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Respiratory System Anatomy

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  • 1.  
  • 2. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  CONDUCTING PORTION  RESPIRATORY PORTION
  • 3. SKELETAL MUSCLES AND BONES ARE REQUIRED FOR RESPIRATORY SYSTEM FUNCTION RIBS STERNUM INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES DIAPHRAGM
  • 4. GENERAL ORGANIZATIONAL PATTERN OF CONDUCTING PORTION OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  MUCOSA Luminal sheet epithelium (typically “respiratory epithelium”) Lamina propria (loose FECT)  SUBMUCOSA (mod. dense FECT) (not always present or merged with lamina propria, serous or mixed glands may be present in the lamina propria or submucosa)  “MUSCULARIS” EXTERNA (may be smooth muscle, cartilage, or bone)  ADVENTITIA or SEROSA (absent in nasal cavity)
  • 5. CELL TYPES FOUND IN “RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM” PREDOMINANT CELL TYPES  Ciliated columnar cells – move mucus  Goblet cells – secrete mucus  Basal cells – replace damaged cells LESS COMMON CELL TYPES  Brush cells – sensory receptor cells  Dense core granule cells (Small granule cells) – enteroendocrine cells  Clara cells (trachea and bronchi) – protein secreting cells, secrete surfactant
  • 6. PREDOMINANT CELL TYPES FOUND IN “RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM” Ciliated columnar cell Goblet cell (Mucous cell) Basal cell Source: Lentz. 1971. Cell Fine Structure.
  • 7. “RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM” Ciliated cells Goblet cell/ Brush Mucous cell cells Basal cell Small granule cell Source: Weiss. 1983. Histology. Cell and Tissue Biology. 5th Edition.
  • 8. (surfactant)
  • 9. “RESPIRATORY” EPITHELIUM Ciliated cells Goblet cells Cilia Small Basement membrane granule Basal cell cell
  • 10. EPITHELIA OF REGIONS WITHIN NASAL CAVITIES  VESTIBULE or OLFACTORY NOSTRIL SEGMENT Stratified squamous sheet epithelium RESPIRATORY SEGMENT  RESPIRATORY SEGMENT ”Respiratory NOSTRIL epithelium”  OLFACTORY SEGMENT Olfactory epithelium
  • 11. NASAL CAVITIES/ NASAL PASSAGEWAYS OEp = olfactory epithelium OM = olfactory mucosa Rep = “respiratory epithelium” EB = bone Source: Plate 88, Figure 1 in Ross et al. 1995. Histology. A Text and Atlas. 3rd Edition.
  • 12. CELL TYPES FOUND IN OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM  Sustentacular or supporting cells  Olfactory cells  Basal cells  Brush cells
  • 13. Mucosa of the Olfactory Segment of the Nasal Cavity
  • 14. Mucosa of the Olfactory Segment of the Nasal Cavity SC = supportive cells OC = olfactory neuron cell bodies BC = basal cells BG = olfactory glands (serous) N = peripheral nerves V = blood vessels C = capillaries Source: Plate 88, Figure 2 in Ross et al. 1995. Histology. A Text and Atlas. 3rd Edition.
  • 15. NASAL CAVITIES/NASAL PASSAGEWAYS are separated from oral cavity by PALATE OLFACTORY SEGMENT RESPIRATORY SEGMENT NOSTRIL HARD PALATE SOFT PALATE Modified from: Figure 18.1 in Ross et al. 1995. Histology. A Text and Atlas. 3rd Edition.
  • 16. SOFT PALATE NASAL ORAL CAVITY CAVITY side side “Respiratory epithelium” of Nasal Mucosa Source: Hammersen. 1980. Histology.
  • 17. PHARYNX ”Respiratory epithelium” Stratified squamous sheet epithelium Modified from: Figure 18.1 in Ross et al. 2003. Histology. A Text and Atlas. 4th Edition.
  • 18. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  NASAL CAVITIES/ NASAL PASSAGEWAYS  PHARYNX - nasopharynx, oropharynx  LARYNX  TRACHEA  EXTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI  LUNGS
  • 19. LARYNX and TRACHEA bone cartilage Food cartilage cartilage Surface View Mid-longitudinal Section Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 20. EPIGLOTTIS of LARYNX Stratified squamous epithelium Elastic Cartilage Stratified squamous or pseudostratified columnar epithelium Source: Hammersen. 1980. Histology. A Color Atlas of Cytology, Histology and Microscopic Anatomy. 2nd Edition.
  • 21. LARYNX Epiglottis Stratified squamous sheet epithelium Ventricular fold/ false vocal cord Vocal fold/ true vocal cord Pseudostratified ciliated columnar sheet epithelium Source: Hammersen. 1980. Histology. A Color Atlas of Cytology, Histology and Microscopic Anatomy. 2nd Edition.
  • 22. LARYNX Epiglottis Cartilaginous plate in “Muscularis” Externa Intrinsic glands in Lamina propria of Striated skeletal Mucosa muscle tissue in “Muscularis” Externa Vocal ligament Vocalis muscle Cartilaginous plate in “Muscularis” Externa Source: Hammersen. 1980. Histology. A Color Atlas of Cytology, Histology and Microscopic Anatomy. 2nd Edition.
  • 23. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  NASAL CAVITIES/ NASAL PASSAGEWAYS  PHARYNX - nasopharynx, oropharynx  LARYNX  TRACHEA  EXTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI  LUNGS
  • 24. Trachea  Mucosa “Respiratory” epithelium (+/- Clara cells) Lamina propria of loose FECT  Submucosa Loose to moderately denseFECT, denser than lamina propria, may contain compound tubuloacinar glands  “Muscularis”externa Hyaline cartilages (horseshoe-shaped “rings”) Smooth muscle across open ends of cartilages Moderately dense FECT connects adjacent rings  Adventitia Loose FECT
  • 25. TRACHEA Adventitia “Muscularis” Externa luminal epithelium in submucosa Mucosa (trachealis muscle) Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 26. TRACHEA
  • 27. TRACHEA
  • 28. LUMINAL EPITHELIUM OF TRACHEA (“Respiratory” Epithelium) Ciliated cells Goblet cells Cilia Small Basement membrane granule Basal cell cell
  • 29. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM  NASAL CAVITIES/ NASAL PASSAGEWAYS  PHARYNX - nasopharynx, oropharynx  LARYNX  TRACHEA  EXTRAPULMONARY BRONCHI  LUNGS
  • 30. Bronchus (very similar to Trachea)  Mucosa “Respiratory” epithelium (+/- Clara cells) Lamina propria of loose FECT  Submucosa Loose to moderately denseFECT, denser than lamina propria, may contain compound tubuloacinar glands  “Muscularis”externa Hyaline cartilages (horseshoe-shaped “rings”) Smooth muscle across open ends of cartilages Moderately dense FECT connects adjacent rings  Adventitia Loose FECT
  • 31. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM PULMONARY LOBULE Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 32. ORGANIZATION OF LUNG 3-9 = intrapulmonary bronchi 10 = large bronchiole tb = terminal bronchiole rb = respiratory bronchiole ad = alveolar duct as = alveolar sac a = alveolus l = lobule PULMONARY LOBULE Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 33. HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES OF PULMONARY COMPONENTS
  • 34. ORGANIZATION OF LUNG Source: Gartner & Hiatt. 1994. Color Atlas of Histology. 2nd Edition.
  • 35. ORGANIZATION OF LUNG alveoli Source: Freeman & Bracegirdle. 1976. An Advanced Atlas of Histology.
  • 36. ORGANIZATION OF LUNG 3-9 = intrapulmonary bronchi PULMONARY LOBULE Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 37. Intrapulmonary Bronchi  Mucosa “Respiratory” epithelium (+/- Clara cells) Lamina propria of loose FECT  “Muscularis” Spiral bundles of smooth muscle  Submucosa Loose to occasionally moderately dense FECT, may contain compound tubuloacinar glands  “Muscularis”externa Hyaline cartilages (horseshoe-shaped “rings”) Smooth muscle across open ends of cartilages Moderately dense FECT connects adjacent rings  Adventitia Loose FECT
  • 38. INTRAPULMONARY BRONCHUS Mucosa Bronchiole branching off of bronchus Intrinsic glands in Lamina Propria FECT Cartilaginous plate in “Muscularis” Externa Source: Jungueira et al. 1975. Basic Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 39. An Intrapulmonary Bronchus Loose FECT Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium Hyaline Cartilage Smooth Muscle
  • 40. BRONCHIOLES <1 mm in diameter No cartilage in wall  MUCOSA Luminal sheet epithelium (ranges from pseudostratified ciliated columnar in large bronchioles to simple cuboidal with mixed ciliated and Clara cells in terminal bronchioles) Lamina propria = loose FECT “MUSCULARIS” = bundles of PULMONARY LOBULE smooth muscle Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 41. TYPES OF BRONCHIOLES  LARGE BRONCHIOLES Pseudostratified ciliated columnar sheet epithelium to simple columnar sheet epithelium  TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES Mainly simple cuboidal sheet epithelium  RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLES Simple cuboidal sheet epithelium (mainly Clara cells) 10 = large bronchiole tb = terminal bronchiole rb = respiratory bronchiole Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 42. CELL TYPES FOUND IN LUMINAL EPITHELIUM OF BRONCHIOLES Ciliated cell Clara cell Ciliated cell  Ciliated cells  Basal cells  Goblet cells  Brush cells  Small granule cells  Clara cells Source: Ross et al. 1995. Histology. A Text and Atlas. 3rd Edition.
  • 43. BRONCHIOLE Source: Burkitt et al. 1993. Wheater’s Functional Histology. A Text and Colour Atlas.
  • 44. Alveoli are where the action is (at least in terms of gas exchange)
  • 45. ORGANIZATION OF LUNG alveoli Source: Freeman & Bracegirdle. 1976. An Advanced Atlas of Histology.
  • 46. ALVEOLI or AIR SPACES AS = alveolar sac A = alveolus
  • 47. ALVEOLI (AIR SPACES) Occur in the walls of  Respiratory bronchioles  Alveolar ducts  Alveolar sacs CONSIST OF:  Alveolar Epithelium  Thin region of highly vascularized FECT ad = alveolar duct as = alveolar sac a = alveolus Source: Leeson & Leeson. 1981. Histology. 4th Edition.
  • 48. CELL TYPES FOUND IN ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM Type I Pneumocytes [gas exchange] Type II Pneumocytes [secrete surfactant (mix of proteins and lipids)] Brush Cells [sensory receptors] Pulmonary Macrophages [phagocytosis]
  • 49. CELL TYPES FOUND IN ALVEOLAR EPITHELIUM (as observed at TEM level) Type I Pneumocyte Type II Pneumocyte (and adjacent capillary) Source: Lentz. 1971. Cell Fine Structure.
  • 50. Alveolar Wall Structure – Type I Cells
  • 51. Lung Injected to Show Capillaries Capillaries (red structures) Alveoli
  • 52. ALVEOLI ARE SITES AIR OF GAS EXCHANGE BLOOD BLOOD RBC
  • 53. Alveolar Wall Structure – Type II or Great Alveolar Cells
  • 54. CELL TYPES FOUND IN ALVEOLI (as observed at the LM level) In addition to Type I and Type II alveolar cells (pneumocytes), macrophages are frequently observed migrating along the alveolar surface. Macrophages are frequently detached from the surface during processing.
  • 55. Criteria for Classifying Intrapulmonary Structures Structure Lining Epithelium Other Features Bronchi pseudostratified hyaline cartilage in wall columnar usually + smooth muscle Bronchioles pseudostratified no hyaline cartilage in wall columnar to smooth muscle present simple cuboidal, no squamous Respiratory >50% cuboidal or little or no smooth muscle, Bronchioles columnar, <50% usually some loose FECT squamous (but squamous present) Alveolar Ducts <50% cuboidal, no smooth muscle, loose Alveolar Sacs >50% squamous FECT sparse or absent
  • 56. ALVEOLI & BRONCHIOLES TB = terminal bronchiole RB = respiratory bronchiole AD = alveolar duct AS = alveolar sac

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