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Video production module (basic level)

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The "Video Production" module is focused to adults learners interested in exploring the possibilities of managing digital video.

This module is part of a set of materials designed and developed in the project Telecentre Multimedia Academy (Lifelong learning - Grundtvig (2012-2014)) project.

The Telecentre Multimedia Academy is a project where Fundación Esplai worked with a consortium of 8 partners from Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, whose coordinator is Telecentre Europe.

You can learn more about the Telecentre Multimedia Academy project in:
http://fundacionesplai.org/e-inclusion-internacional/tma/

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Video production module (basic level)

  1. 1. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 1 3.VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULE ADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY
  2. 2. BASIC COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY AUGUST 2014 AUTHOR Authors: Skaidrite Bukbãrde, Žarko Čižmar,Antra Skinča, Ivan Stojilović. Partners: Telecentre Europe, DemNet, Fundatia EOS - Educating for An Open Society, IAN,Telecentar, LIKTA, Langas ateit, Fundación Esplai. Coordination of the content development: Alba Agulló GRAPHIC DESIGN AND DESIGN Fundación Esplai (www.fundacionesplai.org) & Niugràfic (www.niugrafic.com) Under Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial - CompartieIgual (by-nc-sa) To obtain permission beyond this license, contact http://tma.telecentre-europe.org/contacts Access to Multimedia Toolkit http://tma.telecentre-europe.org/toolkit LEGAL NOTICE This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. 3.1 Introduction P.4 3.2 A brief history of film and video P.4 3.2.1 From the beginning to the present 3.2.1 Image formats 3.2.1 Computer film 3.2.1 Film festivals, prizes 3.3 Film grammar P.9 3.3.1 Frame 3.3.2 Shot 3.3.3 Camera movements 3.3.4 Scene 3.3.5 Sequence 3.3.6 Composition 3.3.7 Formats 3.4 Rules of filmmaking P.11 3.4.1 180º Law or line law 3.4.2 Rule of thirds 3.4.3 The rule of thirds in dialogues 3.4.4 Variate Shots By Size And Angle 3.4.5 Conclusion 3.5 Film production – from basic concept to distribution P.14 3.5.1 The basic concept 3.5.2 Work processes of film production 3.6 Video editing P.22 3.6.1 Introduction 3.6.1 Video capturing 3.6.1 Work surfaces of editing programmes 3.6.1 Importing, data reading 3.6.1 Editing, cutting 3.7 Video project P.26 3.7.1 What is a report? 3.7.2 What is an interview? 3.7.3 Interview technique 3.7.4 Documentaries 3.8 Activities P.30 3.9 Bibliography P.32 Index 3 VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULE
  4. 4. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 4 Introducction3.1 Have you ever made amateur video shots of your family, of parties or excursions with a camera, smart phone or a camcorder? Have you ever realised how great it would be to be able to edit and cut these shots as you like, in your own home environment? Do you have a computer which is suitable for video post-production work, but you don’t know how to make a start? Well, you are at the right place! If you are not particularly interested in the film-making profession, but you would be happy to master the basics of vid- eo-editing for home use, you can do that we us. We will show you the way how to worthily preserve your memories. We will help you realise your ideas and make the most of your creativity. If, how- ever, you are thinking about joining the work of a local TV station, or you want to have a taste of TV journalism; if you are interested in the work of an editorial office or you want to try your luck as a reporter, a cameraman or an editor, we can assist you in these as well. You can learn the basics from us. The aim of our basic video course is to learn and master the work processes of film-making, to develop digital and creative skills, and to obtain media knowledge. During the course, you can be- come familiar with the short history of film and you will see what a script has to contain. You will get a glimpse of how a professional film crew works, and you can even make an interview. You can learn about the operating principles of editing programmes on the computer and their work surfaces, you can find out what is a straight and a soft cut, you can make titles, subtitles and cred- its. Professional film-makers will illustrate and present to you the basics of video editing in frontal, individual, pair and group work arrangements. Don’t hesitate any longer. Roll the camera! A brief history of film and video 3.2 Film is one of the most popular technical tools of our time with the aim to provide the public with information, entertainment and arts. It is capable of using both time and space directly, that is, it operates in time and space simultaneously. 3.2.1 From the beginning to the present 3.2.1.1 The beginning To look at the origins of film, we have to go back as far as the end of the 19th century. On 13 February 1895, Auguste and Louis Lu- mière submitted a patent application for the cinematograph. The idea of the device was conceived by Louis Lumière, but both brothers participated in its realisation and the patent application. The phrase “cinematograph” was created and patented by Léon Bouly in 1892. The expression became available for patent again in 1894, which made it possible for the brothers Lumière to use it for their own purpose. The cinematograph, similarly to Edison’s
  5. 5. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 5 cinetoscope, had a 35 mm perforated photofilm roll for capturing and projecting images, but the device created by the brothers Lumière featured two obvious changes. One was that the motion picture could be viewed by not only one person through a small opening, but with the help of a light it was projected onto a large screen, so that the people in the room were able to watch the film together, at the same time. The other novelty was a “clawed” film-forwarding device with reciprocating motion. This made it possible that each frame of the film could be paused for a mo- ment in front of the projection window. Photos: wikipedia.org In December 1895, the brothers Lumières presented their first motion picture to the public in Paris. Prior to that, other motion pictures were also produced, although they were not meant for publicity. Film historians consider 28 December 1895 the begin- ning of film history. One year later, a company founded by Thom- as Alva Edison organised its first public show in New York. In 1902, Georges Méliès presented his trick film entitled A Trip to the Moon, which was also a forerunner of sci-fi. In 1903, Edwin S. Porter produced a movie called The Great Train Robbery, which created the genre of western. That was the first occasion the dolly was applied: a technique where the camera is moved on rails. In 1911 the first film studio was opened in Hollywood. In the fol- lowing years the number of studios multiplied at amazing speed, which aroused the interest of film producers. At the time, the mar- ket was open and the people were hungry for a new kind of enter- tainment. Thrill and scenes ending in suspense assured that the crowds attending film shows would come back again. Films were focused on typical characters, or some unique charac- ters were featured in every film. Charlie Chaplin, who was born in 1889, first appeared on the movie screen in 1913. He became a favourite of cinema audiences due to his shabby, gloomy charac- ter with a penguin walk. Two years later, in the United States, a company called Fox took the lead. In 1917 the first colour film was born with the title The Gulf Between.
  6. 6. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 6 In 1921, D. W. Griffith created his first talking picture attempt enti- tled Dream Street. Two years later the simple, cheap, small cine- mas were replaced by gigantic movie palaces. By the end of the silent picture era, film had achieved a position worthy of its value. The most important mission of film is to “let see”, as the film analys- ers of the time believed it. That is why it was not by accident that after the period of silent pictures from 1895 to the 1920s, talking pictures were received with some doubt. The fear was that due to the addition of sound, film would resemble the theatre too much, and it would no longer be a genre of its own. The appearance of sound, however, did not result in negative changes in the cinemat- ic art. Today we also know that the well-composed sound track completes the movie. What became obvious, however, was that vision had to be of pri- mary importance in films; after the appearance of sound, it was still the images that carried the artistic message. By the period 1930-1960, talking pictures had become dominant in the movie theatres. Talking pictures were first made with hidden microphones. This meant that hidden mics were only concealed from the eyes of the viewers; the actors knew exactly where they were, because they had to talk in their direction. “Searching” for the mics affect- ed both mimicking and acting in a bad way. The acting legends of silent pictures were often unsuitable for talking pictures. The disruption of sync between image and sound also resulted in a comic effect. These first difficulties can today be traced for exam- ple in the American movie Singing in the Rain, released in 1952. Sync-related errors were eliminated by recording the soundtrack onto the film strip using photo technology. The voice for speech, or mostly singing often came from somebody else, not the person visible on film. In the 1930s the Movietone procedure became common. Due to mixing, all the sounds of the movie were gathered in one track. Stereo sound was first used in 1940, in Walt Disney’s cartoon en- titled Fantasia. In the 1970s the Dolby lab developed its noise reduction system. The stereoscopic sound of film (the so-called “stereo sound”) also became common at this time, and twin audio tracks were used for its recording. In the 1980s, digital sound recording appeared.
  7. 7. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 7 3.2.1.2 Colour film In 1907 the brothers Lumière introduced the autochrome process. In 1909, at the Palace Variety Theatre in London they presented the first film with a colour effect. In 1917, based on the new Tech- nicolor process, a real colour movie was produced in the USA (the above mentioned The Gulf Between). In 1936 a more ad- vanced process of subtractive colour mixing was applied, which became known as Agfacolor in the circle of colour films. The first German manufacturer was followed by Eastman Kodak, with the brand name Kodakchrome. Photo: wikipedia.org By 1930, the Technicolor Company had developed a new manu- facturing option which involved the making of films with the three basic colours and their mixed varieties. The procedure was de- veloped by Walt Disney. The actual premiere of colour film took place in 1937, with the presentation of Disney’s classic, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. 3.2.1.3 Stereoscopic film Stereoscopic film: a film procedure which makes it possible for the viewer to sense all three dimensions of space even on a flat surface (the projection screen). Ste- reoscopic image is created in such a way that during the screening, the view- er’s right eye can only see the images captured by the right-side lens, and the left eye sees the images of the left-side lens. At the moment, for this experience 3D glasses or special sheets are re- quired. The film studios in Hollywood produced 3D movies as early as the 1950s, but due to the slower pace of technical progress, this kind of entertainment has only recently become popular. 3.2.2 Image formats In 1933 the early standard proportion was determined by AMPAS: it was 4:3. Until 1953, the aspect ratio for all talking pictures was 1.37:1, which agreed with the aspect ratio used on Television. From the 50s onwards, a series of films were made in new aspect ratio formats. The aspect ratio of wide-screen films in Europe is at least 1.66:1. In the USA, the ratio 1.85:1 has become common. The forerunner of super wide-screen films was CinemaScope. The ratio of image sides was initially 2.66:1. (Then, as sound began to be recorded onto the tape, this was reduced to 2.55:1, or, in the case of stereo sound to 2.35:1.) Later WarnerScope came into being, then AgaScope was created; the latter is currently used in Hungary.
  8. 8. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 8 The most popular wide-screen technology of our days is PanaVi- sion, which uses 35 mm film. In the 70s, the Canadian Imax Corporation in Toronto developed the IMAX film format, which is 70 mm. The result was a matchless quality of film projection. However, the procedure is currently rath- er expensive; it requires a separate camera which is large and hard to mobilise. 3.2.3 Computer film By the 1980s and 1990s, with the development of computers, CGI (Computer-Generated Imagery) was spreading fast. This be- came more and more impressive, easy and cheap, so it gradually superseded mock-based imagery. In 2002, in part 2 of Lord of the Rings, a life-like size of an army was created without using thousands of actors, after several months of image edition on the computer. The actual breakthrough in animation took place one year before that, with the full movie Final fantasy – The spirits with- in, which was made with a computer in its entirety, and the images looked like photos. 3.2.4 Film festivals, prizes Film-making was progressing with huge steps, so the need arose for film directors, actors and other participants of film-making to show their skill in competitions. The first film festival of film history was organised in Venice in 1932, where, for the first time, the or- ganisers of the Biennale accepted film into their artistic display. In the 1990s, 200 film festivals were held worldwide. The most important festivals of Europe are held in Cannes, Berlin, Venice, Moscow and Karlovy Vary. For producers, directors and actors, a festival prize has great significance as it can often mean their entrance into the international film market. These events are pro- moted by journalists, which is an opportunity for several large productions to find an audience.
  9. 9. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 9 The Oscar (officially called Acade- my Award) is the most prestigious prize for an achievement in the cinematic arts in the USA. It has been given out by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in various categories since 1929. In 1932, the first Venice Film Fes- tival took place, and its main prize was named Leone d’Oro. Since 1946, the Cannes Festival has been the most important film festival of Europe, its main prize is the Golden Palm. Film grammar3.3 Over the decades, cinema has created its own language, with an established rules used to endow understandable coherence to the narrative. We expose here the most important. 3.3.1 Frame The frame is the cinematic or filmic language minimal expression. It's everyone of the static images that, set in motion, form the video, the motion picture. 24 frames per second is the standard measure. 3.3.2 Shot The shot is the smallest narrative unit in filming. It is what we see on screen at a given moment. If the image changes, the shot does. 3.3.2.1 Sizes According to the distance with the main object (size): Extreme Close Up (ECU) Close Up (CU) Mid Shot (MS) American Shot (AS) Wide Shot (WS) Cut-In (CI) Each color box set the limits where the shot is cut by the camera. Thus, on screen, the ECU only will show us the eyes of the character and, otherwise, with the WS we will see the character's full body.  Two-Shot (TS): Commonly used when there are 2 or 4 length characters starring the action.  Very Wide Shot (VWS): Focused on the action space: a room, a garden, a short street.  Extremely Wide Shot (EWS): Is the VWS extension. It goes from a wide setting to a vast landscape.
  10. 10. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 10 Others:  Slanted Shot: Taken by tilting the camera 45º from one side.  Point-of-View Shot (POV): We saw what the eyes of a cha- racter are seeing in a given moment.  Sequence Shot: A sequence taken in one shot. All that ha- ppens it's without, apparently, the camera cuts the shot. 3.3.2.2 Angles The angle is the camera position around the shot's main object vertical and longitudinal axes. Horizontal Front Three-quarter Side Three quarter rear Rear Vertical Eyelevel High Low Bird's Eye Nadir 3.3.3 Camera movements There exist the following camera movements:  Pan: Is a horizontal camera movement where camera moves right or left about the central axis. That is to say a circular mo- vement.  Trucking: A side to side camera movement respect to the ac- tion. Also known as Dolly.  Tilt: Same concept as Pan, just on vertical way.  Pedestal: Same concept as Trucking but raising or lowering the camera. This action is called "pedding" the camera.  Dolly in/out: Move the camera forwards or backwards.  Zoom in/out: Approaching or removing respect the main ob- ject just not with the camera but through the lens.  Boom: Also called Crane shot. Is a shot taken by a camera on a crane or a jib. We'll call Up or Down basing on the direction. 3.3.4 Scene A scene is a filming unit of measure referred to any action or dia- log that takes place in one set. We mustn't confuse scene with sequence. 3.3.5 Sequence A sequence is a filming unit of measure referred to a certain num- ber of scenes united by the same narrative topic or a common ne- xus that can be the developing of the same action or to be taking about the same subject.
  11. 11. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 11 3.3.6 Composition The composition is the distribution of the characters and objects inside the shot. Also the camera distance respect them. It makes sense, in a technical and not in a decorative way, that in so far as the camera be from the main object more elements will appear, and therefore the composition will change. 3.3.7 Formats The analogical film formats differenced one to each other for the celluloid size making that, on screen, the film look changes. Nowadays the digital film format appearance can also be modi- fied. At those differences we call Aspect Ratio. Here we explain the most common. 4:3 3:2 16:9 1.85:1 2.39:1 Nowadays the television standard format. (NTSC) Until 2009 it was the television standard for- mat (PAL) and also in a lot of laptop models. Cinema standard proportion. Wider and shorter than the rest. Also called Panoramic and its the HD televi- sions standard. Also used in cinema. It was popularized with the invention of Cinemascope. It's bi- gger than anyone and it has no black lines like the 1.85:1 Rules of filmmaking3.4 Cinema claim to emulate reality. Thereby, many classical rules pursue which is known by "invisibility". That is to say, that they precisely try to avoid that the technical cinematic tools be seen inside the movie. In other words: Are rules that you only will notice when they had been carried out wrong. 3.4.1 Continuity The continuity or raccord is the rule that sets that the scene skills (coposition, props...) remain equal from one shot to another not to generate confusion for no reason. When any scene element suddenly changes from one shot to another its called raccord or continuity mistake. As we see, in this conversation, even the shots are the same, suddenly, a pencil appears on the man's ear. Not all the continuity mistakes are so obvious, but this example shows it clearly.
  12. 12. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 12 3.4.2 180º Law or line law This is a film language classical rule mostly used in dialogs or when two or more characters are one in front of each other. If we saw the image from a Bird's Eye view, we should draw an invisible line dividing the scene in two half parts order to allow the camera only to record from one of the hemispheres. Whit that, we get that the characters doesn't seem that they are changing their look di- rection. With the following diagram it's easier to understand. As we see on this diagram, if we take the shot from the right, the cha- racter with orange shirt looks at the right and the one with the blue to the left. If we switch sides continually with the camera, it seems that the characters are changing positions. In the following link we can see a funny short film called "Don't jump the line, girl". It explains, in a entertained way, what ha- ppens when this law is broken. http://www.youtube.com/watch?- v=5Xe_6tVXW4c 3.4.3 Rule of thirds Rule used both in cinema and photography. It is about element distribution inside the picture or shot's framework. The rule of thirds is nothing more than split the screen in nine equal squares obtained by drawing two vertical lines and two horizontal. Usua- lly, the essential elements of the picture or shot are distributed around the central square vertices. What is interesting for us in this photo is the bird. So, we can chose on which main vertex we put it.
  13. 13. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 13 3.4. 4 The rule of thirds in dialogues As an extension of basic rule of thirds, its application in dialogues says that, generally, the front character's eyes be on the imagi- nary superior horizontal line. Either in the central square or both on the right or left according to the shot size and the characters position respect the 180º law. Let's see how the most important spots of the actor's face match with the third's vertices. Source: http://elcineconjbes.blogia.com 3.4.5 Variate Shots By Size And Angle Unlike the other rules, this is not a technical one but an stylistic one. Usually the shot's proximity or remoteness is linked to the narration intensity. The more intensity or drama, more proximity, and vice versa. However, the shot's alternation pursues variety, not to be boring and keeping the viewer active linking the different emotions with different kind of shots. 3.5.6 Conclusion Obviously, along the cinema decades, these rules had been flou- ted to get a specific effect. However, their knowledge is essential to tell a story with cinematographic coherence. To finish we show here a fragment from the episode 8 of Mucha- chada Nui (spanish humor show) that satirizes about the 180º law and the continuity: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IJa_8km- bZY (English subtitles are avaiable)
  14. 14. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 14 Film production, from basic concept to distribution 3.5 3.5.1 The basic concept The first step of movie-making is the selection of a theme. The idea can be seen as not only the starting point of production, but its very basis. Whether it is a movie for a wider audience or a documentary targeting a smaller group, a video clip or a commer- cial, it can fundamentally affect its audience with its up-to-date nature. The theme of a film can not only be considered up-to- date if it puts modern events in the focus. A film with a historical topic can also be fresh and new if it address its contemporaries with a good approach. The consistent-minded “receiver”, that is, the intelligent viewer is able to draw a parallel between past and present events, and in the movie he will find the cause and effect relations in reference to his own age. A theme already used by several others might still have the potential to surprise people if a new approach is applied in it. The idea of a report film featuring a winemaker may not strike you as very exciting the first time, as it sounds rather banal. If, however, the interviewee lives with multiple disabilities, but also works as a winemaker, the story appears in a different context, and therefore has a new approach. For exam- ple, there have been many films about the city Dubrovnik in se- veral languages. Its historical role was examined, its architectural and cultural relics were revisited. A film was also released about the attacks on the old city during the South-Slavic wars; stories, myths and legends were presented in relation to these times. Still, if a movie director feels that not everything has been told about the city and he could fill another film with brand new content (for example, taking a look at the city’s role in Hungarian literature), then his film would serve a good purpose. With a sudden change of perspective, the director can show that from a different view the same thing can be seen differently1 . Sensitivity to topic, an up-to-date theme, a different view and a new approach are the props that you will definitely need if you intend to shoot a movie. If you feel that you have something to say, and that you could say more with an image than with a thousand words, then film is the best means of expression for you. As a first step, all you need is a good idea. 3.5.2 Work processes of film production Film production consists of five separate phases that are also closely linked together:  Script/synopsis  Preparation  Shooting  Post-production  Distribution/platforms 1   E.T. was not only successful because there had been no movies made about extra-terrestrials before, but because Spielberg focused the plot on a friendship that bridged the Galaxy.
  15. 15. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 15 A film crew at work 3.5.2.1 Script/synopsis After choosing a theme, we write a synopsis based on it. The synopsis drafts the movie plot, the main characters, the drama- tic steps and turning points on 1-2 pages; it gives a feel of the mood and provides a general impression of the film. It carries in- formation about the creative idea, the intention of the director, the target group, the genre and the intended time frame of the film. Documentaries in the traditional sense do not present scenes that are acted out by actors and were pre-written, but they document momentary events. They document reality, so other than the synopsis, no written ma- terial is made about them. The documentary film-maker does not always know in advance what circumstances to expect in the course of a field shooting, i.e. who will be his interviewees and in which direction they will take the plot. However, if the director interferes with reality by modifying it, using actors and fictional elements, then he is making a creative documentary or a fiction movie. The fiction movie is based on a script. As opposed to the synopsis, the script does not only draft the movie plot, but it in- cludes the scenes in chronological order, defining exactly the lo- cation, the time of events and the dialogues, but it also makes references to crops and transitions. The script has to be written in such a way that one page corres- ponds to one minute of the film2 . As for the structure of the script, it consists of an introduction, a body and a conclusion. In the first part of the structure we build up the fundaments of the plot, in the second part we tackle the conflict, and in the third we resolve it. As for the conflict (a clash of interests), it can be of personal or social nature. If only one hero is in the focus of the story, the script is dominated by only one train of plot. In a script with many pro- tagonists there are various sub-stories running. The plot is always the story of the protagonist: he is placed in a conflict, and we watch his struggle. Characters appearing in the script can be put in five major categories:  the protagonist  the antagonist  the hero’s sidekick(s) and/or love  the protagonist’s sidekick(s)  secondary characters 2   This means that a 120 minute movie is approximately 120 pages long.
  16. 16. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 16 We have to make a character sketch of every character, which we will follow during the script-writing process. This way we can remain consistent3 . The character’s profile (the sketch) includes his/her name, sex, age, physique, dressing and speaking style, hobbies, motivation, good and bad features, etc. The more genuine characters we create, the more colourful our movie will be. The location of the plot or the type of the venue is usually indicated in the script with short references, e.g.: Exterior. Budapest. Sundown, interior. Hotel astoria. Evening, exterior. Wharf. Daytime Here is a simple example: Exterior. Forest. Daytime The bear is walking in the forest. Suddenly, the little bunny flies over his head, and shouts: “Bear buddy, do you want a slap in the face?” “Yes.” “Then go to the other side of the forest, that’s where I got mine.” Interior. Pub. Daytime One day the little bunny shouts out bravely in the pub: “Who wants to have a fight with me?” “I might”, says the bear. Bunny: “Okay, Bear. Then you are with me.” The finished script is revised many times. The final version will be the “fundament” of the film. 3 If we characterise someone as shy, scared and clumsy, then he cannot be the one who saves the world in our story, as it would not agree with his character. 3.5.2.2 Preparation At this point, based on the finished script, the preparation phase can start. In this part of the work process, the financial, technical and personal conditions of production have to be established. Based on the script, a budget plan is prepared, and calculations are made regarding the artists and the required technical back- ground. If we are planning to make a documentary, in the prepa- ration phase we have to visit the location and some research has to be done. In many cases, the research takes place in libraries, museums and archives. Searching for old archived films or living witnesses will further increase the intellectual value of the film. Involving experts and specialists in the work is inevitable, since much emphasis has to be placed on professionalism and high scientific standard. In the preparation phase of a fiction movie, the props, the cos- tumes, the set and the backgrounds necessary for the shooting have to be obtained, and the crew has to be recruited. The tasks are assigned. Casting and reading rehearsals also take place in this phase of the work process. Prior to shooting, the technical script is prepared, which contains among many things the list of locations, camera positions, the lights, effects, and tricks. The ac- tual shooting will also take place based on this technical script. 3.5.2.3 The shooting The complete film material will be made during the shooting pha- se. The shooting of a low-budget documentary is usually done by a very small crew. In this case, roles often overlap each other, be- causealltheworkisaccomplishedbytheminicrew.Inmanycases, the director fulfils the role of the cameraman, the producer is at the
  17. 17. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 17 same time the production manager, and the light technician also worksasthesoundengineer(ormaybehealsodrivesthevan).This situation is by no means ideal, as every task would require a who- le person, and the chance of errors significantly increases. This, however, does not mean that a small film crew is not able to create a remarkable intellectual product. The truth is quite the contrary! A small film crew during shooting The shooting of a fiction film requires a large film crew. Smooth work process is assured by the exact following of the schedule or shooting board. In the case of low-budget films, as we have seen, roles might overlap; but with big-budget movies the tas- ks are well separated from each other. The property master, set dressing person, set designer, costume designer, make-up artist, stills photographer, pirotechnician, the actors, stuntmen, extras, the production assistant and other helpers are following the di- rector’s instructions. Some indispensable crew members are the producer, the script supervisor, the cameraman, the production manager, the filming manager, the sound engineer, the gaffer and the editor. The producer is an expert of establishing the financial conditions of film production; besides obtaining the capital for the shooting, he does the overall management of the procedure. The script su- pervisor (dramaturge) works to develop the script, provides the script-writer with advice before the final version is born. He is able to reshape the film in such a way that its main theme becomes highlighted, but he can also transform or “clarify” certain cha- racters. He can shorten slightly monotonous, dull bits, in order to maintain the dynamic pace of the film. This means that he makes justifiable alterations which contribute to the success of the movie and increase its value. The cameraman does and controls the vi- sual recording of the film. He composes the images and the sce- nes, sets the camera moves. Depending on the number of came- ras used at the shooting, assistant cameramen might be present to offer him help. The production manager does all the organisa- tion: ha makes calls, books appointments, arranges contracts, does paperwork. He also organises and supervises preparation work and post-production work. Deciding where mics should be placed during the film shooting is the task of the sound engineer. He records the sound material of the film, and he mixes the sound with the image. He does the post-sync recording and voice-over work in a studio. The gaffer is responsible for the lights of the film. If the shooting takes place indoors, he lights the place with the
  18. 18. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 18 lighting equipment. The shot material is cut by the editor. He puts together the scenes one after the other, and in cooperation with the director, he sets the order and rhythm of images and scenes. Prior to shooting, a schedule is made in which it is clearly indi- cated, on which day of shooting, at which location, which scene will be shot. That way, being familiar with the schedule, it is ob- vious for the crew and the artists what tasks are given to whom, when and where the tasks have to be accomplished. The shoo- ting schedule does not follow closely the chronological order of the script. This means that the shooting may as well start with the last scene of the film, or the beginning of the film could be shot at the end of the shooting process. This kind of rationalisation is in reality for the sake of harmonising the crew, the characters and the locations. In the script, the outdoor and indoor scenes follow each other alternately, but this does not mean that after finishing a scene on location the crew packs up, continues work at an indoor location, and then again, goes outside. If at a shooting location various, independent scenes have to be shot, the crew stays at the given location until they finish all necessary scenes4 . The pro- cess of shooting is often affected by cost-efficiency. For example, if a limousine is required in three separate scenes of the film, the crew will not pay the rental fee on three different days, but they will shoot the three scenes on the same day, even if these scenes are quite far apart chronologically. But we can also shape the sche- dule in such a way that if necessary, we insert a longer break into the shooting process5 . 4  If the first and last scenes of a script take place in Moscow, at the Red Square, then the crew does not close the square on two different days. Both scenes are shot on the same day. 5  In the course of shooting the movie Castaway, a whole year’s break was held. This was enough for Tom Hanks to put on 22 kg, so that he could impersonate his character in an authentic way. As the day of shooting begins, the crew starts to shoot the scenes scheduled for that day. The set, the lights and the cameras are in place, and everybody takes up their position. We can use various kinds of light for the scenes: key light, back (counter) light, top light, indirect light, filler, etc. A lit scene At every pre-light session, determining the place of the key light is of primary importance. The key light lights the character, the object and the scene from slightly above and from the opposite direction. The back light lights the actor from behind, and the li- ght is thrown in the direction of the camera. The back light mostly serves to highlight the outlines, and it helps to make a contrast between the person or object and the background. Light from
  19. 19. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 19 above is reflected on the characters’ hair, and other lighting tech- niques work like an “ornament”, helping to achieve a higher level of sharpness. The filler is necessary to fill the shadows created by the key light; its intensity is lower than that of the key light. Even in the case of shiny outside scenes, the shady parts sometimes have to be filled with light. After the gaffer has done his part, the director and the came- raman set up the cameras, and the shooting of the scenes can start. The director watches the recorded images on one or more video monitors which are connected to the camera(s). He can hear the sound of the scenes through a headset. The director follows the work of cameramen on monitors Scenes consist of shots. The shot is the smallest unit of film pro- duction; it is a “snapshot” between two cuts, a frame captured in one image size. The image size/frame size is a characteristic of motion picture, just like the angle, the position of the character and his movement, the depiction of the character within his envi- ronment. Frame sizes can be used to direct the viewers’ attention on an important, but otherwise not too conspicuous moment. The expression “image frame” (French: plane) is usually not used for environment or objects, but for images depicting a human being. Depending on how big a piece the frame contains, we can diffe- rentiate between various grades:  sclose up,  choker, extreme close up, ‘premiere plane’  medium close up  full shot  long shot  extreme long shot, etc. Close up, ‘premiere plane’, medium close up, long shot The (extreme) close up focuses on an object; it shows a small body part or part of a face. In this case, all we see is a bloody fin- ger, eyes full of tears, a furrowed forehead, a pebble, a pistol, etc.
  20. 20. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 20 The choker or ‘premiere plane’ is an angle in which we see a who- le head, a body part or an object. The medium close up shows the actor’s/actors’ head and upper body, and certain elements of their environment also become visible. From the long shot angle, the bodies can be seen in their entirety. In the extreme long shot not only the object and/or the man is seen, but the background and the environment also become integral parts of the image. It includes every character of the scene, and the whole of the sce- nery. The extreme long shot is a setting where the figures can be seen from more than 30m; we see them as small spots in space. The image frames are made with camera moves. The most com- mon camera moves are fix, pan, zoom and dolly. The fix is a still image which assures that the viewer can observe the image thoroughly, and it also makes any moves taking place in the image content more visible. We normally start the camera moves with a still, then we complete the camera move and con- clude with a still. Example: fix-pan-fix. Pan means scanning. When this happens, the camera is moving around on its axis. The movement may take place from left to right, right to left, from up to down or down to up. This type of camera move makes it possible to show a location (e.g. a room), but with the pan we can also follow a person’s or an object’s movement. The pan usually starts from a still, and it stops on a still. Its speed has to be directed in such a way that the view can be taken in easily. With the pan, we can make a long shot or an extreme long shot, but it is also suitable for making other frames. Zooming is an action with which two opposite directions, in and out can be done. The content links together the starting and the closing image. On zooming in, we zoom on a detail from a big- ger context. This is the way to make a long shot from an extreme long shot, a close up from a medium close up, a choker from a close-up, etc… On zooming out, the detail is placed into a big- ger context. This way we can create an extreme long shot from a long shot, a medium close up from a close up, a close up from a choker, etc. When dollying, the relationship between the image object and its environment changes. Then the whole camera body moves forwards, backwards or sideways. During shooting, if only one camera is used, one scene is usually shot in many versions, from various camera angles. At first, the whole scene is shot, for example, as a fix long shot. Then the scene is repeated several times, and a different camera angle is applied each time. If there is an opportunity to shoot with more than one camera, then several angles can be used at the same time. This way the scene does not have to be repeated.
  21. 21. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 21 Shooting with more than one camera. The cameraman on the left side makes a long shot from a fixed camera position. The cameraman on the right works without a stand, this way he can follow the moves more freely. He mostly makes medium close ups and long shots. The third cameraman focuses on close ups. When we are shooting with more than one camera, we have to make sure that the cameras do not see each other. Harmonised work is very important. At the end of the shooting day, it is advisa- ble to review the material, because any human or technical errors can be corrected the next day. That is, if necessary, the scene can be reshot. 3.5.2.4 Post-production As the shooting work is finished, the post-production period be- gins. In this phase of film production, the complete movie is put together from the shot material. The length of the shot material is often many times longer than the final version, as in the course of shooting a lot of extra material is produced. Editing board These days, all of the post-production work is done on the com- puter; several softwares and cutting programmes are available for professional work. In the cutting studio, first of all, the dailies (the raw, unedited footage) are watched. In the presence of the edi- tor, the director goes through the whole shot material. Watching the hours of raw footage might take many days. Then they select the best scenes. After the dailies, the pre-editing period follows, during which the selected scenes are put into the right order. The
  22. 22. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 22 length they come up with is still not final, as the shots put toge- ther during the pre-editing period are not cut to their final length. However, this version carries the idea of the pace, which will de- termine the final proportions. In the course of the final cutting, the editor sets the exact length of the scenes, giving a rhythm to the film with the image changes. He increases the value of the film by selecting delicate solutions, applying effects, music, animation. The director and the editor watch the finalised version over and over again for many days, correcting any mistakes. After the last touches, the final version is produced. 3.5.2.5 Distribution/Platforms The last phase of film making is distribution. After the final ver- sion is prepared, the artists would like it to be released, so that it can reach the widest possible audience. Movie distribution, TV showing, DVD and internet releases offer the best opportunities to get the movie to the viewers. These days, large distributing com- panies work to connect film producing groups with consumers, that is, to link the artists and their audience. Marketing plays a major role in promoting films with the help of adverts or clips. For beginner film makers, festivals offer excellent opportunities, whe- re acknowledged professionals give feedback on their work. At such festivals, TV channels make an occasional appearance, and they are pleased to purchase the screening rights of award-win- ning movies. Although it is less and less common, cultural centers still organise interactive movie screenings, where the audience can meet the artist, and they can discuss the movie together. Video editing3.6 3.6.1 Introduction In our digitised world, where with the help of our cameras and smart phones we can make our own video films, the need has occured to be able to edit and cut our videos of family gathe- rings, parties or trips in our own home environment. The fact that most households have a computer with the proper features to do post-production work on videos is a strong motivating factor. Pre- viously we outlined the process from the basic concept to the birth of the complete film. As our next step, we would like to offer help to those who are not particularly interested in the profession of film-making, but would be happy to master the basics of video editing for home use6 . 3.6.2 Video capturing Capturing is the process where video material is placed into a file on the hard drive of the computer. Depending on the device used for recording, the material is recorded either onto a digital videotape or a memory card. In the case of a DV tape device, you can copy the material by connecting the equipment to your computer; images recorded onto a memory card can be copied with the help of a card reader. When you launch the project, it is necessary to set the basic parameters: the resolution of material, image size, recorded format. 6  This time we will not look at the editing and digitising of analogous recordings (VHS) as today material is made almost exclusively in the digital format.
  23. 23. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 23 The library on the hard drive must also be set up, and the name of the project has to be indicated. The material can be copied as a whole, but the programme is also able to divide the video into scenes by sensing the natural cuts7 . This means that the pro- gramme will cut the video into as many scenes as often you sto- pped the camera while shooting. Each scene lasts from starting the camera until you stopped the recording. Recording stops automatically if the selected disc has no more room on it. 3.6.3 Work surfaces of editing programmes Every editing programme has a similar-looking work surface. Work surfaces can mostly be divided into four blocks, these are the following:  Surface containing the elements of the project  Projection screen  Timeline  Effect window Windows Movie Maker is a video editing programme recommen- ded for beginners. It can be divided into three main areas: win- dow tables, storyboard/timeline, preview monitor. 7  Certain programmes have an automatic scene recognising function, whereas in the case of others this needs to be set separately. The work surface of Windows Movie Maker and parts of the work surface
  24. 24. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 24 The sizes of certain parts of the window can be modified. If you enlarge the size of the film window (storyboard/timeline), the pla- yer (preview) surface will be smaller. By enlarging the player, the size of the contents window gets smaller. These alterations can be made or cancelled according to your needs, to make your work process smoother. 3.6.4 Importing, data reading In addition to copying the material, editing programmes allow for other data reading processes. You can import stills, sound or vi- deo into the project file. The data which you want to import into the programme must initially be saved into a folder on one of the hard disks of the computer. That is because if you import data directly from a pendrive and it is not saved onto the computer, then on disconnecting the pendrive, the data automatically disa- ppears from the editing programme. Importing You can import new data with Win- dows Movie Maker in the following way. Under Movie Tasks you open the Capture Video bar (number 1). Here you select what you want to import: vi- deo, image or sound. You click on the desired option, and from your hard dri- ve you select the folder which has the video/image/sound saved for impor- ting. You then select the data. As can- cel and import appear, you click on the latter. You may import several data simultaneously or one after the other. 3.6.5 Editing, cutting 3.6.5.1 Straight and soft cut If all material and imported data are at hand, the work can start. You select a clip from the Collections and drag-and-drop it onto the Storyboard. You can work with it on the timeline or on the storyboard. Working on the timeline, you can remove all the un- necessary bits. You can cut off the beginning and the ending of scenes, however, it is not possible to remove internal images. You can only do that by initially cutting the clip in two at the place of your choice, and then, by clicking the icon in the bottom right corner of the player you complete the editing. If two scenes or stocks meet without any optical effects, we call it a straight cut. If you want a softer transition between your images, you can se- lect an option in the Video Transitions file. The transition of your choice has to be dragged onto the editing surface, and dropped between the two clips. You may accomplish this action on the timeline or the storyboard. Cutting on the timeline
  25. 25. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 25 3.6.5.2 Video effects Besides video transmissions, in the collection file you will find the Video effects. Their function is, for example, to rotate images, to reduce or increase brightness, to apply vertical reflection, sepia or rainbow effects, etc. If you wish to give an old-fashioned style to your film, it is easy to do. You can drag the selected video effect onto the timeline. 3.6.5.3 Editing sound and music You can use narration and background music in your film. Win- dows Movie Maker does not offer the option of simultaneous voi- ce-over and music, so you can only use the one or the other. However, you have the opportunity to insert voice into an empty place between two music clips. You can also set the volume of the video and the background music; that way you can make your short movie even more atmospheric. 3.6.5.4 Preparing titles and credits If you wish to give your movie a frame, you might want to start it with a title and finish with closing credits. By clicking Titles and credits, you can start editing the credit lists. First you have to locate the title, which means that you have to decide where you want to place it. You can put it to the very beginning of the film, on a selected scene, or even to the beginning or ending of that sce- ne. At the beginning of the film, the title appears in front of a blue background. If you add it to the clip, you create overlapping titles. You also have the opportunity to create a unique background. To do this, you have to import an image into the programme (or you can select one of your already imported images that you think would look good as a background to the main titles), and you pla- ce the titles on that. You can edit the credits based on the same guidelines. 3.6.5.5 Finishing touches When you have completed the final version and all your creative ideas have been realised, it is time to save the film. You have to give the file a name and find a place for it on your computer. Community pages for sharing your videos The programme also provides an option to save the film onto a DV camera tape. It can be burnt onto a CD as well, or sent via email. You can also upload it onto a web surface to share it with your friends.
  26. 26. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 26 Video project3.7 Whether we work for television or whether we make documenta- ries, we must be familiar with certain basic concepts. In the chapter about radio we have already tackled the press gen- res. Here, in the video chapter we will look at the characteristics of reports and interviews in detail. 3.7.1 What is a report? It is based on an experience. It is a member of the “factual mes- sage” family, and it grew out of news coverage. It aims to com- municate an event in a lifelike way. It is a complex genre with a high prestige, right between journalism and literature, using the elements of almost every genre from news clip to interview and essay-writing. The following literary effects can be used in it: dia- logue, depicting a milieu, creating tension, metaphors, suspense, turn of events. In contrast to a short story, however, here every statement has to be supported. The writer must recognise what could be of public interest. As opposed to the news presenter, the reporter is an active participant of the events. A good reporter builds up his piece with details, and he makes the viewer ano- ther participant of what is taking place, fully transmitting the at- mosphere. He throws light on the social background, embedding it into a social, political context; in certain cases he may even take sides. The report improvises; it is an “impressionist”, it re- cords the situation of the moment. It allows insight into such milieu and worlds which are hidden from the public eye. Every report is known for bridging distances and stepping over obstacles. Its types are the following: fact-finding, pragmatic, analysing, jud- ging, event-condition, documentary report. 3.7.2 What is an interview? To have an interview with someone means to offer him an oppor- tunity to speak. It is a conversation between two or more people where we assume that the topic might be of interest to others as well. It can be a genre or a way of material collecting. For the interviewee, the interview is an opportunity to let his opinion be heard by the public. For politicians it provides an opportunity for public speaking. And yet, in the interview the personality of the journalist or the editor is also reflected to some extent. The per- son of the interviewee is not of particular interest, the point is that the public should find him interesting, he must draw the public’s attention. In the case of a less exciting topic, the person of the interviewee is of great importance, but if the topic is exciting, a completely unknown individual will also pass. The interview is a private conversation, but the viewers have an invisible presence in it. That is why it is both intimate and assumes publicity. It is the most authentic genre where manipulation and distortion have a minimal chance. 3.7.2.1 Its types Fact-finding: This is a working method where the subject is fea- tured as a source of information. The reporter stays in the back- ground and only aims to obtain basic information. On the basis of unified logic, the plot has to be complete, a whole.
  27. 27. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 27 Magazine-type interviews: Here the aim is not only to obtain ba- sic information. This interview can be linked to any event or cau- se, its choice of topic is also free. In this type, the interviewee’s person is placed in the forefront as he shares his personal remar- ks or calls attention to the relationship between things. Deep interview: The personality of the interviewee is in focus. The aim is to fully introduce our subject without getting lost in the details. It is worth choosing a place where the interviewee can speak freely and at ease, and where we can observe his habits. The quality of the interview also depends on how well the two talking partners understand each other. The reporter, however, has a highlighted role: it is important that he should support the interviewee, guiding him in such a way that he can do his best. 3.7.2.2 How we are obliged to give information prior to the interview: We have to introduce ourselves and say which medium we repre- sent. We should also say where the material is meant to be used. It is a must to say where and on what occasion the interview will be aired. The topic should be shared in advance, we can even send our questions beforehand, so that our interviewee might prepare. However, we must be careful not to give away all our questions in advance. We also have to make an agreement about how long we wish to keep our interviewee busy. It is important to inform him how we intend to use the material, that is, whether it will be used as a source or a dialogue-type interview. The interviewee has the right to view or even ban the finished material. 3.7.2.3 Preparation It is a must to do a thorough research about the work of the inter- viewee or the given topic. If we interview a public figure, we can study his earlier interviews or articles written about him. We can become familiar with the topic from archives or manuals. We have to contact our subject and agree with him that it is be- neficial for both of us to make the interview. The reporter can be stubborn, but his stubbornness cannot turn into an assault. Always make a draft for the discussion; there should be some kind of logic along which we proceed. There has to be a starting point, and we should find a direction in which we go; but let us be flexible, let us adapt ourselves to the situation. Since we work with a camera, we have to ask the cameraman to check the state of the battery. It can be very embarrassing if the shooting can’t be started. 3.7.3 Interview technique Let us not make our own and our partner’s job more difficult by as- king yes/no questions. Then the conversation will typically come to a halt, and nothing will ever move it forward from the point break. Some people can give excellent ideas regarding questions. For example, the TV star Barbara Walters in her book How to talk to anyone about practically anything gives typically American tips which are helpful. In her book The interview, Anna Földes also quotes some questions that, according to Walters may establish a good contact and can open up the interviewee. For example: If you were taken to hospital, who would you like to see on the bed
  28. 28. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 28 next to yours? In which historical period would you like to live? If you were to win a million dollars in the lottery, who or what would you spend it on? These questions, although a bit clichéic, are definitely useful to give the conversation a push when it stops, and it shouldn’t be ignored that they can lead to dozens of new questions. If we are out of ideas, we should not hesitate to use them. The journalist has to be inquisitive the whole time through, and he should not stick to his planned questions at all costs. Such interviews are usually dry and dull, and make an impression as though the reporter is more interested in himself than in the inter- viewee. We must give the interviewee some space, but we have to be on the alert if he has questions for us; we are not to let the conversation be inverted. Whether we interview a plumber or a prime minister, it is the most important thing to pay attention and feel the air of the discussion, and later to reflect the things said in the most exact way. After proper preparation work this will not seem impossible at all. The presence of a camera bothers the interviewees more than e.g. a dictaphone. A good cameraman and editor always know what are the most preferable or comfortable circumstances for an interviewee. 3.7.4 Documentaries After this professional review let us move on to the documentary as a genre of its own. From the 1920s onwards, with a much smaller group of dedicated viewers, the documentary film has continuously been present in global film production. With movies becoming more and more like fairy tales, this genre represented the living conscience of film, which inspired many newly born styles (e.g. Italian neorealism, free cinema or the documentarism of the Czechoslovakian new wave). Out of this genre came several classic directors, i.e. the English John Grierson, the Dutch Joris Ivens, the French Jean Rouch and Chris Marker, the Russian Mihail Romm, the Hunga- rian Pál Schiffer, Gyula Gazdag, Gyula Gulyás, János Gulyás. In the course of film history, various types of documentary film were born. Such was the propaganda film, which was usually made at the order of a political party or organisation, or the state itself, and intended to spread an ideology effectively, among the widest possible audience. Propaganda films were mostly made in a large number during the Second World War. The nature film became one of the most successful documentary types of the TV era. The popular science film explains an important or interesting field of knowledge in science or the arts with much accuracy, and yet in a language comprehensible for the public.
  29. 29. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 29 The portrait follows a typical or exemplary path of a human life. As television became common, cinemas were no longer a home for documentaries, and on TV these films were often merged with journalism. Their higher-standard forms (i.e. event broadcasting, analytical, dramatic shows) rarely found a channel for their pre- sence. On the other hand, some typical types of documentaries (nature film, popular science film, TV news shows replacing cinema news reels) are now so popular that thematical TV channels (Spektrum, BBC World) serve to fulfil their viewers’ needs, and high-ranking annual festivals, fares present the products coming from this genre. 3.7.4.1 Let’s make a documentary In order to fulfil this noble and rather difficult task, it is definitely necessary to master the above mentioned things. What comes after that is the selection of a theme. This can be the elaboration of a topic which has been investigated for a long time, or the do- cumentation of an event, which, as we say, is literally in the street. In both cases, preparation is required; in the first instance we have more time, in the second case there is less time to get ready. It is very important that we ask the interviewee questions of public interest. If we beat about the bush, we might end up shooting several hours of material, and the editing will be complicated. So we must ask relevant questions. When making a documentary, the role of the cameraman is very important. A good cameraman has to be at least as attentive as the reporter. He has to record cutaways that go well with the the- me. The magic of documentaries partly depends on the scenes that cannot be re-shot, because they will never be repeated. Only accurate, creative cameramen with a confident hand are able to do this. In documentaries, speech plays a major role, but images are just as important. Films must also provide a visual experience. After shooting, the editor, who is on many occasions the same as the reporter, will go through the shot material. Then he does the script and edits the film; he writes the narration. The narrator re- cords his voice and hands over the material to the second editor. The second editor has an important task, because he is the one who puts all the tiny things together into one, composed form. Since documentaries globally have a low budget, it is often the second editor who edits the credits and the music. Documentaries are usually purchased by thematical channels, but it is also possible to present them at festivals.
  30. 30. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 30 Activities3.8 1. Film grammar A. Catalog the following shots according their size/composition and angle (vertical and horitontal) Example: Front Low Mid Shot 2. Rules of filmmaking B. Make, by drawing or taking pictures, a western duel story- board with the application of this unit's explained rules. Storyboard: Sequence design in "comic" format where in each vignette there is drawn each movie shot in the movie's order of appearance. Example: 3. Film production – from basic concept to distribution C. Connect the camcorder/camera with a monitor and make sure everybody can see the screen. Turn the camera to face the students and make a long shot of the group, then a medium close-up. Make a close-up and a choker of each student. Call some students individually to:  make a long shot  make a medium shot from long shot  make a medium close-up from medium shot  make a close-up from medium close-up  make a choker from close-up  make a medium close-up from choker  make a close-up from medium close-up  make a long shot from close-up
  31. 31. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 31  make a choker from long shot  make a medium shot from choker Remark: The task can be done the opposite way. One student makes one particular shot and the others have to recognise which frame it is. Students may assign these tasks to each other as well. D. Practicing camera moves which make the various frames/ shots.  make a zoom from a still into a still, as you like  introduce the location (classroom, telecentre, etc.) with a pan  Introduce one of your group mates in standing position with a tilt. Which direction would you prefer: from below going up, or going down? Why? Remark: The task can be done in pairs. One student stands behind the camera, and the other makes various kinds of mo- ves which have to be followed by his partner. For example, he slowly walks from point A to point B, he quickly walks from point B to point A, he quickly puts his hand in his pocket, he slowly pulls something out of his pocket…etc. E. Drafting situations  birds chirping in the forest  studio discussion – talk show  live broadcasting  the prime minister holds a press conference  the defendant is stormed by journalists as he leaves the court building. Look at these situations, and determine which kind of micro- phones they would require. Which mic would be useful, possi- bly suitable or absolutely necessary? F. Putting together a film concept. Assembling the crew.  the director and his assistants assign the locations  the cameraman and his assistants consider the possible camera positions and settings  the reporters make a list of questions  the production manager organises the shooting with the in- terviewees 4. Video editing Everybody saves some music and photos onto a USB drive from their home PC. G. Prepare a library. Name it “film”. This is where you will gather all files and data necessary for video editing. Make a project file. Copy the material into the programme. Save it. H. Import a photo, sound and a video into the project file. Don’t forget to save them. I. Choose a clip from the collections and drag it onto the editing line. Cut off the beginning and the ending part of the scene. J. Get familiar with transitions. Select a transition option and drag it between the two clips. K. Give the clip an old-fashioned atmosphere. L. Put some music in the background. Be careful with the volume. M. Click on Titles and credits. Find a place for, and then create overlapping titles. Save the film.
  32. 32. VIDEO PRODUCTION MODULEADVANCED COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY 32 Bibliography3.9  LONG, BEN. SCHENK, SONJA The digital filmmaking han- dbook. Digital Filmmaking Series CHARLES RIBER MEDIA (2011)  J. BENET, VICENTE Cultura del cine: Introducción a la his- toria y la estética del cine. Paidos Ibérica (2004)  UNIVERSITY OF REDDIT Introduction to Filmmaking http://universityofreddit.com/class/38220/introduction-to-film- making
  33. 33. BASIC COURSE OF MEDIA LITERACY Project supported by: This project has been funded with support from the European Commission

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