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Photo Credit: David Wild




   Towards a Model of
Understanding Social Search
             Brynn M. Evans           Ed H....
Photo Credit: Image Source
Search is more than a
   database query.
Janet’s extended search process

     BEFORE   had partial knowledge,
              needed specific information


     DUR...
Search can be social.
What is social search?
social search :   an umbrella term used to describe
                  search acts that make use of
                  socia...
social search :   an umbrella term used to describe
                  search acts that make use of
                  socia...
What are we trying to do?

    goal : Learn about the role of
             social interactions in search.



  method :   ...
The Survey
  Mechanical Turk -- micro-task market
                          (KITTUR, CHI & SUH, 2008)




27-question crit...
The Survey
We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.
The Survey
We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.


    BEFORE



     DURING



     AFTER
The Survey
We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.

                  • when did the episode occur?
  ...
The Survey
We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.

                  • when did the episode occur?
  ...
The Survey
We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.

                  • when did the episode occur?
  ...
Subject Sample
             • N = 150
             • Anonymous, English-speaking users
             • diverse backgrounds
...
Subject Sample
             • N = 150
             • Anonymous, English-speaking users
             • diverse backgrounds
...
Subject Sample
             • N = 150
             • Anonymous, English-speaking users
             • diverse backgrounds
...
Subject Sample
             • N = 150
             • Anonymous, English-speaking users
             • diverse backgrounds
...
Subject Sample
             • N = 150
             • Anonymous, English-speaking users
             • diverse backgrounds
...
Model of Search
externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing



Before Search
                        searchers           ...
Before Search
                   externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing
                        sear...
externally-motivated searchers
 specific request from a boss,
 customer, or client
externally-motivated searchers
        specific request from a boss,
        customer, or client




Photo Credit: tuexper...
externally-motivated searchers      self-motivated searchers
        specific request from a boss,   self-initiated search...
externally-motivated searchers      self-motivated searchers
        specific request from a boss,   self-initiated search...
Before Search
              externally-
  framing     motivated     self-motivated
the context      users           users
...
Before Search
                externally-
  framing       motivated     self-motivated
the context        users           ...
Before Search
                externally-
  framing       motivated     self-motivated
the context        users           ...
Before Search
                externally-
  framing       motivated     self-motivated
the context        users           ...
Before Search
  framing       externally-motivated   self-motivated
the context            users                users

   ...
Before Search
  framing         externally-motivated    self-motivated
the context              users                 user...
Before Search
  framing         externally-motivated    self-motivated
the context              users                 user...
externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing



Before Search
                        searchers           ...
During Search
 3 types of information needs   (BRODER 2002)
During Search
                      3 types of information needs     (BRODER 2002)




navigational 28%


  step A



  st...
During Search
                      3 types of information needs             (BRODER 2002)




navigational 28%           ...
During Search
                                            3 types of information needs


                                 ...
During Search
                                            3 types of information needs


                                 ...
externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing



Before Search
                        searchers           ...
After Search
search product / end product
After Search
search product / end product

                      28%

                       DO NOTHING
After Search
         search product / end product

         72%                   28%

TAKE ACTION                     DO...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                   28%

           T...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                    28%

           ...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                    28%

           ...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                     28%

          ...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                     28%

          ...
After Search
                    search product / end product

                    72%                     28%

          ...
After Search
             DISTRIBUTE      67% of all users

       to proximate 87%
                     86       to publi...
Limitations
What does it mean to be an active social searcher?
What considerations go into seeking help from social networ...
Conclusion
externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing

Before Search
                        searchers             ...
externally-motivated          self-motivated         framing

Before Search
                        searchers             ...
externally-motivated           self-motivated         framing

Before Search
                        searchers            ...
externally-motivated           self-motivated        framing

Before Search
                        searchers             ...
externally-motivated           self-motivated        framing

Before Search
                        searchers             ...
externally-motivated           self-motivated         framing

Before Search
                        searchers            ...
Design Principles
Before Search,
    users need: access resources during preparation

      • instant messaging (IM) access
        to frien...
Before Search,
    users need: access resources during preparation

      • instant messaging (IM) access
        to frien...
Before Search,
    users need: access resources during preparation

      • instant messaging (IM) access
        to frien...
Before Search,
    users need: access resources during preparation

      • instant messaging (IM) access
        to frien...
Photo Credit: Image Source
Thank You!

Brynn M. Evans                    Ed H. Chi
 bmevans@gmail.com               echi@parc.com
http://brynnevans.c...
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Towards a Model of Understanding Social Search

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This is a talk by Brynn Evans and Ed Chi, given at CSCW 2008 in the Social Sensemaking session.

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Transcript of "Towards a Model of Understanding Social Search"

  1. 1. Photo Credit: David Wild Towards a Model of Understanding Social Search Brynn M. Evans Ed H. Chi UC San Diego PARC CSCW 2008 bmevans@cogsci.ucsd.edu echi@parc.com Nov 11, 2008
  2. 2. Photo Credit: Image Source
  3. 3. Search is more than a database query.
  4. 4. Janet’s extended search process BEFORE had partial knowledge, needed specific information DURING Google AFTER shared information with colleagues
  5. 5. Search can be social.
  6. 6. What is social search?
  7. 7. social search : an umbrella term used to describe search acts that make use of social interactions with others.
  8. 8. social search : an umbrella term used to describe search acts that make use of social interactions with others. Where those interactions may be: • explicit or implicit, TWIDALE; MORRIS GLANCE; GOLDBERG; RIEDL; SMYTH • co-located or remote, KUHLTHAU; TWIDALE; WILSON • synchronous or asynchronous.
  9. 9. What are we trying to do? goal : Learn about the role of social interactions in search. method : Analyze 150 responses to a critical-incident survey. (F LANAGAN 1954)
  10. 10. The Survey Mechanical Turk -- micro-task market (KITTUR, CHI & SUH, 2008) 27-question critical-incident questionnaire on people’s most recent search experience.
  11. 11. The Survey We sought the context and purpose of the search experience.
  12. 12. The Survey We sought the context and purpose of the search experience. BEFORE DURING AFTER
  13. 13. The Survey We sought the context and purpose of the search experience. • when did the episode occur? BEFORE • what were you doing before the search? • did you talk with anyone prior to searching? DURING AFTER
  14. 14. The Survey We sought the context and purpose of the search experience. • when did the episode occur? BEFORE • what were you doing before the search? • did you talk with anyone prior to searching? DURING • what steps did you take in your search? • did you interact with anyone? AFTER
  15. 15. The Survey We sought the context and purpose of the search experience. • when did the episode occur? BEFORE • what were you doing before the search? • did you talk with anyone prior to searching? DURING • what steps did you take in your search? • did you interact with anyone? • what did you do immediately after? AFTER • did you share your results with anyone?
  16. 16. Subject Sample • N = 150 • Anonymous, English-speaking users • diverse backgrounds Profession Employer 9% Education Universities (London, Illinois, Missouri, Northeastern) 9% Financial Liberty Mutual, Ernst & Young 7% Healthcare ChartOne Inc, Mid State Health Systems 6% Govt. Agency IRS, US Army, Navy, Air Force, Dept of Commerce 6% Software Oracle, EA Games 6% Retail Target, Circuit City 5% Research LexisNexis, GE Plastics
  17. 17. Subject Sample • N = 150 • Anonymous, English-speaking users • diverse backgrounds Profession Employer 9% Education Universities (London, Illinois, Missouri, Northeastern) 9% Financial Liberty Mutual, Ernst & Young 7% Healthcare ChartOne Inc, Mid State Health Systems 6% Govt. Agency IRS, US Army, Navy, Air Force, Dept of Commerce 6% Software Oracle, EA Games 6% Retail Target, Circuit City 5% Research LexisNexis, GE Plastics
  18. 18. Subject Sample • N = 150 • Anonymous, English-speaking users • diverse backgrounds Profession Employer 9% Education Universities (London, Illinois, Missouri, Northeastern) 9% Financial Liberty Mutual, Ernst & Young 7% Healthcare ChartOne Inc, Mid State Health Systems 6% Govt. Agency IRS, US Army, Navy, Air Force, Dept of Commerce 6% Software Oracle, EA Games 6% Retail Target, Circuit City 5% Research LexisNexis, GE Plastics
  19. 19. Subject Sample • N = 150 • Anonymous, English-speaking users • diverse backgrounds Profession Employer 9% Education Universities (London, Illinois, Missouri, Northeastern) 9% Financial Liberty Mutual, Ernst & Young 7% Healthcare ChartOne Inc, Mid State Health Systems 6% Govt. Agency IRS, US Army, Navy, Air Force, Dept of Commerce 6% Software Oracle, EA Games 6% Retail Target, Circuit City 5% Research LexisNexis, GE Plastics
  20. 20. Subject Sample • N = 150 • Anonymous, English-speaking users • diverse backgrounds Profession Employer 9% Education Universities (London, Illinois, Missouri, Northeastern) 9% Financial Liberty Mutual, Ernst & Young 7% Healthcare ChartOne Inc, Mid State Health Systems 6% Govt. Agency IRS, US Army, Navy, Air Force, Dept of Commerce 6% Software Oracle, EA Games 6% Retail Target, Circuit City 5% Research LexisNexis, GE Plastics
  21. 21. Model of Search
  22. 22. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  23. 23. Before Search externally-motivated self-motivated framing searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  24. 24. externally-motivated searchers specific request from a boss, customer, or client
  25. 25. externally-motivated searchers specific request from a boss, customer, or client Photo Credit: tuexperto_com5
  26. 26. externally-motivated searchers self-motivated searchers specific request from a boss, self-initiated search for personal or customer, or client work related information Photo Credit: tuexperto_com5
  27. 27. externally-motivated searchers self-motivated searchers specific request from a boss, self-initiated search for personal or customer, or client work related information Photo Credit: tuexperto_com5 Photo Source: Peter Voerman
  28. 28. Before Search externally- framing motivated self-motivated the context users users 31% 69% search preparation
  29. 29. Before Search externally- framing motivated self-motivated the context users users 31% 69% GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the requirements FORMULATE REPRESENTATION
  30. 30. Before Search externally- framing motivated self-motivated the context users users 31% 69% GATHER REQUIREMENTS SOCIAL INTERACTIONS refining the requirements 43% users FORMULATE REPRESENTATION
  31. 31. Before Search externally- framing motivated self-motivated the context users users 70% 31% 30% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS SOCIAL INTERACTIONS refining the requirements 43% users FORMULATE REPRESENTATION
  32. 32. Before Search framing externally-motivated self-motivated the context users users 70% 30% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS refining the GATHER REQUIREMENTS requirements 43% users FORMULATE REPRESENTATION REASONS FOR BEING SOCIAL
  33. 33. Before Search framing externally-motivated self-motivated the context users users 70% 30% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS refining the GATHER REQUIREMENTS requirements 43% users FORMULATE REPRESENTATION externally- REASONS motivated FOR 1. establish guidelines BEING SOCIAL
  34. 34. Before Search framing externally-motivated self-motivated the context users users 70% 30% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS refining the GATHER REQUIREMENTS requirements 43% users FORMULATE REPRESENTATION externally- self-motivated REASONS motivated FOR 1. establish guidelines 1. establish guidelines BEING 2. seek advice 3. brainstorm SOCIAL 4. collect search tips (e.g., keywords, URLs)
  35. 35. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  36. 36. During Search 3 types of information needs (BRODER 2002)
  37. 37. During Search 3 types of information needs (BRODER 2002) navigational 28% step A step B Photo Credit: Library of Congress via pingnews
  38. 38. During Search 3 types of information needs (BRODER 2002) navigational 28% transactional 13% step A step A step B step B TRANSACTION Photo Credit: Library of Congress via pingnews Photo Credit: Jeremy Goldman
  39. 39. During Search 3 types of information needs informational 59% FORAGING search process “evidence file” SENSEMAKING Photo Credit: Children at Risk Foundation
  40. 40. During Search 3 types of information needs informational 40% FORAGING SOCIAL INTERACTIONS search process “evidence file” SENSEMAKING Photo Credit: Children at Risk Foundation
  41. 41. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  42. 42. After Search search product / end product
  43. 43. After Search search product / end product 28% DO NOTHING
  44. 44. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING
  45. 45. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE
  46. 46. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users
  47. 47. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users
  48. 48. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users to proximate 87% 86 to public 2% 2 others users others users
  49. 49. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users to proximate 87% 86 to public 2% 2 to self 15% 15 others users others users users
  50. 50. After Search search product / end product 72% 28% TAKE ACTION DO NOTHING ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users to proximate 87% 86 to public 2% 2 to self 15% 15 others users others users users 59% of all users shared information with others
  51. 51. After Search DISTRIBUTE 67% of all users to proximate 87% 86 to public 2% 2 to self 15% 15 others users others users users 59% of all users shared information with others externally- self-motivated REASONS motivated FOR 1. obligation 1. obligation SHARING 2. thought others would be interested 3. to get feedback
  52. 52. Limitations What does it mean to be an active social searcher? What considerations go into seeking help from social networks? Is social search more useful for certain types of info? Procedural knowledge? Experience-based knowledge? How is the experience different for search failures? Will we see more cases of social outreach during failed searches? Will searchers exploit all options before admitting failure?
  53. 53. Conclusion
  54. 54. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  55. 55. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 43% users engaged in pre-search social interactions. GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  56. 56. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 43% users engaged in pre-search social interactions. GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the reasons for interacting: to get advice, guidelines, feedback, FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements or search tips 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search process step B step B “evidence file” TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  57. 57. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 43% users engaged in pre-search social interactions. GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the reasons for interacting: to get advice, guidelines, feedback, FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements or search tips 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search 3 types of search: informational search provides a step B step B process compelling case for social file” “evidence search support. TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  58. 58. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 43% users engaged in pre-search social interactions. GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the reasons for interacting: to get advice, guidelines, feedback, FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements or search tips 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search 3 types of search: informational search provides a step B step B process compelling case for social file” “evidence search support. TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION 59% users engaged in post-search sharing. ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE to self 15% to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  59. 59. externally-motivated self-motivated framing Before Search searchers searchers the context 31% 69% SOCIAL INTERACTIONS 43% users engaged in pre-search social interactions. GATHER REQUIREMENTS refining the reasons for interacting: to get advice, guidelines, feedback, FORMULATE REPRESENTATION requirements or search tips 28% 13% 59% During Search navigational transactional informational FORAGING step A step A search 3 types of search: informational search provides a step B step B process compelling case for social file” “evidence search support. TRANSACTION SENSEMAKING search product /end product After Search 28% 72% DO NOTHING TAKE ACTION 59% users engaged in post-search sharing. ORGANIZE DISTRIBUTE reasons for interacting: thought others might be interested, to self 15% feedback, out of obligation to get to proximate 87% to public 2% others others
  60. 60. Design Principles
  61. 61. Before Search, users need: access resources during preparation • instant messaging (IM) access to friends near the search box Photo Credit: Jeff Hester
  62. 62. Before Search, users need: access resources during preparation • instant messaging (IM) access to friends near the search box Photo Credit: Jeff Hester During Search, users need: help evaluating & validating results • related keywords or search trails Similar to: GLANCE; SMYTH • tag clouds from domain experts Photo Credit: Rooney John
  63. 63. Before Search, users need: access resources during preparation • instant messaging (IM) access to friends near the search box Photo Credit: Jeff Hester During Search, users need: help evaluating & validating results MR. TAGGY • related keywords or search trails Similar to: GLANCE; SMYTH • tag clouds from domain experts Photo Credit: Rooney John
  64. 64. Before Search, users need: access resources during preparation • instant messaging (IM) access to friends near the search box Photo Credit: Jeff Hester During Search, users need: help evaluating & validating results MR. TAGGY • related keywords or search trails Similar to: GLANCE; SMYTH • tag clouds from domain experts Photo Credit: Rooney John After Search, users need: facilities for sharing search findings SPARTAG.US (PARC) • sharing tools built-in to the site or search page
  65. 65. Photo Credit: Image Source
  66. 66. Thank You! Brynn M. Evans Ed H. Chi bmevans@gmail.com echi@parc.com http://brynnevans.com http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~echi/
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