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ATLASt

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ATLASt

  1. 1. S.Y. 2012-2013 TFCD1Sir Jasper John Obico Instructor
  2. 2. Table of ContentsExercise 9 The Primary Structure of the Stem...............................................................1Exercise 10 The Secondary Structure of the Stem.........................................................8Exercise 11 The Nodal Anatomy of the Stem...................................................................17Exercise 12 Vines and Anomalous Stems.........................................................................19Exercise 13 Vascular Cryptogams....................................................................................23Exercise 14 The Root Anatomy...........................................................................................30Exercise 15 The Leaf Anatomy...........................................................................................39
  3. 3. The Primary Structure of the Stem 1 Exercise 9 The Primary Structure of the Stem Content: o Cucurbita c.s. o Zea mays c.s.  Bicollateral Bundle of Cucurbita  mature vascular bundle of  Phloem tissue of Cucurbita c.s. Zea mays showing sieve plate o Young stem of Muntingia calabura c.s. o Coleus c.s. o 1-yr old stem of Tilia c.s. o Helianthus c.s. Terminologies: o Dermal Tissue System – consists of the epidermis and cuticle o Epidermis – outer covering of the stem for protection and prevents loss of water o Cuticle – waxy covering of the epidermis made up of cutin o Trichomes – epidermal appendages found in some stems used to prevent loss of water and herbivory o Ground Tissue System – background tissue that fills the spaces between epidermis and vascular tissue o Phloem – transports food and nutrients o Bundle cap – cluster of dead, fibrous, thick-walled sclerenchyma cells providing support for phloem tissue o Sieve tube members – large, living, elongated cells that lack a nucleus at maturity; become vertically aligned to form sieve tubesPlant Anatomy Atlas
  4. 4. The Primary Structure of the Stem 2 o Sieve plate – found at the end walls of sieve tube; contains sieve areas o Companion cells – small, nucleated parenchyma cells connected to sieve tube cells that assist them o Xylem – transports water and minerals o Tracheids – elongated, thick-walled cells with closed tapered ends; dead at functional maturity and lumens are connected through pits in the walls o Vessel members – large, dead, cylindrical cells that become joined end to end to form vessels o Vascular Cambium – tissue located between the xylem and phloem which actively divides in some plants to give rise to secondary tissues o Hypodermis – underlying layer of sclerenchyma after the epidermis providing support in some plants like Zea mays o Conjunctive Tissue – parenchymatous ground tissue found in monocots without piths
  5. 5. The Primary Structure of the Stem 3 Epidermis Cortical parenchyma Vascular Bundle Pericyclic Fibers Pith Cavity Pith Cucurbita c.s. CS of Cucurbita stem showing bicollateral bundle Protoxylem Metaxylem External Vascular Cambium Outer phloem Internal Vascular Inner phloem CambiumPlant Anatomy Atlas
  6. 6. The Primary Structure of the Stem 4 CS of Cucurbita stem showing sieve plate Sieve plate Sieve tube Companion Cell Cortex Vascular bundles Pericyclic fibers Pith Endodermis Coleus stem c.s.Plant Anatomy Atlas
  7. 7. The Primary Structure of the Stem 5 epidermis Cortical collenchyma Vascular bundle Pith xylem phloem Bast fibers Helianthus stem c.s. Helianthus stem showing phloem fascicular and interfascicular cambium Fascicular cambium xylem Interfascicular cambiumPlant Anatomy Atlas
  8. 8. The Primary Structure of the Stem 6 Epidermis hypodermis Vascular bundles Conjunctive tissue Zea mays stem c.s. Zea mays stem showing vascular bundles Metaxylem Bundle sheath Protoxylem lacuna phloemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  9. 9. The Primary Structure of the Stem 7 Vascular cambium phloem xylem pith cortex Epidermis Young Tilia stem c.s. cortex pith phloem xylem epidermis trichome Young Muntingia calabura stem c.s.Plant Anatomy Atlas
  10. 10. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 8 Exercise 10 The Secondary Structure of the Stem Content: o Tilia stem cs. o Lenticels of stems cs. • Periderm of Tilia stem o Mature Pinus stem cs. o Tilia wood ts. • Resin canal of Pinus o Tilia wood rs. o Pinus Is. o Muntingia stem cs. Terminologies: • Lenticel- limited part of the periderm in which the phellogen is more active than elsewhere and produces a tissue that has numerous intercellular spaces • Periderm- protective tissue of secondary origin which replaces the epidermis in stems and roots that increase in thickness by secondary growthPlant Anatomy Atlas
  11. 11. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 9 • Resin duct- in conifers, this occur in vascular and ground tissues of all plant organs and are, structurally, long intercellular spaces lined with resin-producing epithelial cells • Ray initials- type of cell consisting the vascular cambium that are elongated, axially oriented and have tapering ends • Axial initials- another cell type found in the vascular cambium that are almost isodiametric cells, smaller and round to angular in shape
  12. 12. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 10 Phloem fibers Annual rings pith Tilia stem cs. Closer look on Tilia epidermis stem cortex Dilated phloem ray phloem Vascular cambium Early wood late woodPlant Anatomy Atlas
  13. 13. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 11 tracheids Ray cells Tilia radial section Multiseriate Ray cells tracheids Tilia tangential sectionPlant Anatomy Atlas
  14. 14. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 12 lenticel Filling tissues Lenticel phellogen Nerium stem - lenticel lenticel Filling tissues Lenticel phellogen Sambucus stem - lenticelPlant Anatomy Atlas
  15. 15. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 13 epidermis Dilated phloem ray phloem Vascular cambium Xylem rays Secondary phloem epidermis pithMuntingia mature stem cs. pith Primary xylemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  16. 16. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 14 phellem xylem phellogen Resin canal phloem cortex phellem phellogen cortex phloem Resin canal xylem pith Pinus mature stem cs.Plant Anatomy Atlas
  17. 17. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 15 cortex Casing cells Resin canal Resin canal in cortex Resin canal Xylem Resin canal in xylem tracheids Xylem rays Resin canal Xylem tracheids Xylem rays PithPlant Anatomy Atlas
  18. 18. The Secondary Structure of the Stem 16 Uniseriate ray cells Resin canal Pinus tangential section tracheids Uniseriate ray cells Tangential section showing ray cellsPlant Anatomy Atlas
  19. 19. The Nodal Anatomy of the Stem 17 Exercise 11 The Nodal Anatomy of the Stem Content: o Chichirica stem, selected o Tradescantia stem, selected cs cs from serial section from serial section Terminologies: o Leaf gap- also called lacuna; space in the vascular cambium filled with parenchyma o Leaf trace- vascular tissues supplying the leaf o Unilacunar type-each leaf produces one leaf gap o Trilacunar type-two “lateral” gaps are formed o Multitlacunar type-more then three gaps are producedPlant Anatomy Atlas
  20. 20. The Nodal Anatomy of the Stem 18 Leaf Trace Leaf Gap Vascular Tissues Pith Chichirica cs. “Unilacunar type” Leaf Gap Leaf Trace Pith Tradenscantia cs. “Multilacunar type”,Plant Anatomy Atlas
  21. 21. Vines and Anomalous Stems 19 Exercise 12 Vines and Anomalous Stems Content: o Aristolochia elegans stem cs. o Bauhinia stem cs. o Bignonia javanica stem cs. o Bougainvilla spectabilis stem Terminologies: o Medullary bundles - vascular bundles in the pith; result of the dedifferentiation of the pith parenchyma to vascular cambium therefore producing vascular tissues. o Included phloem - phloem found in xylem; result of the dedifferentiation of the xylem parenchyma to vascular cambium therefore producing phloem. o Giant rays - result of the unusual activity of the vascular cambium; the vascular cambium produces rays instead of vascular tissues. o Phloem panels - result of the unidirectional activity of the vascular cambium; vascular cambium produces phloem instead of the usual phloem outward and xylem inward.Plant Anatomy Atlas
  22. 22. Vines and Anomalous Stems 20 Lenticel Cortex Vascular bundle Crushed pith Bast fibers Aristolochia elegans cs Periderm Cortex Bast fibers Crushed phloem Giant rays Xylem Aristolochia elegans csPlant Anatomy Atlas
  23. 23. Vines and Anomalous Stems 21 Periderm Bast fiber Cortex Pith Vascular tissues Bignonia javanica cs. Vascular cambium Bast fiber (cap) Phloem Phloem pannel Lenticel Bast fiber (band) Bignonia javanica cs XylemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  24. 24. Vines and Anomalous Stems 22 Medullary bundle Pith Bougainvilla spectrabilis csc Medullary bundle Xylem Phloem Starch sheath Cortex Periderm Bougainvilla spectrabilis csPlant Anatomy Atlas
  25. 25. Vascular Cryptogams 23 Exercise 13 Vascular Cryptogams Content: o Pteris (common fern) stem cs. o Selaginella (Spike Moss) stem cs. o Pteridium aqualinum (Bracken o Lycopodium (Ground Pine) stem Fern) stem cs. cs. o Equisetum (Horsetail) stem cs. Terminologies: o Cryptogams- hidden gametes o Protostele- a stele wherein xylem is located in the center instead of a pith o Haplostele-a protostele where the phloem surrounds the xylem o Dictyostele- if multiple gaps in the vascular cylinder exist in any one transverse section. o Plectostele- a protostele wherein the xylem are in form of strands o Actinostele- a star-shaped protostelePlant Anatomy Atlas
  26. 26. Vascular Cryptogams 24 o Siphonostele- a stele with a pith o Atactostele- a siphonostele wherein the vascular bundles are arranged spirally o Eustele- a siphonostele wherein the vascular bundles are arranged in a circle o Ectophloic Siphonostele- a siphonostele wherein the phloem has completely surrounded the xylem o Amphiphloic Siphonostele- a siphonostele wherein the phloem placed both inside and outside of the xylem
  27. 27. Vascular Cryptogams 25 Epidermis cortex stele Amphicribral bundle with exarch Pteris cs. “dictyostele” xylem development pericycle protoxylem metaxylem phloem endodermisPlant Anatomy Atlas
  28. 28. Vascular Cryptogams 26 cortex stele Amphicribral bundle Pteridium cs.“dictyostele” with mesarch xylem pericycle development protoxylem metaxylem phloemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  29. 29. Vascular Cryptogams 27 epidermis cortex Pith cavity Collateral bundle with endarch xylem Equisetum cs.“eustele” development Carinal canal Vascular bundle vallecular canalPlant Anatomy Atlas
  30. 30. Vascular Cryptogams 28 epidermis Leaf trace stele Concentric Selaginella cs.“haplostele” bundle endodermis metaxylem phoem protoxylemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  31. 31. Vascular Cryptogams 29 epidermis cortex stele Xylem embedded Lycopodium cs.“plectostele” in phloem endodermis protoxylem metaxylem phloem pericyclePlant Anatomy Atlas
  32. 32. Root Anatomy 30 Exercise 14 Root Anatomy Content: o Phaseolus young root cs. o Ranunculus old root cs. o Phaseolus mature root o Ranunculus young root cs. o Zea mays root cs. o Mongo young root cs. o Commelina root cs. o Mongo old root cs. o Pinus root cs. Terminologies: •Epidermis – Uniserate layer of collapsed and partially destroyed cells covering the entirety of the root. •Periderm - protective tissue of secondary origin which replaces the epidermis in stems and roots that increase in thickness by secondary growth •Resin duct- in conifers, this occur in vascular and ground tissues of all plant organs and are, structurally, long intercellular spaces lined with resin- producing epithelial cells •Cortex - outer layer of tissue immediately below the epidermis of a stemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  33. 33. Root Anatomy 31 or root. Relatively thicker in roots than in stems. •Pericycle - inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and of some stems, surrounding a vascular bundle. Responsible for diverting all conduction of material into symplast. •Endodermis - inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and of some stems, surrounding a vascular bundle. Responsible for diverting all conduction of material into symplast. •Taproot system – type of root system where radicle is prominent and lateral roots grow from it. Typical of eudicots. •Fibrous root system – type of root system where radicle is not prominent and consists rather of several adventitious roots forming from the first root/radicle. Typical of monocots.
  34. 34. Root Anatomy 32 cortex with starch grains stele Ranunculus young root cs. “tetrarch” unlignified endodermis endodermis protoxylem cortex with starch grainsPlant Anatomy Atlas
  35. 35. Root Anatomy 33 cortex with starch grains stele Ranunculus mature root cs. “tetrarch” endodermis lignified protoxylem endodermis metaxylem phloem cortex with starch grainsPlant Anatomy Atlas
  36. 36. Root Anatomy 34 epidermis cortex Stele Phaseolus young root cs. “tetrarch” phloem protoxylem Not yet developed metaxylemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  37. 37. Root Anatomy 35 epidermis Emerging lateral root cortex Phaseolus mature root cs. phloem Emerging lateral root pericycle Secondary xylemPlant Anatomy Atlas
  38. 38. Root Anatomy 36 xylem phloem pith Zea mays root cs. “polyarch” endodermis epidermis cortexPlant Anatomy Atlas
  39. 39. Root Anatomy 37 cortex stele epidermis Commelina root cs. “polyarch” protoxylem metaxylem endodermis pithPlant Anatomy Atlas
  40. 40. Root Anatomy 38 periderm phloem Resin duct Xylem tracheids Pinus root cs. periderm Dilated phloem rays Secondary xylem Annual rings Primary xylem phloem Tilia old root cs.Plant Anatomy Atlas
  41. 41. Leaf Anatomy 39 Exercise 15 Leaf Anatomy Content: o Ixora leaf cs. o Pinus leaf cs. o Ficus elastica leaf cs. o Cycas leaf cs. o Syringa vulgaris leafcs. o Zea mays leaf cs. o Bougainvilla spectabilis o Nerium oleander leaf cs. leaf cs. Terminologies: o Mesophyll- ground tissue of the leaf o Unifacial- palisade is present on both sides of the leaf o Bifacial- palisade is present on one side while spongy layer on the other side. o Uniform- the mesophyll appears homogeneous o Lamina- the flat portion of the leaf o Midrib- the large middle vein of the leaf o Vein- the vascular system in the leafPlant Anatomy Atlas
  42. 42. Leaf Anatomy 40 Endodermis xylem phloem epidermis Resin duct Pinus leaf cs. One leaf -uniform mesophyllPlant Anatomy Atlas
  43. 43. Leaf Anatomy 41 midvein Unifacial mesophyll Cycas leaf cs. hypodermis Upper epidermis palisade mesophyll Transfusion tissue Sunken Lower stomata epidermisPlant Anatomy Atlas
  44. 44. Leaf Anatomy 42 vein Epidermal cells stomata Bulliform cells Uniform Zea mays leaf cs. mesophyll phloem xylem Bundle Bundle sheath sheath extensionPlant Anatomy Atlas
  45. 45. Leaf Anatomy 43 midrib Unifacial Nerium oleander leaf cs. mesophyll Multiseriate Palisade epidermal cells mesophyll Lower Stomatal epidermis cryptPlant Anatomy Atlas
  46. 46. Leaf Anatomy 44 epidermis palisade vein spongy bifacial Ixora leaf cs. mesophyll xylem phloem midrib veinPlant Anatomy Atlas
  47. 47. Leaf Anatomy 45 Multiseriate epidermis vein palisade Cystolith in lithocyst Ficus elastica leaf cs. unifacial mesophyll midvein midribPlant Anatomy Atlas
  48. 48. Leaf Anatomy 46 epidermis Commissural bundles mesophyll Syringa vulgaris leaf cs. Bifacial mesophyllPlant Anatomy Atlas
  49. 49. Leaf Anatomy 47 midrib Bougainvilla spectabilis leaf cs. Bifacial mesophyll epidermis palisade spongyPlant Anatomy Atlas

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