Introduction to Video Technology

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Introduction to Video Technology

  1. 1. NESTOR S. ABROGENA JR. DESIGN FOUNDATION, SCHOOL OF DESIGN AND ARTS COLLEGE OF SAINT BENILDE REVISED 2011 VIDEO TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. VIDEO TECHNOLOGY WAS FIRST DEVELOPED FOR CATHODE RAY TUBE TELEVISION SYSTEMS
  3. 3. CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)
  4. 4. FAST-RISING TECHNOLOGY GAVE BIRTH TO HIGHER-END TV MONITORS
  5. 5. Digital Light Processing (DLP) Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) Plasma Display Panels (PDP) Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED / LED TV) 3D TV
  6. 6. HOLOGRAPHIC TV
  7. 7. BASIC FOR FILM & VIDEO HAD ITS ROOTS IN STILL PHOTOGRAPHY IMAGE REPRODUCTION
  8. 8. LIGHT PHOTOSENSITIVE MATERIAL ARE THE ELEMENTS OF IMAGE REPRODUCTION AND A
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES OF IMAGE REPRODUCTION <ul><li>STILL CAMERA </li></ul><ul><li>MOVING CAMERA </li></ul><ul><li>VIDEO CAMERA </li></ul>
  10. 10. STILL CAMERA light falls on the subject captured by the camera lens negative enlarger chemical process photo print > > > > >
  11. 11. MOVING CAMERA light falls on the subject > > > > > records at 24 fps negative print chemical process positive print projection at 24 fps
  12. 12. MOVING CAMERA: PERSISTENCE OF VISION SINCE THE EYE RETAINS IMAGES SLIGHTLY LONGER THAN IT IS ACTUALLY EXPOSED TO THEM, IT TENDS TO MELD 2 SUCCESSIVE IMAGES INTO ONE , CREATING A SMOOTH TRANSITION BETWEEN THEM.
  13. 13. FILM FORMAT: 35mm <ul><li>1890’s </li></ul><ul><li>Before: CELLULOSE NITRATE-BASED – highly flammable and becomes explosive as it deteriorates with age </li></ul><ul><li>After: CELLULOSE ACETATE-BASED </li></ul>
  14. 14. 35mm Camera Camera to Human Ratio 35mm film stock
  15. 15. FILM FORMAT: 16mm <ul><li>1920’s </li></ul><ul><li>Looks grainier and less sharp, but already coped up with the technology </li></ul><ul><li>Super16 (1970) / Ultra16 </li></ul>
  16. 16. 16mm Camera Camera to Human Ratio 16mm film stock 16mm projector
  17. 17. FILM FORMAT: 8mm <ul><li>1932 </li></ul><ul><li>½ of 16mm; less expensive; before, the prime format of home movies </li></ul><ul><li>Super8 (1965) / Ultra16 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Le 8mm Camera Camera to Human Ratio 8mm film stock 8mm projector Sample clip
  19. 19. FILM FORMAT: 65/70mm <ul><li>Large formats </li></ul><ul><li>IMAX (image maximum) / ONIMAX (65mm horizontally) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Le 70mm Camera Camera to Human Ratio 70mm film stock 70mm film negative IMAX Projection
  21. 21. SIZE COMPARISON OF FILM NEGATIVES
  22. 22. ASPECT RATIO WIDTH OF THE FRAME DIVIDED BY THE HEIGHT
  23. 23. 4:3 / 1.33:1 STANDARD - 4 UNITS WIDE FOR EVERY 3 UNITS OF HEIGHT
  24. 24. 16:9 <ul><li>WIDESCREEN </li></ul><ul><li>1.85:1: ASPECT RATIO USED BY AMERICAN </li></ul><ul><li>1.66.1: ASPECT RATIO USED BY EUROPEAN </li></ul><ul><li>LETTERBOX: CROPPING TOP AND BOTTOM </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2.35:1 ANAMORPHIC - VERY WIDE SCREEN; WHEN SHOOTING, SQUEEZE THE WIDTH THEN UNSQUEEZED IN PROJECTION, WIDENING ORIGINAL ASPECT RATIO - BIGGER LETTERBOX
  26. 27. RULE OF THUMB THE LARGER THE FORMAT, THE BETTER THE QUALITY , THE MORE EXPENSIVE IT IS TO SHOOT AND THE HEAVIER THE EQUIPMENT TO USE.
  27. 28. VIDEO CAMERA light falls on the subject captured by the camera lens, light is then converted Into an electrical signal and prints to a magnetic tape playback VCR TV monitor > > >
  28. 29. HOW DO VIDEO CAMERAS WORK? LIGHT IS CONVERTED INTO AN ELECTRICAL SIGNAL, EACH FRAME OF INFORMATION DOESN’T FLOW THROUGH THE ELECTRICAL CABLE AT ONCE AN ELECTRON BEAM SCANS ACROSS THE PICTURE FROM ONE SIDE TO THE OTHER. THE LEVEL OF BRIGHTNESS AND DARKNESS IS READ AND TRANSMITTED THE VIDEO IMAGE IS MADE UP OF A SERIES OF HORIZONTAL LINES BUT THE SCANNING PROCESS IS SO FAST THAT OUR EYES SEE THE FRAME AS A WHOLE UNIFIED PICTURE
  29. 30. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA U-matic Betacam SP Betamax
  30. 31. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA VHS Video 8 Hi 8
  31. 32. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA Digital 8 Mini-DV HDV
  32. 33. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA DVD P2 / DVCPRO HD AVCHD (SD CARD)
  33. 34. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA XDCAM (BLUE-RAY / S x S CARD) HDSLR (CF CARD / SD CARD) RED CAMERAS (Red Drive, Red Flash [CF])
  34. 35. EVOLUTION OF VIDEO CAMERA ARRI’S ALEXA (DUAL S x S CARD) PANASONIC AF 100 CAMERA (SDXC CARD- 32GB TO 2TB) PHANTOM FLEX HIGH-SPEED CAMERA (INTERNAL RAM MEMORY)
  35. 36. THE RASTER SCAN HORIZONTAL LINES STARTING AT THE TOP, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT 2 TYPES OF SCANNING PROGRESSIVE - IN ORDER FROM TOP TO BOTTOM INTERLACED - SCANS EVERY OTHER LINE, STARTING WITH ODD LINES (1,3,5…625), THEN EVEN LINES (2,4,6…624)
  36. 37. THE RASTER SCAN
  37. 38. FRAME TWO FIELDS SHOWN IN RAPID SUCCESSION THERE ARE 25 FRAMES PER SECOND WITH 50 FIELDS PER SECOND (PAL) / 24 FPS WITH 60 FIELDS PER SECOND (NTSC). THE CAMERA PROCESSES 15,625 LINES OF PICTURE INFORMATION PER SECOND
  38. 39. CAMERA IMAGE SENSORS RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSFORMING LIGHT INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNAL CCD- (CHARGED COUPLE DEVICE) LIGHT SENSITIVE COMPUTER CHIP DIVIDED INTO PIXELS (PICTURE ELEMENTS) VERY FINE GRID SOPT-TINY LIGHT METERS THAT READS THE BRIGHTNESS OF LIGHT AT THAT SPOT
  39. 40. CAMERA IMAGE SENSORS RESPONSIBLE FOR TRANSFORMING LIGHT INTO ELECTRICAL SIGNAL CMOS- (COMPLIMENTARY METAL-OXIDE SEMICONDUCTOR)
  40. 41. WORLD COLOR TV STANDARDS NTSC (NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEM COMMITTEE) – 525/60 INTERLACED LINES; 30 FPS, USED IN US, CANADA, JAPAN, PHILIPPINES PAL (PHASE ALTERNATING LINE) – 625/50 LINES; 25 FPS, USED IN UK, WESTERN EUROPE, PARTS AFRICA, MIDDLE EAST, AUSTRALIA, CHINA SECAM (SÉQUENTIEL COULEUR ÀVEC MÉMOIRE) – OR SEQUENTIAL COLOR WITH MEMORY / SYSTEME ELECTRONIQUE POUR COLEUR AVEC MEMOIRE- 625/50 LINES; 25 FPS, USED IN FRANCE, EASTERN EUROPE, PARTS OF AFRICA AND RUSSIA

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