OF HIGHLY DEDICATEDRESEARCH & EXTENTION SCIENTISTSC. RESPONSIVE & DEDICATED EXTENTIONFUNCTIONARIES OF AGRICUTURE & ALLIEDSECTOR (GOVT.DEPT & N.G.O. ALONGWITH THEINPUT SUPPLIER,FINANCIALINSTITUTION,MARKET AGENTS,PROCESSORSETC.)D. EFFECTIVE EDUCATION,TRAINING AND PUBLICAWARENESS.
  18. 18. RIGHT EXTENSION POLICY OF STATE GOVT.I. Need based Revised agricultural extension policy(may now be better termed as Climate LedExtension as 3rdgeneration extension afterproduction led extension and market ledextension ) frame work developmentII. Restructured extension network to reach theincreased population and to meet the effects ofclimate change.III. Recruitment of committed and dedicatedextension personnel.
  19. 19. IV.Orientation training to the newly recruitedpersonnel to get introduced to the neworganization /capacity building training to all theofficers to incorporate climate changeconcerns.and the capacity building at local levelalso must not be ignored.V.Providing proper working environment to theextension personnel and encouragements throughperiodic promotion/ performance based incentivesetc.VI.Special emphasis on strengthening the ATMA likeinstitutions for multi disciplinary extension servicesto the farmers.
  20. 20. EFFORTS OF HIGHLY DEDICATEDRESEARCH & EXTENTION SCIENTISTSThe organizational set up plays the key rolefor setting up an enabling environment,. The co-ordinated efforts of highly dedicated researchscientists and extension scientists can bring in theimproved decision making on continuous basis atstate level for effective implementation to achievethe desired goal of sustainable agriculturalproduction
  21. 21. RESPONSIVE & DEDICATED EXTENTIONFUNCTIONARIES OF AGRICUTURE & ALLIEDSECTORS INCLUDING THE GOVT.DEPARTMENTS & NGOs.I The extension personnel must be competent withscientific,technical and managerial skill and aboveall he should be willing to work for socio-economic development of the farming community.This will help in proper technology dissemination,understanding and adoption by the targetgroups.II.The participatory approaches to be followed forclimate change.
  22. 22. III.”Learning by doing” being an effective methodof motivation, a few demonstration projects are tobe used.IV.The extension personnel including all the stakeholders (members from Govt.Dept & N.G.O.alongwith the input supplier,financialinstitution,market agents,processors etc.) shouldpersonally,socially and organizationally beheld responsible in the multi-stage dramaundertaken to develop the farming community.
  23. 23. EFFECTIVE EDUCATION,TRAINING ANDPUBLIC AWARENESS.In order to combat the effects of climate changealongwith the capacity building of extensionpersonnel,the first and foremost step to be takenup by the state is to develop teaching material forimparting effective education, training andpublic awareness under multi-tier approach.
  24. 24. The different tools for the purpose are :-I. For civil society:The reading materials must reachthe would be benefitted professionals.II.For school curriculum: The reading materials mustbe prepared for different levels.III.For the community: The small book and literaturesas reading materials must be prepared inparticipatory approach with the community insimple language and with more pictorial features.IV. For the policy makers, decision makers andplanners: The reading materials with exhaustiveresearch data on climate change and its effectwith case studies.
  25. 25. V.By organizing workshop and seminars : For fasterdissemination to different levels.VI.Using communication media: Newspaper, TV,Radio Street Play etc.Here, it is an appeal to all,to develop such aslogan or song or any other strategy which willcreate mass awareness for taking environmentfriendly activities as it often happens inviewing World Cup cricket and now like themost popular enchanting song of“Kolaveri,Kolaveri...D’’.
  26. 26. ConclusionMost of the climate change studies havehighlighted more on macro/global perspectives ofclimate change. In the recent past ,the state levelstudies have also not lagged behind. Under suchcircumstances, the present need is the effectiveeducation, training and creating publicawareness along with micro-level studies on theone hand . On the other, the vast majority of thepopulation being dependent upon the farming fortheir livelihood, the agricultural extension caninstill awareness and each individual will start tocontribute their bit in climate change of Odisha.Last but not the least……..
  27. 27. Let all efforts for the futures to have smiles with greenery
  28. 28. THANKYOU
  29. 29. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE• Natural causes1] Continental drift2] Volcanoes3] The earth’s tilt4] Ocean currents• Artificial causes1] Global warming2] Deforestation3] IndustrializationClimate change is any long term substantial deviation frompresent climate because of variation in weather and climaticelements
  30. 30. CAUSES OF CLIMATE CHANGE• Natural causes1] Continental drift2] Volcanoes3] The earth’s tilt4] Ocean currents• Artificial causes1] Global warming2] Deforestation3] IndustrializationClimate change is any long term substantial deviation frompresent climate because of variation in weather and climaticelements
  31. 31. Milutin Milankovitch Cycles (1920s)
  32. 32. MILANKOVITCH CYCLES• Eccentricity constantly fluctuating, orbital shape (0 to5% ellipticity, currently 3%) on a cycle of about100,000 years. Causes prominent changes in theEarths climate and glacial regimes.• Earths axial tilt occur on a periodicity of 41,000years from 21.5 to 24.5 degrees. Today the Earthsaxial tilt is about 23.5 degrees, which largely accountsfor our seasons. A smaller degree of axial tilt wouldpromote growth of ice sheets.3. Earths precession: Earth wobbles from pointing atPolaris (North Star) to pointing at the star Vega, hasa periodicity of 23,000 years. Due to this wobble aclimatically significant alteration takes place.*At present, only precession is in the glacial mode, with tilt and eccentricity notfavorable to glaciation
  33. 33. Methane23%NitrousOxide7%CarbonDioxide70%COCO22 Contributed Most to Global WarmingContributed Most to Global WarmingOver Past CenturyOver Past Century
  34. 34. GREEN HOUSE GASES AND THEIRANTHROPOGENIC SOURCECON OCHCFCBiomass burningFossil fuel combustionSolventRefrigerantsNatural gasreleasesFertilizersRuminantsRice paddycultivationFoam packaging224Deforestation/land use changesLand conversionto agricultureAerosol spraypropellants
  35. 35. Emission sources of Methane• Natural (70%): Wetlands (110 Tg CH4/yr inworld), including mangroves (India has 3% of worldmangrove), termites, wild animals• Anthropogenic (30%): Ponds, dams (India has4291 dams contributing 33.5 mt CH4/yr), paddyfields (contribute 11-13 % of world’santhropogenic CH4), landfills (dumping sites), cattle& other domestic ruminants (Indian cattle emit 11.75Tg CH4/yr @ 80 g CH4/day)About 70-80% of total global CH4 emission is ofbiogenic origin.
  36. 36. Entericfermentation,28%Natural gases,15%Solid wastetreatment, 13%Rice fields,11%Waste water,10%Coal, 8%Biomassburning, 5%Biofuel burning,4%Manures, 4%Oil, 1%Contribution to global anthropogenic CH4 emission
  37. 37. Avg. emission of GHGs from Agril. At global level is only 13.5%
  38. 38. Carbon flow Pg C yr-1SourceFossil fuel 6.4Land use change 1.1Tropical deforestation 1.6Total sources 9.1SinksAtmospheric increase in CO23.4Terrestrial 2.0Oceans 2.0Unknown sink 1.7Total sink 9.1Carbon flow from various sources to sink
  39. 39. AGRICULTURE AS A SOURCE & SINK OF GHGs• Emissions of GHG’s (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from agriculturalsources account for some 15% of todays anthropogenic GHGemissions. Land use changes, made for agricultural purposes,contribute another 8% or so to the total.• Agriculture ranks third as a contributor to the enhancedgreenhouse effect after energy and industry.• According to IPCC estimates, by 2010 CO2removal in tropicalecosystem would be 125 Mt of carbon per year by croplands,170 Mt by forests, and 240 Mt by grazing lands accounting forabout 3% of CO2generated by these countries.
  40. 40. Year CO2, ppm2000 3692010-2015 388-3982050/2060 463-6232100 478-1099
  41. 41. Climate change caused by human activities• More than 6 billion tonnes of C as CO2is added annually tothe atmosphere due to human activities. Land clearing anddeforestation adds another 1-2 billion tonnes.• CO2 conc. increased from 280 ppm in 1860 to 380 ppm in2005 and would exceed 700 ppm by 2100 ( levels not seenin the planet for 50 million years.)• CH4 increased since pre-industrial times from 0.70 to 1.78ppm, presently increasing @ 3%/ year against 1.2% in thelate 1970s.• N2O conc. at present is 310 ppb & increasing @ 0.22%/yr.Agril. soils contribute 65% of anthropogenic N2O emission(6.3 Tg/yr).
  42. 42. Abundance & global warming potentialof GHGsParameter CO2 CH4 N2O CFCAvg. conc. 100 yr ago, ppm 290 0.900 0.270 0Current Conc., ppm 380 1.774 0.319 0.003-0.005Projected conc in 2030,ppm400-500 2.8-3.0 0.4-0.5 0.003-0.006Atm. lifetime, yr 5-200 9-15 114 75Global warming potentialrelative to CO21 25 298 4750-10,900
  43. 43. • Temp. increased by 0.74°C between 19thcentury to 20thcentury & would increase from 1.4-5.8 oC by 2100 (exceedthe change for the last 10,000 years.)20th century was the hottest century.1991-2000 was the hottest decade2005 was the hottest year so far recorded.11 of the 12 years during 1995-2006 rank among the top 12warmest years in the instrumental record since 1850(beginning of industrial revolution)• Sea levels would rise between 15-94 cm by 2100 (mayaffect 45-90 million people living in low lying areas)
  44. 44. (IPCC 2007)
  45. 45. Variations in the All-India mean annual temperatureduring 1875-2004. (Source: NATCOM, 2004)
  46. 46. • The earth has warmed by 0.74°C [0.56 to 0.92] during last100-years (1906–2005)• Frequency of heavy precipitation events has increasedover most land areas• More intense and longer droughts are observed over widerareas since the 1970s, in the tropics and subtropics.• Average Arctic temperatures have increased at almosttwice the global average rate in the past 100 years• Mountain glaciers and snow cover have declined onaverage in both hemispheresOBSERVED CLIMATE CHANGE (IPCC 2007)
  47. 47. Climate change projections for IndiaYearTemperature change, oC Sea levelrise, cmAnnual Winter Monsoon2020s 1.36 ± 0.19 1.61 ± 0.16 1.13 ± 0.43 4-82050s 2.69 ± 0.41 3.25 ± 0.36 2.19 ± 0.88 15-382080s 3.84 ± 0.76 3.84 ± 0.76 3.19 ± 1.42 46-59Aggarwal and Lal (2000)
  48. 48. India is most vulnerable to climate changebecause of…• A unique combination of its geography• Diverse population characteristics• Extremely high dependence on fossil fuels• With nearly 700 million rural populationdirectly depending on climate sensitivesectors (agril., forests, fisheries) & naturalresources (water, biodiversity, mangroves,coastal zones, grasslands) for theirsubsistence & livelihoods
  49. 49. Cold wave (papaya)Heat wave (Mango tree death)FloodFloodDroughtTIDAL WAVESTIDAL WAVES
  50. 50. S U N D A R G A R HJ H A R S U G U D AD E O G A R HS A M B A L P U RB A R G A R HB O L A N G I RN A W A R A N G P U RK O R A P U TM A L K A N G I R IA N D H R AP R A D E S HG A J A P A T IG A N J A MN A Y A G A R HR A Y A G A D AK A L A H A N D IS O N E P U RB O U D HK A N D H A M A LA N G U LK H U R D A J A G A T S I N G H P U RK E N D R A P A R AJ A J P U RB H A D R A KB A L A S O R EM A Y U R B H A N JK E O N J H A RW E S TB E N G A LD H E N K A N A LC U T T A C KP U R IN U A P A D AB H U B A N E S W A RB A YO FB E N G A LSUPER CYCLONE – 1999(Coastline of 480 km)
  51. 51. Why climate change is so important to agriculture ?• Agriculture is the largest human activity inthe world which depends on climaticparameters. More than 50% differences inyield is due to climatic variations.• A genotype gives good yield only undersuitable climatic conditions and othermanagement practices.• Manipulation of climate is beyond ourcontrol, but we can manipulate environment(soil, water and nutrient managementpractices).• It influences crop-pest equilibrium.Agriculture→ Small & Marginal farmers → rural poor → Handicapped ecology → Coastal areas
  52. 52. Effect of climate change on crops• GrowthCO2 rise-Favours drymatter-Reduces transpirationTemperature rise-Reduces drymatter-Increases transpiration• Development-Accelerates maturity• Quality-Less protein content• Pest dynamics changes• New weed flora• Soil degradation
  53. 53. Impact of climate change on crop production• Increased atmospheric CO2 concentration has a fertilizationeffect on C3 plants but is negated by increased temperature.• Increase in temperature reduces crop duration, increases croprespiration rate and alters photosynthates partitioning toeconomic products (for 1°C increase in temp. wheat yielddecreases by 428 kg/ha, for 2°C temp. rise rice yield decreasesby 750 kg/ha)• Increase in extreme weathers adversely affecting agril.productivity• Decrease probability of yield reduction due to cold waves &frost damage• Tropospheric ozone causes foliar injury• Affect quality of fruits, veg., tea, coffee, aromatic & medicinalplants• Ultra violet radiation damages nucleic acids creating longterm effects• Threaten agricultural biodiversity
  54. 54. CropTemp. increase1°C 2°C 3°CWHEAT 8.1 18.7 25.7RICE 5.4 7.4 25.1MAIZE 10.4 14.6 21.4GROUNDNUT 8.7 23.2 36.2Yield decrease (%) by increase in temperature
  55. 55. IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON WHEATPRODUCTION IN INDIA4045505560657075802000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 2060 2070YearProduction,mt
  56. 56. Estimated changes in total rice production predicted bysimulation models for Asia under the three GCM scenariosSimulationmodelGlobal circulation modelGFDL GISS UKMO%changeProduction(mt)% change Production(mt)% change Production(mt)ORYZA 1 6.5 462 -4.4 415 -5.6 409SIMRIW 4.2 452 -10.4 389 -12.8 379Taking average of all these estimates, it would appear that rice production in asian regions maydecline by –3.8%.GFDL : Geophysical Fluid Dynamics LaboratoryGISS : Goddard Institute for Space StudiesUKMO : United Kingdom Meteorological OfficeIn an analysis of climatic potential and on-farm yields of rice and wheat inIndo-Gangetic plains, negative yield trends were observed at six of thenine sites studied, four of which were statistically significant (p<0.05).
  57. 57. Simulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenariosSimulated grain yield (t/ha) of rice under different climate changescenarios
  58. 58. Station CropIncrease in waterrequirements(2000-2005)mmAnakapalliMaize 51.7Groundnut 61.3Anantapur Groundnut 70.1Red gram 174.3Jagtial Cotton 60.5Maize 49.0Rajendranagar Red gram 114.5Groundnut 73.0Tirupathi Groundnut 73.0Projected Crop Water Requirement
  59. 59. Changes in crop durationStation CropReduction in cropduration (weeks)(2000-2005)AnakapalliMaize 1Groundnut 1AnantapurGroundnut 1Red gram 1JagtialCotton 2Maize 1RajendranagarRed gram 2Sorghum 1Tirupathi Groundnut 1
  60. 60. Effect of high temp. on rice
  61. 61. Anthesis• The response of rice to high temperatures differs according to thedevelopmental stage with high temperature tolerance at onedevelopmental stage may or may not necessarily lead to toleranceduring other stages.• Processes close to the meiotic stage during tetrad formation andyoung microspore stage are most sensitive to high temperatureduring microsporogenesis. A significant reduction in pollenproduction at 50C above ambient air temperature was attributed toimpaired cell division of microspore mother cells.• Advancing peak anthesis toward early hours of the morning is anefficient strategy to escape high temperatures during later hours ofthe day. Significant genotypic variation for early morning peakanthesis exists in rice germplasm with O. glaberrima (CG14) havingthe ability to flower immediately after dawn, potentially escaping hightemperatures during the later hours of the day
  62. 62. Ripening phase• High temperature affects cellular and developmental processesleading to reduced fertility and grain quality.• Decreased grain weight, reduced grain filling, higherpercentage of white chalky rice and milky white rice arecommon effects of high temperature exposure during ripeningstage in rice.• In addition, increased temperature causes serious reduction ingrain size and amylase content further reducing the potentialeconomic benefits farmers can derive from rice cultivation.
  63. 63. Spikelet fertility of BKN6624–46–2 exposed to hightemperature of 350C during different stages ofpanicle development for 5 daysThe extreme sensitivity of high temperature duringanthesis leading to spikelet sterility: (A) hightemperature for 4 h, (B) high temperature for 1 h, (C) 1h before the onset of high temperature, (D) 1 himmediately after high temperature exposure, and (E)beyond 1 h of high temperature exposureFlowering patterns of O. sativa cv. IR64under both control and high temperature
  64. 64. High night temp.• Grain yield declined by 10% for each 10C increase inminimum temperature in the dry season. The decreasein radiation and increase in minimum temperature wereidentified as the reasons for the yield decline.• Although, high temperature at both day and nightreduced the duration of grain growth, the rate of growthwas lower in the early or middle stages of grain filling,and also reduced cell size midway between the centralpoint and the surface of endosperm at high nighttemperature (22/340C) than at high day temperature of34/220C
  65. 65. Effects of enhanced CO2 on crop growth• C3 plants (Wheat, rice, soybeans etc.) wouldrespond readily to increased CO2 levels.• C4 plants (Corn, sorghum, sugarcane, and millet)would be less responsive to enrichedconcentrations.• Higher levels of atmospheric CO2 induce plants toclose stomata.• Under CO2 enrichment crops may use less waterwhile producing more carbohydrates and improvewater-use efficiency.
  66. 66. Change in yields of 4 cereals, due to increaseof 2 and 4 °C in average global temp.
  67. 67. Impact of climate change on wheat yield in north India• Grain yields of wheat decreaseby 17% with a 2oC increase intemperature.• Increase in CO2 to 550 ppmnullify the effect of 2oC rise intemperature.• Effect of climate changescenario of 2070 may be• Positive (up to 25%) or• Negative (up to 30%)depending upon the magnitudesof change in temperature andCO2(Source: Aggarwarl and Ramakrishna, 2002)3504505506507500 1 2 3 4 5Increase in temperature, CCO2,ppm20%10% 0%-10%-20%-30%-40%20702010Increase in temperature (oC)IncreaseinCO2(ppm)↑ in CO2 conc. to 550 ppm ↑ yield of mung, soybean & gram by 9-15%, tomato by
  68. 68. Impact of climate change on fresh wateravailability• Climate change will modify rainfall, evaporation,runoff and soil moisture storage. More runoff willcause flood and needs to be stored.• Increased evaporation from the soil and acceleratedtranspiration in the plants will cause moisture stress.Crops will need frequent irrigation.• Climate change affects the availability of fresh waterfor irrigation. In the Himalayas it will increase inshort run but in the long run will decreaseconsiderably.• Lowering of ground water and decline in qualitybecause of intrusion of sea water
  69. 69. Impact of climate change on soil health– Reduces soil organic matter both in quantity & quality– Reduces soil moisture availability– Crop residues under elevated CO2 will have wide C:N reducing theirdecomposition and nutrient supply– Decreases in microbial population reducing soil productivity and nutrientcycling– Affects soil structure– Reduces fertilizer and irrigation use efficiency (increase temp. will increase Nmineralization but there will be more volatilization & denitrification loss)– Additional application of fertilizer may be needed to counteract the speed up ofthe natural decomposition of organic matter and increase the rates of other soilprocesses due to higher air temperature and enhance crop growth that canresult from increased atmospheric CO2.– The continual cycling of plant nutrient may enhance CO2and N2O gas emissionsMore prone to erosion, creating sedimentation in streams and reservoirs– Creates waterlogging, soil salinity problems, salt water ingression in coastalareas– The process of N fixation, is predicted to increase in warmer conditions andwith higher CO2, if soil moisture is not limiting.
  70. 70. Impact of climate change on pest• Increasing temp. increases the rate of development of insects therebydecreasing development period• Monocyclic diseases & univoltine insects are less influenced whereas, polycyclicdiseases become epidemic with climate change• Expansion of geographical range of insects to regions where warmer wintertemperatures allow their over-wintering survival and increase the possiblenumber of generations per season.• Changes in crop pest synchrony• Increase risk of infestation• Conditions are more favorable for the proliferation of insect pests in warmerclimates. (In UK, for last 10-15 years aphids are hatching earlier and theirpopulation is growing)• Crop-pest interactions may shift as the timing of development stages in bothhosts and pests is altered.• Rate of evolution will increase in hotter, drier conditions and in extremeyears‘• Pests and diseases from low latitude regions where they are muchmore prevalent may be introduced at higher latitudes.
  71. 71. Effects of droughts, heat waves,wind storms and floods on insects• Drought/Heat waves – Mealy bugs,scales, mites, borers, thrips, rodentswill increase• Wind storms – Coconut eriophyid mitewill increase• Floods – cut worms will increase• Heavy rainfall – Snails and slugs willincrease
  72. 72. Effect on Insecticide Use Efficiency• Entomologist predict more generation of insets in warmclimate that necessitates more number of insecticideapplication• It will increase cost of protection and environmentalpollution• Synthetic pyrethroids and naturalites (Bio-pesticides,Plant products) will be less effective in highertemperature• It is advisable for the farmers not to use insecticideswith similar mode of action frequently, to avoiddevelopment of resistance in case of more number ofapplications• Cultural management practices e.g. early planting maynot be helpful because of early emergence of pests dueto warmness
  73. 73. Impact of climate change on livestock &fishery• Affects feed production & nutrition of livestock. Lessfodder production due to increased water scarcity.More lignification of plant tissues due to temp. risereducing digestibility.• More impacts of vector borne diseases• Global warming increases water, shelter & energyrequirements to meet the projected milk demands• Aggravate heat stress in dairy animals reducing theirreproductive performance• Increase water temp. affects fish breeding, migration& harvest• Increased temp. & tropical cyclonic activities affectcapture, production & marketing cost of marine fish
  74. 74. Predicted effects of climate change on agril. over next 50 yrsClimaticelementExpected changes by 2050sConfidencein predictionEffects on agricultureCO2Increase from 360 ppm to 450 –600 ppmVery highGood for crops: increasedphotosynthesis; reduced wateruseSea level riseRise by 10 -15 cm Increased insouth and offset in north bynatural subsistence/reboundVery highLoss of land, coastal erosion,flooding, salinization ofgroundwaterTemperatureRise by 1-2oC. Winterswarming more than summers.Increased frequency of heatwavesHighFaster, shorter, earlier growingseasons, range moving north andto higher altitudes, heat stressrisk, increased evapo-transpirationPrecipitation Seasonal changes by ± 10% LowImpacts on drought risk soilworkability, water loggingirrigation supply, transpirationStorminessIncreased wind speeds,especially in north. Moreintense rainfall events.Very lowLodging, soil erosion, reducedinfiltration of rainfallVariabilityIncreases across most climaticvariables. Predictions uncertainVery lowChanging risk of damagingevents (heat waves, frost,droughts floods) which effectcrops and timing of farmoperationsSource: Climate Change and Agriculture, MAFF (2000)
  75. 75. Climate change experienced in Orissa• Orissa is getting hotter:– 1.0 oC in the 40 years from 1951 to 1990 and 0.1 oC in the recent pastof 14 years.• Rainfall pattern is changing:– Annual rainfall decreased between 1950 and 1990 by 19 to 225 mm,increasing in the coastal districts and declining in the interiordistricts, increasing in May and Oct. and declining in Nov. to March.• Low pressures over the Bay of Bengal is increasing:– Low pressure reaching 12 in 2006 and 14 in 2007. Super Cyclone1999, Tsunami 2004, Aila, 2009• Extreme events are increasing:– Last decade BBSR recorded the maximum rainfall of 400.3 mm inone day as against the preceding record of 256.4 mm between 1969to 1978.– Number of days with very heavy rainfall (>125 mm) has increased.– Daily maximum temperature is increasing with 46.3 oC at BBSR in2005.– Number of hot days with >45 oC is also increasing with such 3 daysin 2005, while it was absent in 1970s and 1980s except for 1972.– In the last 42 years, the state has experienced 34 disasters of variedintensity.• Threat to coastal settlements:– Eroded the beach, encroached several kilometers to the land
  76. 76. NATURAL CALAMITIES IN ORISSA(1964 to 2011)Calamity YearDrought 1965, 1966, 1976, 1979, 1984,1987, 1996, 1998, 2002, 2004*,2005*, 2010, 2011Flood 1969, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1977,1985, 1990, 2001, 2003, 2007,2008,2009, 2011Super Cyclone 1999Cyclone and Flood 1967, 1968, 1971Drought and Flood 1972, 1974, 1980, 1992, 2000,2006*Drought, Flood and Cyclone 1982Drought, Flood, Whirlwind & Tornado 1981Hailstorm, Tornado and Whirlwind 1978* moisture stress
  77. 77. EXTENT OF CROP LOSSYear Loss ( Rs crore)2000 3222001 4532002 18772003 3412004 3462005 3602006 4912007 355
  78. 78. Future climatic projections for Orissa (Pasupalak, 2008)• ce
  79. 79. Projected effects of climate change on Agriculture-special emphasis in Orissa• Reduced yields of crops due to warm days and nights.• Decreased grain yield of rice (9%) by 2020 due to acceleratedsenescence and higher chaffyness. (S.cane in Maharastra by30%, rice in flood prone coastal Orissa by 12%)• Substantial yield losses in winter crops. Temp. ↑0.5 oC ↓wheatyield by 0.45 t/ha, ↑2.0 oC ↓rice yield by 0. 75 t/ha in efficientzone & by 0.06 t/ha in coastal zone.• Temp ↑by 1-4 oC ↓yields of rice by 0-49%, potato by 5-40%,mung by 13-30% & soybean by 11-36%.• India would lose 3.9 mt wheat by 2020, 11.7 mt by 2050 & 23.5mt by 2080.• India loses 1.8 mt milk due to climate stresses
  80. 80. • Less elongation of rice grain and lower quality of rice due to warmnights during post flowering period (basmati rice)• Direct sown rice at more risk due to extended summer and lessrainfall in June.• More crop loss, waterlogging and difficulty in cultivation due tomore heavy rainfall events.• More crop loss and land degradation due to increased droughtoccurrence.• Increased risk of soil damage and erosion due to soil wetness,waterlogging and flooding.• Increased salinisation of the coastal areas, particularly Mahanadidelta.• Long-term loss of soil carbon stocks, soil degradation• Increased crop WR due to accelerated evapotranspiration.• Decreased use efficiency of N fertilizers.• Shift in weed flora• Higher pest incidence such as increasing infestation of rice crop byswarming caterpillar, hispa, stem borer and BLB.• Loss of cultivated land by sea water intrusion, inundation andcoastal erosion in low-lying coastal areas. Land dispute betweenmigrant & established communities
  81. 81. ADAPTING AGRICULTURETO CHANGING CLIMATE• Adaptive mechanism• Mitigating mechanism• increasing soil carbon sink• reducing GHG emissions• contributing biomass for energy use
  82. 82. Adaptive measures• Crop diversification• New crop varieties• New rice culture• Intercropping/Mixed cropping• Altered sowing time/Plant population• Efficient fertilizer use (INM, SSNM,• Efficient water use (Conjunctive use of rain,ground and canal water)• Integrated pest management• Drought and flood management• Land management• Catchments management• Integrated Farming Systems
  83. 83. Crop mixture- Nutri millets, Pulses and Oilseed, Agroforestry, IFSEnlarging the Food Basket
  84. 84. WUE of different field cropsWUE of different field cropsCrop WR(mm)Yield(kg/ha)WUE(kg/ha-mm)Rice 1200 4000 3.3Maize 500 4000 8.0Potato 500 20000 40.0Groundnut 480 2500 5.2Sunflower 400 2000 5.0Mustard 300 1400 4.7Sesame 250 1000 4.0Greengram 250 1000 4.0Jute 480 2800 5.8Sugarcane 1700 100000 58.8
  85. 85. Water saving techniques in rice• Proper land leveling and puddling.• Growing rice in a compact rather than in isolated patches.• Continuous shallow sub. (5+2 cm) than deep sub. saves 10-50% irrigationwater• Saturation throughout is optimum in shallow WT (20-30 cm in rabi and 20-45 cm in kharif)• Recommended practice is 3 DADPW during kharif (5-7 irrigations) and1 DADPW during rabi season (13-15 irrigations), water saving 9-27%.• Bed planting saves 26-42% water as compared to conventional planting.• Drainage at max. tillering or even at PI in iron toxicity area is beneficial• Drainage at dough stage along with at max. tillering increased head ricerecovery by 10%.• Draining the field gradually 15-20 days after flowering facilitatesmechanical harvesting and timely sowing of succeeding crops, saves16-22 cm water.
  86. 86. Productivity and profitability ofnon-paddy crops in rainfedhighlandsCrop Yield (q/ha) Net return (Rs/ha)Maize 45 (grain) 5,909Greengram 8 (grain) 9,773Blackgram 9 (grain) 12,473Pigeonpea 15 (grain) 18,284Groundnut 15 (pod) 9,368Yam 230 (Tuber) 43,100Yambean 167 (Tuber) 60,316Sweet potato 236 (Tuber) 59,256Elephant foot yam 334 (Tuber) 63,223Cassava 246 (Tuber) 41,139Arrowroot 152 (Tuber) 36,346Turmeric 40 (dry rhizome) 44,755Ginger 160 ( Fresh rhizome) 95,755Rice (upland) 25 234
  87. 87. Performance of upland crops innormal & drought yearsPerformance of upland crops innormal & drought yearsCropREY (kg/ha) RWUE(kg/ha-mm)2000 2001 2002 SEmMaize (G) 5450 4400 4300 369 6.4Maize (C) 8125 7321 6500 469 10.4Arhar 5550 5081 5268 136 5.1Groundnut 5640 6240 5480 231 6.2Blackgram 4200 4900 3787 325 6.1Cowpea 2800 3600 2400 353 3.8Rice 1010 2850 1215 582 2.1SEm 864 573 696Rainfall (mm)- N=1442, 2000=1149, 2001=1617, 2002=1002Dryspells- 2000- 25 June to 15 July, 2002- 2 to 28 JulyRainfall (mm)- N=1442, 2000=1149, 2001=1617, 2002=1002Dryspells- 2000- 25 June to 15 July, 2002- 2 to 28 July
  88. 88. "Greater emphasis on tuberous crops such as potato, tapioca and sweetpotato to make them available at cheaper rates"Dr. A P J Abdul KalamRelevance of tuber crops in asystem1. Food security2. Nutritional security3. Social security4. Value addition prospects5. Export role
  89. 89. Varieties for adverse situationsRice: Drought-Sahabhagi DhanHigh temp. – AnnapurnaFlood: Swarna Sub-1, Varshadhan, HanseswariSalinity: Getu, Damodar, Pateni, Rasmanjari,CR Dhan 402 & 403Wheat: Heat tolerance- Raj 3765, Halna, NIAW 34, NW 1014,Tepoka, WH 730, CBW 12Waterlogging at initial stage- HD 2329, HUW 507, HD2204, D 6-3, D 6-35Salinity & alkalinity- Kharchia 65, KRLI 4, KRL 19, KRL 210,KRL 213Arid legumes: Cowpea, HG, Lathyrus, moth bean, clusterbean,ricebeanMustard: Short duration temp. tolerant -NPJ 122, NRC-DR-02Frost tolerant- RGN 48 & 49Groundnut: Short duration temp tolerant -ICGS-11, ICGS-44Fresh dormancy: TG 17, 26 & 37A, VRI 1, BSR 1, Dh-40, SG 99Sunflower: B spray at ray floret helps seed set even in times of continuousdrizzle & cloudy weather
  90. 90. Yam CassavaSweet potatoColocassiaYam bean ArrowrootElephant Foot Yam
  91. 91. New submergence tolerant lines after 17 days of submergence
  92. 92. Management ofManagement of PairaPaira pulsespulses• Proper land levelling of kharif rice• Growing stiff straw rice var.• 1.25 times seeds• Seed treatment & inoculation• Use of P of paira to kharif rice• DAP or 2% urea spray at fl. of paira crop & 15 d after• DAP 100 & MOP 33 kg/ha at PI stage of rice• Varieties:– Mung: Pusa-9072, TARM-1& 2, OBGG 52, OUM-11-5, LGG-460– Biri : Ujala, TU-94-2, LBG-17– Pea : Rachna, HFP-4 (Aparna), DDR-27 (Pusa Pana), HFP-8909,(Uttara), DMR 7 (Alankar)– Gram: JG 11, Radhey, L 550– Lathyrus: Ratan, Prateek
  93. 93. Natural Resource Management :• Soil physical, chemical & microbial properties• Soil fertility management• Soil health pass books• Crop residue management• Soil mulching(Contd….)
  94. 94. RHIZOBIUMComponents of organic agricultureGreen manure Cover cropCrop residuesVermicompost Oil cakeAzolla
  95. 95. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120100%NControl50%NPK100%NPK(-S)100%NP100%NPK+ZnNPK (soil test)100%NPK100%NPK+FYMRelative Soil Quality
  96. 96. RCTs for sustainability & climate change mitigationRCT Potential benefitZero tillage Reduces WR, fuel use, GHG emission, increasesC-sequestration, yield & income, more tolerant toheat stress,Laser aidedland levellingReduced WR, fuel use, GHG emission, moreefficient tractor use, increased area forcultivationDirect drillingriceLess WR, saves time, better soil condition forsucceeding crop, deeper root growth & bettertolerance to water & heat stress, reduces CH4emission, earliness,Diversification Efficient water use, reduces risk, conserves soilfertility, increases income & nutritional securityRaised bedplantingLess WR, improves drainage, better residuesmanagement, less lodging, more tolerant towater stressLCC Reduces fer.-N need, N loss, NO2 emission &environmental pollution
  97. 97. Resource conservation equipments• Rotavator saves 50 % fuel and helps in preparation ofbetter quality seed bed• Zero till drill increases yield by 5–10% and saves ofRs. 2000-3000/ha• Pressurized irrigation saves 20–30 % water• Rotary power weeder saves 20–30 % time and labour• Vertical conveyer reaper/combine helps in timelyharvesting• Multicrop thresher saves 50 % labour and time and 54% cost of threshing• Improved manual harvester for mango & kinnowcauses no damage to fruits with higher harvestingcapacity
  98. 98. Capping Methane emission in rice fields• The balance CH4 out of the action of Methanogens &Methanotrophs in rice field is released to the atm. throughebullition, diffusion & rice plant system (at active growthstage by aerenchymatous tissues through leaf sheath)• Direct sowing• Addition of composted or partially composted OM• Alternate wetting & drying (Aerobic/SRI), mid-season/intermittent drainage• Short duration varieties with low emission potential i.e.,capacity to oxidise rhizosphere Methanotrophs(Methylomonas, Methylobacter, Methylomicribium,Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylococcus• Incorporation/deep placement of fert., lower dose, use ofNitrification inhibitor (neem product), slow release fertilizers
  99. 99. Reducing methane emission from ruminants• Improving productivity (by nutrition, reproduction,genetics)-lessanimals required to produce the same amount• Nutritional management: High grain diet, no over maturedforage, more legumes, low feeding frequency, grinding or pelletingof forage, use of preserved forage (silage)• Manipulation of rumen fermentation ( which favours propionicacid formation & discourage acetic acid formation):– addition of fats to increase energy density of diet thereby loweringintake of fibrous feed– Use of propionate precursors (pyruvate, oxaloacetate, malate,fumarate, succinate)– Defaunation (removal of rumen ciliate protozoa, the site forattachment of Methanogens, from rumen)– Stimulation of acetogens to rechannelise the substrates foralternative products like aetate other than methane– Ionophores like monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin will inhibit growth ofMethanogens– Adding methane oxidizers from gut of young pig to rumen fluid in vitro– Immunizations against Methanogens (Methanobrevibacter,Methanosarcina, Methanomicrobium)
  100. 100. Improved Risk Management :•Early warming system for rainfall, drought, flood,cyclones•Contingency plans•Agrl. credit/marketing for small and marginal farmers•Crop insurance•Optimum size of crop area/live stock•Responsive and dedicated Agrl.Extension service byKnowledgeable scientists•Synchronous delivery of credit, input and technologydelivery system(Contd….)
  101. 101. Integration of on farm & non farm activities :•Cooperative farms / Group farming•Contract farming•Value addition / advisory services•Packaging•Food processing•Marketing•Community participation in food andforage banks•Agro-business / Agro service centers
  102. 102. • Inter cropping/mixed cropping• Changing varieties / crops / planting time: matching cropphenology with weather/water availability• Diversifying income sources including livestock• Agro forestry• Resource conservation• Early planting and sowing,• Shorter rotations,• Alternate crops/cropping systems,• Wider spacing,• Altering fertilizer management strategies,• Altering timing and rate of irrigation application indrought prone areas• Use of shelter beltsChanges in agronomic practicesTraditional management practicesAdaptation options to climatic change
  103. 103. To mitigate the problems arising out of climate changevarious adaptation measures should be done by• Continuous monitoring of climate change• Impact assessment of climate change• Developing adaptation and remedial strategies.Adaptation measures Adjustment time (years)Variety adoption 3-14Dams and irrigation 50-100Variety development 8-15Tillage systems 10-12Opening new lands 3-10Irrigation equipment 20-25Fertilizer adoption 10
  104. 104. • food security,• balance and qualitative food,• high productivity,• enhanced income,• employment generation,• poverty alleviation,• social upliftment,• effective recycling of resources,• sustained soil health,• reduced risk factor,• minimized environmental risks• provide livelihood to poor farm sector the year round.• food security,• balance and qualitative food,• high productivity,• enhanced income,• employment generation,• poverty alleviation,• social upliftment,• effective recycling of resources,• sustained soil health,• reduced risk factor,• minimized environmental risks• provide livelihood to poor farm sector the year round.A farming system approach may ensure
  105. 105. AICRP on Dry Land Agril.,
  106. 106. RICE-BASED FARMING SYSTEMBenefit•The system becomes a micro watershed• Better crop stand at initialstage• Enrichment of soil organicmatter• Waste recycling• Bio-control of rice pests• Reduced investment risk• Year round employment• Higher farm income• Nutritional securityCash flowAnnual turn over Rs.84,440Annual variable cost Rs.28,090Annual investment Rs.32,170Profit over investment Rs.52,270Profit over investment 162%
  107. 107. Mitigation measures• Improved land management :– (mulching, minimum/zero tillage, FYM, intensive cropping, legumes,green manuring, crop residues manag., Conservation agriculture)• Restoration of waste and degraded lands:– (waterlogged low lands, horticulture and agroforestry in cultivableuplands and saline coastal areas.)• Improved composting including vermi-composting• Improved fertilizer N management:• INM, SSNM, Real Time N management [LCC (3,4,5), SPAD(32- 37.5), NDVI (Green Seeker)]• Efficient agricultural machinery :– (reduced use of fossil fuels. use of alternative energy like biogas andwind energy)• In the forestry front,– (afforestation, identification and propagation of plants for bio-dieselproduction)
  108. 108. MITIGATION OF GHG EMISSION FROM INDIANAGRICULTUREImproved water and fertilizer management in low landareasCrop DiversificationImproved management of live stock populationIncrease in soil carbon through organic manures, residuemanagement and minimum tillageUse of nitrification inhibitors such as neem coated urea toreduce emission of N2OFertilizer placement practicesImprovement in Energy use efficiency in agricultureIncrease the area under bio fuel, agro forestry in relation tofood productionDemands
  109. 109. Improved agricultural practices for carbon sequestration
  110. 110. Alternate Land Use System (ALUS)Advantages of tree farming• Trees…• trap moisture from deeper layer• fulfill diverse needs• utilises off season rainfall• reduce soil erosion• provide round the year employment• give higher yields & returns
  111. 111. Aonla + Guava+ paddy
  112. 112. Hoeing and weeding in mango + G.nutSystem Intercrop NR (Rs/ha)Mango based GingerCowpea28,0005,050Guava based CowpeaFrenchbean6,2505,950Litchi based CowpeaRicebean5,8183,425
  113. 113. Agri-silvi system with arrowroot in 8 year old Acacia mangium
  114. 114. Horti-silvi-pastoral(Guava + sissoo + stylo)A.mangium+ GuineaTree component Fodder crops1. Acacia mangium 1. Guinea2. Albizia lebbek 2. Hybrid napier3. Dalbergia Sissoo 3. Thin napier4. Gemlina arborea 4. Stylo5. Leucaena leucocephala
  115. 115. Energy plantation with Acacia mangiumFast growing Moderately fastgrowingBamboo1. Acacia auriculiformis 1. Acacia nilotica 1 Bambusabambos2. Acacia mangium 2. Albizia lebbek 2 B. nutans3. Cassia siamea 3. Dalbergia Sissoo 3. B. vulgaris4. Casuarina equisetifolia 4. Gemlina arborea5. Eucalyptus hybrid 5. Simarouba glauca6. Leucaena leucocephala 6. Tectona grandis
  116. 116. Relative soil chemical quality index (RSCQI) in ALUSRelative soil chemical quality index (RSCQI) in ALUSSystemSystem 0-15 cm0-15 cm 15-30 cm15-30 cmSilvi-agriculture 0.95 1.00Silvi-pasture 1.00 0.71Silviculture 0.95 0.73Agri-horticulture 0.56 0.64Pasture 0.43 0.40Agriculture 0.23 0.27
  117. 117. Methane oxidation by different forest soils• Disturbed forest soils - 0.5-2.9 kg CH4/ha/yr• Undisturbed tropical forest - 4.6 kg CH4/ha/yr• Subtropical woodlands - 0.5-5.5 kg CH4/ha/yr• Oxidation in aerobic soil by Methanotrophs destruct 15% of CH4 emission• Temperate soils are sink for CH4 by 20 Tg/yr• Oxic soils consume 40- 60 Tg CH4/yr• Conversion of forest & grasslands to crop lands reduces CH4 consumptionby the former ecosystems by 1.5-7.0 Tg/yr
  118. 118. SystemSystem 0-150-15cmcm15-3015-30cmcmSilvi-agriculture 0.95 1.00Silvi-pasture 1.00 0.71Silviculture 0.95 0.73Agri-horticulture 0.56 0.64Pasture 0.43 0.40Agriculture 0.23 0.27Land use 0-15cm15-30cmSole cropping 0.42 0.37Agroforestry 0.71 0.73Agro-horticulture 0.73 0.74Agro- silviculture 0.38 0.56RSCQI in ALUS SOC (%) after 6 yrSoil quality in Alternate Land Use Systems
  119. 119. Acacia mangium in farmer’sfield
  120. 120. Effects from land management practices on carbonsequestration potentialTechnological optionsSequestration potential(tonnes C/ha/year)Conservation tillage 0.10 - 0.20Mulch farming (4 - 6 Mg/ha/year) 0.05 - 0.10Compost (20 Mg/ha/year) 0.10 - 0.20Integrated nutrient management 0.10 - 0.20Restoration of eroded soils 0.10 - 0.20Restoration of salt-effected soils 0.05 - 0.10Agricultural intensification 0.10 - 0.20Water conservation and management 0.10 - 0.30Afforestation 0.05 - 0.10Grassland and pastures 0.05 - 0.10
  121. 121. Gene Bank Seed Bank Water BankGrain/FodderBankConservation - Cultivation –Consumption - CommerceCommunity Food Security SystemPathway to achieving the UN MillenniumDevelopment Goal of Eradicating hungerand povertyMSSRF 2008
  122. 122. India’s national Action Plan on Climate ChangeJune 2008, ( 8 core National Missions)• National Solar Mission• National Mission for Enhanced Energyefficiency• National Mission on Sustainable Habitat• National Water Mission• National Mission for Sustaining the HimalayanEcosystem• National Mission for Green India• National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture• National Mission on Strategic Knowledge forClimate change
  123. 123. Durban climate change roadmap-December 2011• Guide countries towards a legal deal to cutCarbon in 2015• Carbon will have to peak by 2020 & then startto come down to limit temp. rise to 2oC• Set up a Green Climate Fund to help poorcountries to c0pe with climate change• US, China & India signed up to a legal treatyto cut carbon• Signal for investing in green technology
  124. 124. CONCLUSION• It is the bitter truth that ‘what we achieved in thename of development only by the cost of climatechange which threaten survival of human race infuture’.• Dr. M. S. Swaminathan said ‘Our present Indianagriculture is vulnerable to climate change andclimatic hazards due to dependence on less no.of crops. Therefore we have to go for crop &enterprise diversification.• More research should be done regarding climatechange and its impacts.
  125. 125. Concerns Insufficient information on how climate trendswill affect the suitability of specific crops andcropping practices in specific areas. Insufficient information on how climate trendswill affect the incidence and evolution ofdiseases and pests in specific areas. Lack of appropriate crop varieties andagronomic practices for more variable and morerisky agriculture. Continuing growth and demand for food. Declining natural resource base, in which soilfertility is increasingly depleted and water isbecoming scarce.
  126. 126. THANK YOU
  127. 127. Scenario-1: Early onset and sudden stoppage of monsoon(There is more likelihood of mortality of sprouts/seedlings and difficulties in sowing)Uplands• When there is more than 50% mortality resow the crop up to July after receipt ofsufficient rain water• Sowing of low water requiring nonpaddy crops like ragi (Bhairabi, Dibyasinha, Godavari),Greengram (K-851,Sujata, PDM-54),Blackgram (T-9, Pant U-19, Pant U-30,Sarala), Cowpea(SEB-2, Pusa Barsati,Utkal Manika), Sesame (Uma, Usha, Nirmala, Prachi),Ricebean(RBL-6, BRB-1), Castor (Jyoti, Kranti, Harita) is preferred to paddy• If mortality is less than 50% the crop may be gap filled• Cultivate vegetables-cowpea, guar, radish, runner bean,okra, cauliflower, Brinjal, tomatowhere ever possible• Niger (Deomali, Alasi-1) and horsegram (urmi ) to be sown in August.• Spray the crop with potassium silicate (10%) or Cycocel (10 ppm) to overcome droughteffect• In row sown crops complete hoeing, weeding followed by ridging to the base of the croprows at 20 DAS for in-situ moisture conservationDROUGHT MANAGEMENT
  128. 128. Scenario-1: Early onset and sudden stoppage of monsoon (cont.)Medium and low land•If rice plant population is less than 50%, resow the crop.•Early medium duration varieties may be selected.•Sprouted seeds may be direct seeded or•fresh seedlings of early varieties may be raised for transplanting.•If rice plant population is more than 50%,carry out weeding and adjustthe plant population by khelua and clonal propagation. Raisecommunity nursery of rice for transplanting at a reliable water sourceto save time for further delay.•Sow the seeds at 3-5 cm depth by punji method (10-15 seeds at onepoint), cover it with a mixture of FYM:SSP (10:1) to avoid seedlingmortality due to moisture stress in low land•In saline soils use green leaf manure/ FYM, sow sprouted seeds gap fillthe crop by clonal propagation
  129. 129. Scenario-2: Late onset, uplands not covered till mid July• Sow drought tolerant nonpaddy crop like ragi, greengram, blackgram,cowpea, guar, sesame, castor in place of upland rice• Maize and cowpea may be grown in the Istweek of August to meet thefodder crisis• Niger (Deomali, Alasi-I) and horsegram (urmi) are to be sown in August• Grow sweet potato vars. Like Gouri, shankar, Samrat, Shreenandini,Shreebhadra, Shreeratna, in ridges and allow the furrows to conserverainfall• Grow vegetables like tomato, cauliflower, radish, brinjal, runner bean, inthe inland hilly districts and cowpea, guar, lady’s finger and chilli in thecoastal plains• Apply full P,K and 20%N as basal along with well decomposed organicmanure for early seedling vigour• Harvesting excess runoff for its recycling as lifesaving irrigation
  130. 130. B. Mid season drought (1stAug to 15stSept)Scenario-3: Non-paddy crops in uplands affected• Complete hoeing and weeding in non-paddycrop field to provide dust mulch• Weeding groundnut 45 DAS disturbs thepegging process. So prune the weeds withsickle• Apply post emergence spray of Quizalofopethyl 5% EC @ 0.05 kg/ha in 500 l water tocontrol grassy weeds in groundnut/jute• Spray 2% KCl + 0.1ppm boron to blackgramto overcome drought situation• Foliar application of 2% Urea at prefloweringand flowering stage of greengram is helpfulin mitigating drought
  131. 131. Scenario-3: Non-paddy crops in uplands affected (cont.)• Spray 1% urea in brinjal, take up spray against mealy bugs and mitewhich are more prevalent in dry weather• Top dress the crop after receipt of rain• Remove the borer affected tillers/late formed tillers/dried leaves insugarcane and follow wrapping and propping in chains. Stripe thelower 4-5 leaves• Spray Planofix 10 ppm at 45 DAS and 20 ppm 10 days later to preventboll shading in cotton• Spray 2% urea in late planted jute to encourage growth• Top-dress N to ginger and turmeric @ 60 and 30 kg/ha respectivelyafter receipt of rainfall followed by mulching• Practice mulching with organics to extend period of moistureavailability• Thin out to the extent of 25% and use removed plants as cattle feed• Close the drainage holes and check the seepage loss in direct sownmedium land rice regularly
  132. 132. Scenario-4: Beushaning of rice delayed• Do not practice beushaning in rice, if the crop ismore than 45 days old• Weed out the field without waiting for rainfall• Go for gap filling using seedling of same age orclonal tillers to have a uniform distribution of plant• Strengthen the field bunds and clog the holes tocheck seepage loss• Withhold N fertilizer application up to receipt ofrainfall
  133. 133. Scenario-5: Transplanting of rice delayed/seedlings overaged(Generally in this case rice seedlings are overaged)• Seedlings up to 45 and 60-70 days old can be transplanted in case ofmedium land and late duration rice vars., respectively without muchreduction in yield• Remove the weeds and follow plant protection measures against blastin nursery• Pulverize the main rice field in dry conditions, if it is not ploughedearlier to save time in final puddling• Use tractor/power tiller/tractor mounted rotavator for speedy landpreparation/puddling• Follow closer spacing using 5-7 seedlings per hill• Apply 50% recommended N at the time of transplanting• Apply life saving irrigation to maintain the nursery seedlings in goodhealth• Dont top dress nitrogen in nursery
  134. 134. Scenario-6: Beushaned/transplanted riceaffected at early vegetative stage• Provide protective irrigation• Remove the weeds and follow plant protectionmeasures• Withhold N fertilizer application up to receipt ofrainfall• Apply K fertilizers wherever soil moisture allowsor wait up to receipt of rainfall• Strengthen the field bunds and clog the holes tocheck seepage loss
  135. 135. C. Late season drought (16thSept to 31stOct)Scenario-7: Medium and lowland rice affected at vegetative/ reproductivestageIt occurs as a result of early cessation of monsoon rains. Themanagement practices are :•Provide protective irrigation•Provide irrigation at critical stages•Crops like cowpea,maize, green gram may be harvested for fodderpurpose to avoid their failure as grain crop•When soil becomes hard it is difficult to dig up groundnut from the field,sprinkle water from WHS•Under situation of complete failure of Kharif crop dismantle it. Dibble thepre- rabi crop•The ideal pre-rabi crops for residual moisture are horsegram, castor,niger, black gram and sesame in uplands and well drained medium lands
  136. 136. Pre-flood planning• Suitable variety (Local, improved)• Sufficient seed stock for resowing after early flood• Varieties for late planting (CR 1014, 1018, Jagannath,Mahsuri, Padmini, IR 36, Lalat, Konark)• Long duration var in loland (Sarala, Durga,Varshadhan, Upahar)• Direct seeding• Dry nursery• Contingency nursery• Double transplanting/clonal tillers
  137. 137. Flash flood (Short duration)Strategies Action planJuly flood • Seed bank• Community nursery• Private nursery• Sprouted seeding (rice)• Short duration var./cropsAugust & Sept. flood(Partial damage)• Older seedlings• Seedlings of short duration var.• P- fertilisation• Water spray• Submergence tolerant rice-Swarna sub-1, OR 1105• Clonal propagation• Catch crops/ Pest ControlAugust & Sept. flood(Complete damage)• Pre rabi crops• Ragi, Blackgram, Groundnut, Mustard,Cucurbits, Barley
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