Mitosis, Meiosis,Mitosis, Meiosis,
and Life Cyclesand Life Cycles
Chapter 12Chapter 12
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1
• Distinguish between aDistinguish between a haploid cellhaploid cell andand
aa d...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• DIPLOID (2DIPLOID (2NN))
•
The condition of having two sets ofThe condition of having two sets of
chr...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMESHOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
•
Members of a chromosome pair that areMembers of a chro...
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2
• Identify the phases in theIdentify the phases in the cell cyclecell cycle
• Des...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS• CELL CYCLECELL CYCLE
•
Cyclic series of events in the life of a dividingCyclic series of events in the...
• functions in multicellular organismsfunctions in multicellular organisms
Cell DivisionCell Division
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• INTERPHASEINTERPHASE
•
Stage of the cell cycle between successiveStage of the cell cycle between succ...
InterphaseInterphase
• During interphaseDuring interphase
•
Cells produces proteins, cell grows andCells produces proteins...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• MITOSISMITOSIS
•
Division of the cell nucleus resulting in twoDivision of the cell nucleus resulting ...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• CYTOKINESISCYTOKINESIS
•
Stage of cell division in which the cytoplasmStage of cell division in which...
M PHASE
(Mitosis and cytokinesis)
S
(Synthesis phase)
G2
(Second gap
phase)
G1
(First gap phase)
Fig. 12-1, p. 242
G1- pro...
A Duplicated ChromosomeA Duplicated Chromosome
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3
• Describe the events that occur in eachDescribe the events that occur in each
st...
Stages of MitosisStages of Mitosis
• ProphaseProphase
• MetaphaseMetaphase
• AnaphaseAnaphase
• TelophaseTelophase
•Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• SPINDLESPINDLE
•
Structure consisting mainly ofStructure consisting mainly of microtubulesmicrotubule...
ProphaseProphase
• Chromatin condenses into chromosomesChromatin condenses into chromosomes
•
Nucleolus disappearsNucleolu...
Microtubules
Sister
chromatids
Kinetochore
Centromere
region
Fig. 12-3, p. 245
MetaphaseMetaphase
• Duplicated chromosomes line up alongDuplicated chromosomes line up along
midplane of cellmidplane of ...
Interphase and MitosisInterphase and Mitosis
TelophaseTelophase
• Nuclear envelope forms around each setNuclear envelope forms around each set
of chromosomesof chromos...
AnaphaseAnaphase
• Sister chromatids separate and move toSister chromatids separate and move to
opposite poles of the cell...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• CELL PLATECELL PLATE
•
Structure that forms duringStructure that forms during cytokinesiscytokinesis ...
Plasma
membrane
Vesicles gather
on cell's
midplane
Small vesicles
fuse, forming
larger vesicles
Eventually one
large vesic...
(e) Telophase(a) Interphase (b) Prophase (c) Metaphase (d) Anaphase
Condensing
chromosome
(consists of 2
sister chromatids...
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4
• Explain whyExplain why meiosismeiosis is needed at someis needed at some
point ...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• MEIOSISMEIOSIS
•
Process in which a 2Process in which a 2nn cell undergoescell undergoes
successive n...
MeiosisMeiosis
• preceded by the replication ofpreceded by the replication of
chromosomeschromosomes
• reduces the number ...
MeiosisMeiosis
• Meiosis must occur at some time in the lifeMeiosis must occur at some time in the life
of a sexually repr...
Meiosis IMeiosis I
• Members of each homologous pair ofMembers of each homologous pair of
chromosomes separate and arechro...
Meiosis IIMeiosis II
• Chromatids separate into individualChromatids separate into individual
chromosomes and are distribu...
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• SYNAPSISSYNAPSIS
•
Physical association of homologousPhysical association of homologous
chromosomes d...
Crossing OverCrossing Over
• Crossing overCrossing over
•
Exchange of segments of homologousExchange of segments of homolo...
Crossing over
Sister
chromatids
Kinetochores
Fig. 12-6, p. 249
MeiosisMeiosis
MeiosisMeiosis
(a) Prophase I (d) Telophase I(c) Anaphase I(b) Metaphase I
Each
chromosome
consists of
two
chromatids
Homologous
chromoso...
(e) Prophase II (h) Telophase II(g) Anaphase II(f) Metaphase II
Chromosomes
(each with two
chromatids)
Spindle
microtubule...
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5
• Compare and contrastCompare and contrast mitosismitosis andand
meiosismeiosis
MitosisMitosis
• Involves a single nuclear division in whichInvolves a single nuclear division in which
the two daughter c...
MeiosisMeiosis
• Involves two successive nuclear divisionsInvolves two successive nuclear divisions
and forms four haploid...
Mitosis and MeiosisMitosis and Meiosis
Two daughter cells (each 2n = 4)
identical to parent cell
Chromosomes
Prophase
Parent cell
(2n = 4)
Mitosis
Nuclear
envelo...
LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6
• DefineDefine alternation of generationsalternation of generations
KEY TERMSKEY TERMS
• Alternation of generationsAlternation of generations
•
Plants alternate haploid and diploid generatio...
The SporophyteThe Sporophyte
• The 2The 2n,n, spore-producing stage in the lifespore-producing stage in the life
cycle of ...
The GametophyteThe Gametophyte
• TheThe n,n, gamete-producing stage in the lifegamete-producing stage in the life
cycle of...
Mitosis
Gametophyte (n)
(multicellular
haploid organism)
Sporophyte (2n)
(multicellular
diploid organism)
Spores (n)
Ferti...
Animation: The Cell CycleAnimation: The Cell Cycle
CLICK
TO PLAY
Animation: ComparingAnimation: Comparing
Mitosis and MeiosisMitosis and Meiosis
CLICK
TO PLAY
Chapter12 mitosis meiosis
Chapter12 mitosis meiosis
Chapter12 mitosis meiosis
Chapter12 mitosis meiosis
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  • Figure 12.1: The cell cycle. The cell cycle includes interphase (G 1 , S, and G 2 ) and M phase (mitosis and cytokinesis). The time required for each stage varies with cell type and species. Most cells spend about 90 percent of their cell cycle in interphase.
  • Figure 12.3: A duplicated chromosome. Each duplicated chromosome is composed of two identical sister chromatids that are tightly associated at their centromere regions. Associated with each centromere is a kinetochore, which serves as a microtubule attachment site.
  • Figure 12.4: Cytokinesis. Stages in the formation of plasma membranes and cell walls from the fusing vesicles of the cell plate. The electron micrograph shows cytokinesis in a maple ( Acer ) leaf cell. Note the cell plate, which consists of gathering vesicles.
  • Figure 12.2: Interphase and the stages of mitosis. The micrographs are onion ( Allium cepa ) root tip cells prepared with stains. The diploid number for the cells shown in the diagrams is four.
  • Figure 13.8 The meiotic division of an animal cell
  • Figure 12.6: A pair of homologous chromosomes during late prophase I of meiosis. Note the four chromatids that make up the paired homologous chromosomes. Crossing over is visible at two sites.
  • Figure 12.5: The stages of meiosis. The micrographs are Easter lily ( Lilium longiflorum ) flower cells prepared with stains and flattened on slides. The diploid number for the cells shown in the diagrams is four.
  • Figure 12.5: The stages of meiosis. The micrographs are Easter lily ( Lilium longiflorum ) flower cells prepared with stains and flattened on slides. The diploid number for the cells shown in the diagrams is four.
  • Figure 12.7: Mitosis compared with meiosis. The diploid number for each cell is four.
  • Figure 12.8: Plant life cycle. The life cycle of plants involves an alternation of generations between diploid and haploid stages.
  • Chapter12 mitosis meiosis

    1. 1. Mitosis, Meiosis,Mitosis, Meiosis, and Life Cyclesand Life Cycles Chapter 12Chapter 12
    2. 2. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 • Distinguish between aDistinguish between a haploid cellhaploid cell andand aa diploid celldiploid cell • DefineDefine homologous chromosomeshomologous chromosomes
    3. 3. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • DIPLOID (2DIPLOID (2NN)) • The condition of having two sets ofThe condition of having two sets of chromosomes per nucleuschromosomes per nucleus • In somatic cells of dIn somatic cells of diploid organisms,iploid organisms, chromosomes are present in pairs called hochromosomes are present in pairs called ho mologous pairsmologous pairs • HAPLOID (HAPLOID (NN)) • The condition of having one set ofThe condition of having one set of chromosomes per nucleuschromosomes per nucleus
    4. 4. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMESHOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES • Members of a chromosome pair that areMembers of a chromosome pair that are similar in size, shape, and genetic constitutionsimilar in size, shape, and genetic constitution
    5. 5. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2 • Identify the phases in theIdentify the phases in the cell cyclecell cycle • Describe the main events of eachDescribe the main events of each phasephase
    6. 6. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS• CELL CYCLECELL CYCLE • Cyclic series of events in the life of a dividingCyclic series of events in the life of a dividing eukaryotic celleukaryotic cell • The life of a cell from the time it is first formedThe life of a cell from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own divisionfrom a dividing parent cell until its own division into two daughter cellsinto two daughter cells •in unicellular organisms,in unicellular organisms, division of one celldivision of one cell reproduces the entirereproduces the entire organismorganism
    7. 7. • functions in multicellular organismsfunctions in multicellular organisms Cell DivisionCell Division
    8. 8. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • INTERPHASEINTERPHASE • Stage of the cell cycle between successiveStage of the cell cycle between successive mitotic divisionsmitotic divisions
    9. 9. InterphaseInterphase • During interphaseDuring interphase • Cells produces proteins, cell grows andCells produces proteins, cell grows and prepares for next divisionprepares for next division • DNA replicatesDNA replicates • Interphase is divided intoInterphase is divided into • first gap phase (Gfirst gap phase (G11)) • synthesis phase (S)synthesis phase (S) • second gap phase (Gsecond gap phase (G22))
    10. 10. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • MITOSISMITOSIS • Division of the cell nucleus resulting in twoDivision of the cell nucleus resulting in two daughter nuclei, each with the same numberdaughter nuclei, each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleusof chromosomes as the parent nucleus
    11. 11. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • CYTOKINESISCYTOKINESIS • Stage of cell division in which the cytoplasmStage of cell division in which the cytoplasm divides to form two daughter cellsdivides to form two daughter cells
    12. 12. M PHASE (Mitosis and cytokinesis) S (Synthesis phase) G2 (Second gap phase) G1 (First gap phase) Fig. 12-1, p. 242 G1- produce proteins produce cyto- plasmic organelles S-synthesis of DNA chromosomes are duplicated Makes more proteins and organelles and completes preparation for cell div. G2
    13. 13. A Duplicated ChromosomeA Duplicated Chromosome
    14. 14. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3 • Describe the events that occur in eachDescribe the events that occur in each stage ofstage of mitosismitosis
    15. 15. Stages of MitosisStages of Mitosis • ProphaseProphase • MetaphaseMetaphase • AnaphaseAnaphase • TelophaseTelophase
    16. 16. •Copyright © 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
    17. 17. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • SPINDLESPINDLE • Structure consisting mainly ofStructure consisting mainly of microtubulesmicrotubules that provides the framework for chromosomethat provides the framework for chromosome movement during cell divisionmovement during cell division • Begins to form in cytoplasm during ProphaseBegins to form in cytoplasm during Prophase at the centrosome (microtubule-organizing center)at the centrosome (microtubule-organizing center)
    18. 18. ProphaseProphase • Chromatin condenses into chromosomesChromatin condenses into chromosomes • Nucleolus disappearsNucleolus disappears • Nuclear envelope breaks downNuclear envelope breaks down • MitoticMitotic spindlespindle begins to formbegins to form • At the end of prophase, each duplicatedAt the end of prophase, each duplicated chromosome is composed of two sisterchromosome is composed of two sister chromatidschromatids
    19. 19. Microtubules Sister chromatids Kinetochore Centromere region Fig. 12-3, p. 245
    20. 20. MetaphaseMetaphase • Duplicated chromosomes line up alongDuplicated chromosomes line up along midplane of cellmidplane of cell
    21. 21. Interphase and MitosisInterphase and Mitosis
    22. 22. TelophaseTelophase • Nuclear envelope forms around each setNuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomesof chromosomes • Nucleoli reappearNucleoli reappear • Chromosomes lengthen and becomeChromosomes lengthen and become chromatinchromatin • Spindle disappearsSpindle disappears
    23. 23. AnaphaseAnaphase • Sister chromatids separate and move toSister chromatids separate and move to opposite poles of the cellopposite poles of the cell • Each chromatid is now a separateEach chromatid is now a separate chromosomechromosome
    24. 24. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • CELL PLATECELL PLATE • Structure that forms duringStructure that forms during cytokinesiscytokinesis inin plants, separating two daughter cellsplants, separating two daughter cells produced by mitosisproduced by mitosis • Cytokinesis generally takes place inCytokinesis generally takes place in telophasetelophase
    25. 25. Plasma membrane Vesicles gather on cell's midplane Small vesicles fuse, forming larger vesicles Eventually one large vesicle exists New cell walls (from vesicle contents) New plasma membranes (from vesicle membranes) Cell plate forming Cell wall Cell plate formingNucleus Fig. 12-4, p. 247
    26. 26. (e) Telophase(a) Interphase (b) Prophase (c) Metaphase (d) Anaphase Condensing chromosome (consists of 2 sister chromatids) Spindle microtubules Sister chromatids (now called chromosomes) move to opposite ends of cell New nuclei Cell plate Fig. 12-2, p. 244
    27. 27. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4 • Explain whyExplain why meiosismeiosis is needed at someis needed at some point in the life cycle of every sexuallypoint in the life cycle of every sexually reproducing organismreproducing organism • Describe the events that occur duringDescribe the events that occur during meiosis Imeiosis I andand meiosis IImeiosis II
    28. 28. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • MEIOSISMEIOSIS • Process in which a 2Process in which a 2nn cell undergoescell undergoes successive nuclear divisions, potentiallysuccessive nuclear divisions, potentially producing fourproducing four nn nucleinuclei • Leads to formation of gametes andLeads to formation of gametes and sporesspores inin plantsplants
    29. 29. MeiosisMeiosis • preceded by the replication ofpreceded by the replication of chromosomeschromosomes • reduces the number of chromosome setsreduces the number of chromosome sets • takes place in two sets of cell divisions,takes place in two sets of cell divisions, calledcalled meiosis Imeiosis I andand meiosis IImeiosis II •Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
    30. 30. MeiosisMeiosis • Meiosis must occur at some time in the lifeMeiosis must occur at some time in the life of a sexually reproducing organism ifof a sexually reproducing organism if gametesgametes are to be haploidare to be haploid • Meiosis consists of two cell divisionsMeiosis consists of two cell divisions • Meiosis IMeiosis I • Meiosis IIMeiosis II
    31. 31. Meiosis IMeiosis I • Members of each homologous pair ofMembers of each homologous pair of chromosomes separate and arechromosomes separate and are distributed into separate nuclei in twodistributed into separate nuclei in two daughter cellsdaughter cells • Chromosomes were duplicated prior toChromosomes were duplicated prior to meiosis I, so each consists of two chromatidsmeiosis I, so each consists of two chromatids
    32. 32. Meiosis IIMeiosis II • Chromatids separate into individualChromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are distributed intochromosomes and are distributed into different haploid daughter cellsdifferent haploid daughter cells • Four haploid cells formFour haploid cells form
    33. 33. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • SYNAPSISSYNAPSIS • Physical association of homologousPhysical association of homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosischromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
    34. 34. Crossing OverCrossing Over • Crossing overCrossing over • Exchange of segments of homologousExchange of segments of homologous chromosomeschromosomes • SynapsisSynapsis andand crossing overcrossing over occuroccur during prophase I of meiosisduring prophase I of meiosis
    35. 35. Crossing over Sister chromatids Kinetochores Fig. 12-6, p. 249
    36. 36. MeiosisMeiosis
    37. 37. MeiosisMeiosis
    38. 38. (a) Prophase I (d) Telophase I(c) Anaphase I(b) Metaphase I Each chromosome consists of two chromatids Homologous chromosomes Spindle microtubules New nuclei Cell plate Fig. 12-5 (a-d), p. 248
    39. 39. (e) Prophase II (h) Telophase II(g) Anaphase II(f) Metaphase II Chromosomes (each with two chromatids) Spindle microtubules New cell walls and plasma membranes New nuclei Fig. 12-5 (e-h), p. 249
    40. 40. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5 • Compare and contrastCompare and contrast mitosismitosis andand meiosismeiosis
    41. 41. MitosisMitosis • Involves a single nuclear division in whichInvolves a single nuclear division in which the two daughter cells formed arethe two daughter cells formed are genetically identical to each other and togenetically identical to each other and to the original cellthe original cell • Synapsis of homologous chromosomesSynapsis of homologous chromosomes does not occur during mitosisdoes not occur during mitosis
    42. 42. MeiosisMeiosis • Involves two successive nuclear divisionsInvolves two successive nuclear divisions and forms four haploid cells, each with aand forms four haploid cells, each with a different combination of genesdifferent combination of genes • Synapsis of homologous chromosomesSynapsis of homologous chromosomes occurs during prophase I of meiosisoccurs during prophase I of meiosis
    43. 43. Mitosis and MeiosisMitosis and Meiosis
    44. 44. Two daughter cells (each 2n = 4) identical to parent cell Chromosomes Prophase Parent cell (2n = 4) Mitosis Nuclear envelope Synapsis (pairing of homologous chromosomes) Prophase I Prophase II Parent cell (2n = 4) Nuclear envelope1st meiotic division 2nd meiotic division Four daughter cells (each n = 2) genetically different from parent cell Mitosis Meiosis Fig. 12-7, p. 250
    45. 45. LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6 • DefineDefine alternation of generationsalternation of generations
    46. 46. KEY TERMSKEY TERMS • Alternation of generationsAlternation of generations • Plants alternate haploid and diploid generationsPlants alternate haploid and diploid generations • SPOROPHYTESPOROPHYTE • 22n,n, spore-producing stage in plant life cyclespore-producing stage in plant life cycle • GAMETOPHYTEGAMETOPHYTE • n,n, gamete-producing stage in plant life cyclegamete-producing stage in plant life cycle
    47. 47. The SporophyteThe Sporophyte • The 2The 2n,n, spore-producing stage in the lifespore-producing stage in the life cycle of a plantcycle of a plant • A diploid sporophyte plant forms haploidA diploid sporophyte plant forms haploid spores by meiosisspores by meiosis • A spore divides mitotically to form aA spore divides mitotically to form a haploidhaploid gametophytegametophyte plantplant
    48. 48. The GametophyteThe Gametophyte • TheThe n,n, gamete-producing stage in the lifegamete-producing stage in the life cycle of a plantcycle of a plant • The gametophyte produces haploidThe gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosisgametes by mitosis • Two gametes fuse to form a diploidTwo gametes fuse to form a diploid zygotezygote, which divides mitotically to, which divides mitotically to produce a diploidproduce a diploid sporophytesporophyte
    49. 49. Mitosis Gametophyte (n) (multicellular haploid organism) Sporophyte (2n) (multicellular diploid organism) Spores (n) Fertilization Mitosis Gametes (n) Zygote (2n) Mitosis Meiosis Fig. 12-8, p. 251
    50. 50. Animation: The Cell CycleAnimation: The Cell Cycle CLICK TO PLAY
    51. 51. Animation: ComparingAnimation: Comparing Mitosis and MeiosisMitosis and Meiosis CLICK TO PLAY
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