Ocean Acidification:	
  
What it is, and why it matters…	
  
	
  

Meg Chadsey
December 3, 2013
Image	
  courtesy	
  of	
  Jack	
  Cook,	
  
Woods	
  Hole	
  Oceanographic	
  Ins<tute	
  
What is Ocean Acidification?
Climate change

CO2

(Carbon Dioxide)

The ocean absorbs ~25% of
carbon dioxide we’re pumping...
The pH Scale

ßH2O	
   +	
  CO2	
   à	
  H2C03	
  
Seawater	
  
Carbonic	
  
Acid	
  

Source:	
  Dr.	
  Simone	
  Alin,...
Washington is Particularly Vulnerable
to Acidification
Appearing decades sooner than
anticipated.
Regional factors exacerb...
Ocean Acidification means…..
less calcium carbonate for building shells
Pteropods, or ‘sea butterflies’

are dissolving…
Normal pteropod shell

Corroded pteropod shell in acidic seawater

Live	
...
Also vulnerable to OA…

Ecosystems

Fish
Food

People Food
Potential Food Web Impacts
Pacific	
  Salmon	
  

Coccolithophores	
  

Pteropods	
  

Copepods	
  
U.S. Commercial Fisheries
Affected by Ocean Acidification
Primary fishery revenue ~ $4 billion/year*
*2007 U.S. domestic e...
What’s at Stake for our Economy?

Photos:	
  Benjamin	
  Drummond	
  (leI	
  and	
  right);	
  Bryan	
  PenWla	
  (center)...
What’s at Stake for our Economy? (cont’d)

Photos:	
  	
  U.S.	
  Dept.	
  Agriculture;	
  	
  City	
  of	
  SeaXle;	
  WA...
What’s at Stake for Washington’s Tribes?

Photos:	
  Northwest	
  Indian	
  Fisheries	
  Commission	
  

Cultural and econ...
The Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification
•  Convened by Governor Christine
Gregoire in February 2012.
•  A first-of-a-...
What should we do about OA?
“Nowhere on our planet is a local response to ocean
acidification more urgently and immediatel...
Panel Recommendations
1.  Reduce CO2 emissions
2.  Reduce land-based pollutants that
worsen OA
3.  Foster adaptation and r...
State Legislature Funds OA Response
$1.82 million for Washington Center on OA
•  Continued water quality monitoring at she...
Thank You!

Photo:	
  MaX	
  Chadsey	
  
New meg chadsey northwest school presentation with credits dec27
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Transcript of "New meg chadsey northwest school presentation with credits dec27"

  1. 1. Ocean Acidification:   What it is, and why it matters…     Meg Chadsey December 3, 2013
  2. 2. Image  courtesy  of  Jack  Cook,   Woods  Hole  Oceanographic  Ins<tute  
  3. 3. What is Ocean Acidification? Climate change CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) The ocean absorbs ~25% of carbon dioxide we’re pumping into the atmosphere. Ocean acidification Sarah  Cooley,  Woods  Hole  Oceanographic  Ins<tute  
  4. 4. The pH Scale ßH2O   +  CO2   à  H2C03   Seawater   Carbonic   Acid   Source:  Dr.  Simone  Alin,  NOAA  PMEL   h>p://www.pmel.noaa.gov/co2/story/A+primer+on+pH  
  5. 5. Washington is Particularly Vulnerable to Acidification Appearing decades sooner than anticipated. Regional factors exacerbating the problem: Upwelling along the coastà Excess nutrientsàblooms Decay of organic material Acidifying gasses (NOX and SOX) Washington  Coast  photo:  Russ  McMillan  
  6. 6. Ocean Acidification means….. less calcium carbonate for building shells
  7. 7. Pteropods, or ‘sea butterflies’ are dissolving… Normal pteropod shell Corroded pteropod shell in acidic seawater Live  pteropod  image:  Dr.  Russ  HopcroI,  UofA  Fairbanks;  Shell  images:  Dr.  Nina  Bednarsek,  NOAA  PMEL  
  8. 8. Also vulnerable to OA… Ecosystems Fish Food People Food
  9. 9. Potential Food Web Impacts Pacific  Salmon   Coccolithophores   Pteropods   Copepods  
  10. 10. U.S. Commercial Fisheries Affected by Ocean Acidification Primary fishery revenue ~ $4 billion/year* *2007 U.S. domestic ex-vessel revenue (USD) Mollusks (shellfish) 5% 10% About half comes from calcifiers (mollusks and crustaceans) Crustaceans (lobster,crabs and shrimp) Top Predators Other calcifiers 26% 3% 1% 1% 10% 11% 24% 9% Calcifiers’ predators Oysters & mussels Lobsters Scallops About a quarter comes from species that eat calcifiers Crabs Clams Shrimp Uninfluenced Cooley  &  Doney   Environment  Research  Le>ers,  2009  
  11. 11. What’s at Stake for our Economy? Photos:  Benjamin  Drummond  (leI  and  right);  Bryan  PenWla  (center)   Washington commercial shellfish industry: •  Most productive on the West Coast •  Accounts for almost 85% of West Coast annual sales •  Generates $270 million annually •  Supports 3,200 jobs
  12. 12. What’s at Stake for our Economy? (cont’d) Photos:    U.S.  Dept.  Agriculture;    City  of  SeaXle;  WA  Assn.  of  Conserva<on  Districts     Valuable wild and recreational fisheries •  Food web impacts could ripple through Washington’s seafood industry •  42,000 state jobs •  $1.7 billion annual contribution •  Coastal communities depend on recreational shellfishing
  13. 13. What’s at Stake for Washington’s Tribes? Photos:  Northwest  Indian  Fisheries  Commission   Cultural and economic survival •  Washington tribes depend upon shellfish for food, income, and connection to their cultural heritage. Photos:  Northwest  Indian  Fisheries  Commission  
  14. 14. The Blue Ribbon Panel on Ocean Acidification •  Convened by Governor Christine Gregoire in February 2012. •  A first-of-a-kind state-level effort •  Panel charge: •  Review best available science •  Recommendations for response •  Included: •  scientists •  decision makers •  industry stakeholders •  tribal representatives •  conservation community Photo:  Puget  Sound  Partnership   Gov. Gregoire and Bill Dewey of Taylor Shellfish Company discuss oyster farming in the tide flats in Samish Bay.
  15. 15. What should we do about OA? “Nowhere on our planet is a local response to ocean acidification more urgently and immediately needed than here in Washington State.” ~ Dr. Jane Lubchenco, NOAA Administrator, Nov 27, 2012   “The cost of responding to ocean acidification may be substantial, but it is still far less than the costs of inaction. Responding to ocean acidification will require a sustained effort – there’s no silver bullet solution.” ~ Bill Ruckelshaus, Blue Ribbon Panel co-chair, Nov. 27, 2012   “Washington can lead.” ~ Governor Gregoire, Nov 27, 2012
  16. 16. Panel Recommendations 1.  Reduce CO2 emissions 2.  Reduce land-based pollutants that worsen OA 3.  Foster adaptation and remediation to protect the shellfish industry and marine ecosystems; 4.  Increase research and monitoring 5.  Inform, educate, and engage 6.  Maintain a sustained and coordinated focus on OA Photo:  Dan  BenneX  
  17. 17. State Legislature Funds OA Response $1.82 million for Washington Center on OA •  Continued water quality monitoring at shellfish hatcheries… ($150K) •  Expanded OA monitoring… ($475K) •  Laboratory studies to assess direct causes and effects of OA… ($170K) •  Develop short-term forecasting ability… ($325K) •  Develop strategies to protect shellfish larvae in hatcheries... ($100K)
  18. 18. Thank You! Photo:  MaX  Chadsey  
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