The art of making effective presentations


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Creating effective presentations on various subjects and delivering it to the liking of the audience is an essential skill required to many business people and executives. This presentation deals with these aspects

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  • Intelligibility =understandability Variability =expresses differences in meaning Articulation (enunciation)= the precision and clarity with which you utter the sounds of speech. Chiefly the job of the jaw, tongue, and lips. Most articulation problems come from laziness on the parts of these organs. Pronunciation =traditional or customary utterance of words. Common faults are the misplacement of accent, omitting sounds, adding sounds,and verbalizing silent letters. Vocalized pauses =uh, um, ah. Know your subject. Overuse of stock expressions =OK, like, you know. Conveys a lack of originality. Substandard grammar Force= variability of volume Pitch =highness or lowness Emphasis =stressing certain phrases or sections
  • The art of making effective presentations

    3. 3. 3 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD“The biggest problem withcommunication is the illusion thatit has been accomplished.”-George Bernard Shaw
    4. 4. 4 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADSPEAKERS:a) Self centeredb) Message centeredc) Audience-centeredA good public speaker isAudience-centered
    5. 5. 5 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPreparing content• Analyze your AUDIENCE• Define what ACTION you want them totake• Arrange your ARGUMENT to move them3 A’s
    6. 6. 6 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAnalyze Your Audience• What are their names, titles, backgrounds, reasonsfor attending, etc…?• What are their big concerns?• What are their objectives, fears, hot buttons, andattitudes?
    7. 7. 7 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAnalyze your Audience-- General information-- Heterogeneity-- Age-- Sex-- Socio-economic background-- Level of understanding-- Attitudes-- Interests-- Needs
    8. 8. 8 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAnalyze Your Audience• What is their perception of you and yourinstitution?• What are their questions likely to be?• What is personally at stake for them?• How much detail do they need?
    9. 9. 9 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDefine What Action• What action do you want the audience totake?• Define it in terms of the audience.• What will they feel, believe, and do afterhearing your talk?
    10. 10. 10 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAdopt the speechto the audienceand the occasion
    11. 11. 11 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADSPEECH PREPARATION• Decide on the purpose of your speech- Is it supposed to inform?or persuade?• Select content that is compatible with yourpurpose• Gather information- Personal experiences- Interviews- Newspapers- Books- Internet• Make a creative analysis of topic• Develop the objectives
    12. 12. 12 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADORGANISE YOUR SPEECH• The body:Main ideas and supporting ideas• The introduction:Drawing attention, establishingcredibility, usefulness• The conclusion:Summation, challenge and action
    13. 13. 13 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• The speech should beunified, coherent, relevant,concise and comprehensive• Tell them what you are going to tell them,tell them,and tell them what you told them• Prepare handouts and visual aids
    14. 14. 14 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDELIVERING THE SPEECH
    15. 15. 15 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADTYPES OF DELIVERYExtemporaneous mode:(Without referring to notes)- Speech prepared before delivery• Plan for speakingOutlineContentRehearsal• Time to gather data• Well-organized(Disadvantage : Sticking to the structure &ignoring audience response)
    16. 16. 16 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Security of knowing what to say and how to sayit• Each word is painstakingly selected• Sometimes it is appropriate and desirable• Mechanical, lacks spontaneity, stifles interactionwith participants• Read with interest, enthusiasm and vitalityMANUSCRIPT MODE:
    17. 17. 17 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Delivered with little or no preparation• Ability to think on your feet• Break your topic into parts past, present and future• Give introductory remarks• Order your thoughts• Review main points• End with a strong conclusionIMPROMPTU MODE:
    18. 18. 18 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADMEMORISED SPEECH• Success depends on memory• Present naturally• Difficulty in responding to the audience• Lacks spontaneity
    19. 19. 19 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPodium PanicFor some people, the thoughtof giving a presentation ismore frightening than fallingoff a cliff, financial difficulties,snakes and even death.
    20. 20. 20 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDELIVERING SPEECH• Understand speech anxiety:- Self-conscious (how youare being perceived)- Fear of rejection- Stage fright• Extensive preparation builds confidence• Anxiety is found out through non-verbal cues
    21. 21. 21 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDELIVERING SPEECH• Every good speaker gets keyed up beforedelivery• We are all afraid of unknown• Audience want you to be a good speaker• Focus on the topic• Have positive attitude about the self
    22. 22. 22 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Rehearsing and thoroughpreparation helps• Prepare the audience• Explain the session plan• Talk about the benefits• Maintain eye contactDELIVERING SPEECH
    23. 23. 23 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Never let them out of your sight.• Looking them in the eye makes them feel thatthey are influencing what you say.• Eye contact allows the presentation toapproximate conversation—the audience feelsmuch more involved.Eye Contact
    24. 24. 24 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPrinciples of Effective Delivery• Avoid frequent repetition of words• Avoid vocal disfluencies, or vocalisedpauses.• Avoid distracting physical activities likescratching head, rubbing nose etc.• Delivery includes voice elements and bodymovements• Think the thought and feel the emotion
    25. 25. 25 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPrinciples of Effective Delivery• Appear to be natural and spontaneous• Avoid distracting verbal and nonverbal cues• Adjust delivery to the audience, topic andsituation• Reinforce meaning in message• While using notes don’t pretend that youare not using• Develop the ability to see yourself as theaudience does.
    26. 26. 26 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPrinciples of Effective DeliveryImprove gestures and movement- Dress and appearance- Postures- Facial expressions- Gestures- Voice
    27. 27. 27 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADUse Humor- Great way to Break ice- It must be linked to the subjectspeaker, audience or occasionsNOTHING IS MORE EMBRASSING THANA JOKE THAT FALLS FLATPrinciples of Effective Delivery
    28. 28. 28 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADBody LanguageNO-NO’s• Lean on or grip the podium• Rock or sway in place• Stand immobile• Use a single gesture repeatedly• Examine or bite your fingernails
    29. 29. 29 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADBody LanguageNO-NO’s• Cross your arms in front of your chest• Use obviously practiced or stilted gestures• Chew gum or eat candy• Click or tap your pen, pencil or pointer
    30. 30. 30 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADBody LanguageNO-NO’s• Lean into the microphone• Shuffle your notes unnecessarily• Tighten your tie or otherwise play with yourclothing• Crack your knuckles• Jangle change or key in your pocket
    31. 31. 31 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADVoice• Voice Intelligibility–Articulation–Pronunciation–Vocalized pauses–Overuse of stockexpressions–Substandardgrammar• Voice Variability–Rate of speech–Volume–Pitch or tone–Emphasis
    32. 32. 32 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD
    33. 33. 33 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADWhy use Visuals?• Increase and reinforce learning• Add Interest• Facilitate listening & remembering• Essential for understanding concepts• Increase teaching effectiveness• A picture is worth thousand words
    34. 34. 34 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADImpact of Audio-Visual Aids• People remember– 20% of what is heard– 30% of what is seen– 50% of what is seen & heard
    35. 35. 35 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPlanning and Preparation• Requires time, thought & imagination in– Selecting the points to be visualised– Translating ideas into suitably visual forms– Choosing the most appropriate medium– Designing layout and choosing colour– Manning the aid– Evaluating its effectiveness– Revising for future use
    36. 36. 36 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDeciding which Device to use• Size of audience• Where the talk to be held• Once or many times• Cost of Preparing• Transport• Availability of power• Availability of equipment• Familiarity of speaker with aids• Subject
    37. 37. 37 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDevices Available• Chalk Board• White Board• Flip Chart• Magnetic Board• Smart Board• Flannel Board• Over head Projector• Episcope or opaque projector• Slides• Films• LCD Projector, Power point• Video• Video Conferencing• Pana…
    38. 38. 38 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADChalk Board• Advantages :– Generally available– Inexpensive– No Preparation• Disadvantages– Speaker to turn away from audience– Talking to the board– Ignoring audience– Limited distance– Dusty and messy– Dramatic effects not possible
    39. 39. 39 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADTips• Write for audience• Write legibly• Use capitals• Keep neat and tidy• Cut down to essentials• Don’t over crowd• Clean the board• Use colored chalk for emphasis
    40. 40. 40 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADFlip Chart• Advantages– Can be used as blackboard or previously prepared charts– Less time and money– No need to erase– Can be reused for Recapitulation and review• Disadvantages– Limited space– Transportation Problems– Dramatic effect limited– Paper curling in storage– ‘Strip-tease’ chart to reveal one at a time– Drawings can be prepared ‘invisibly’
    41. 41. 41 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADWhite Board• Advantages– Permits wide use of colour– Less messy than chalk– Writing smooth and silent– Bright, Clean and Pleasant to look– Can also be used for projections• Disadvantages– Expensive– Wrong Pens create stains– Some boards scratch easily
    42. 42. 42 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADMagnetic Board• Can be used as black board• Very heavy for portability• Expensive• Dramatic effect by lightly throwing
    43. 43. 43 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Good for displaying– Photographs– Posters– Cutting from magazines• Colourful• Can be reused• Cannot be used as chalk board
    44. 44. 44 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADOverhead Projector• Various Models• Widely used• Can be used in normal daylight• Transparent acetate sheets• Marker Pens• Can also be photo copied• Colour transparencies• Type script is too small• Card Board frames for mounting
    45. 45. 45 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADOverhead Projector• Advantages– Speaker can face audience– Can work on transparencies– Roll of plastic as board– Easier to write on horizontal surface– Is clean and quick– Complete darkening not needed– Permits note-taking
    46. 46. 46 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPanaboard• Advantages– Now-with integral printer for plain paper printing– Easy to write and wipe– Can use color pens– The Panasonic Interactive Panaboard can support yourneeds by opening your meetings and presentations toyour business colleagues at locations around theworld, thereby offering a cost effective and real-timeglobal teleconference solution. You can project imagesfrom computer onto the board and control yourapplications for Windows . So whether yourrequirements call for training, global teleconferencing,or affordable brainstorming solution,
    47. 47. 47 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADVisuals can be used• To bring out a series of facts and the conclusions• To bring out points to be emphasized• To attract attentions through devices or colours• To present a complex processes• To introduce new concepts• To show relationships among objects• To show outline
    48. 48. 48 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADMethodology• Use pictures• Use words as second choice• Use graphs• Use devices• Use colour• Use your imagination
    49. 49. 49 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADRanking of colors in gettingattention• ORANGE• RED• BLUE• BLACK• GREEN• YELLOW• VIOLET• GREY
    51. 51. 51 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADYellow on Dark BluePink on VioletBrown on WhiteGreen on WhiteDark Blue on WhiteYellow on BlackBlack on YellowWhite on BlackBlack on White
    52. 52. 52 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADUse of Symbols
    53. 53. 53 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDesign Concepts•Big•Simple•Clear
    54. 54. 54 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADSimple•Not many lines( 6 to 10)•No more than 10 words per line
    55. 55. 55 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADClear• Color of the background and text•Arial or Helvetica•Avoid overuse of red, shadows, animationand transitions•Beware of glaring backgrounds
    56. 56. 56 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADClear•Clip art should add to the content•Ditto on sound clips•Use a different background only toemphasize one slide
    57. 57. 57 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADVisual Aids(not the stars of theshow)
    58. 58. 58 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADVISUAL AIDS- Don’t talk to visual aids- Place yourself at centre stage- Use Pointer sparingly- Learn Black Board Management
    59. 59. 59 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADQuestions & Answers“Does anyone have anyquestions for my answers?”-Henry Kissinger
    60. 60. 60 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADQuestions & Answers• Beginning of a whole new interactivepresentation• Opportunity to make a point• Most presentations are won or lost here
    61. 61. 61 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADQuestion and Answers- Encourage Questions- Ask Questions with proper gestures- Anticipate questions and prepare- Watch the person asking questions and Listencarefully- Repeat the question- Involve whole audience
    62. 62. 62 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADQuestions & Answers• Anticipate lines ofquestioning• Rehearse• Don’t rank questions• Keep answers brief• Be honest• Don’t repeat negativequestions• Clarify question• Refer to experts• Move your eyes offquestioner
    63. 63. 63 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADNEVER argue with a memberof the audience.THE RULE
    64. 64. 64 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Look at the questioner.• Remain neutral and attentive.• Listen to the whole question.• Pause before you respond.• Address the questioner, then move your eyes toothers.Instead…
    65. 65. 65 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADEasy as A B C“I can’t Answer that questionBecause …,but I Can tell you…”
    66. 66. 66 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD“Better to keep yourmouth shut and appearignorant than open it andremove all doubt.”-Mark Twain
    67. 67. 67 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADSpeaking EnvironmentControl over speaking environment- Checkup Equipments- Proper seating arrangement- Reach before time- Acquaint yourself with environment- Handouts- Glass of water
    68. 68. 68 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• PPT is designed to ENHANCE your presentation, not BEthe presentation.• Remember, only you can prevent“Death by PowerPoint”PowerPoint Presentation GuidelinesPowerPoint Presentation Guidelines
    69. 69. 69 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Highlight key points or reinforce what the facilitator issaying• Should be short and to the point, include only key wordsand phrases for visual, reinforcement• In order for your presentation to fit on most screens, textand images should be placed within 95% of thePowerPoint slide. This “action safe” area is seen in thenext slide.PowerPoint SlidePowerPoint Slide
    70. 70. 70 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD
    71. 71. 71 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• Layout continuity from frame to frame conveys a sense ofcompleteness• Headings, subheadings, and logos should show up in thesame spot on each frame• Margins, fonts, font size, and colors should be consistentwith graphics located in the same general position oneach frame• Lines, boxes, borders, and open space also should beconsistent throughoutPowerPoint LayoutPowerPoint Layout
    72. 72. 72 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADFontsFonts• Font Style Should be Readable– Recommended fonts: Arial, Tahoma,Veranda• Standardize the Font ThroughoutDo !
    73. 73. 73 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• This is a good title sizeVerdana 40 point• A good subtitle or bullet point sizeVerdana 32 point• Content text should be no smaller thanVerdana 24 point• This font size is not recommended for content. Verdana 12 point.Font SizeFont Size The larger, the better. Remember, your slides mustbe readable, even at the back of the room.
    74. 74. 74 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADTIPS Presentation: 3/8/2004 Dawn Thomas, CRMDon’t !Font SizeFont Size What does this say? Garamond Font, Italic, Bold 12pt.• This is very difficult to read. Times Font, Bold, 12pt.• This point could be lost. Century Gothic Font, Bold, Italic, 14pt.• No one will be able to read this. Gill Sans Font, Condensed Bold, 12pt Combining small font sizes with bold or italics is notrecommended:Small fonts are okay for a footer, such as:
    75. 75. 75 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADFontsFonts• Don’t Sacrifice Readability for Style• Don’t Sacrifice reaDabilityfor Style• Don’t Sacrifice Readability forStyle• Don’t SacrificeReadability forStyleDon’t !
    76. 76. 76 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCaps and ItalicsCaps and Italics• DO NOT USE ALL CAPITAL LETTERS– Makes text hard to read– Conceals acronyms– Denies their use for EMPHASIS• Italics– Used for “quotes”– Used to highlight thoughts or ideas– Used for book, journal, or magazine titles
    77. 77. 77 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADUse a TemplateUse a Template• Use a set font and color scheme.• Different styles are disconcerting to theaudience.• You want the audience to focus on whatyou present, not the way you present.
    78. 78. 78 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADUse the Same BackgroundBackgroundon Each SlideDo !!
    79. 79. 79 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDon’t!• Don’t use multiple backgrounds in yourpresentation• Changing the style is distracting
    80. 80. 80 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCCoolloorrss• Reds and oranges are high-energy butcan be difficult to stay focused on.• Greens, blues, and browns aremellower, but not as attentiongrabbing.• Reds and Greens can be difficult tosee for those who are color blind.
    81. 81. 81 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCCoolloorrss• White on dark background should not be used ifaudience is more than 20 ft away.– This set of slides is a good example.– You can read the slides up close.– The further away you get, the harder it is to read.– This is a good color combination if viewed on acomputer.– A dark background on a computer screen reducesglare.
    82. 82. 82 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCCoolloorrss• Large Hall Events–Avoid WhiteWhite Backgrounds–The white screen can be blinding in adark room–Dark SlidesDark Slides with Light ColoredLight ColoredTextText Work BestDon’t
    83. 83. 83 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADTheThe CCoolloorr WheelWheel• Colors separated by anothercolor are contrasting colors(complementary)• Adjacent colors harmonizewith one another (Green andYellow)• Colors directly opposite oneanother are said to CLASH• Clashing colors providereadability– OrangeOrange on BlueBlueDo !
    84. 84. 84 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADGraphs and ChartsGraphs and ChartsMake sure the audience canread them!
    85. 85. 85 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAvoid using graphics that are difficult to read. In this example, the bright colorson a white background and the small font make the graph hard to read. Itwould be very difficult to see, especially in the back of a room.8Don’t !Graphics and ChartsGraphics and Charts
    86. 86. 86 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADThis graph contains too much information in an unreadable format.10Don’t !
    87. 87. 87 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADThese are examples ofgood graphs, with niceline widths and goodcolors.Good GraphGood GraphDo !
    88. 88. 88 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCharts and GraphsCharts and Graphs01020304050607080Nort h America Europe Aust railiaMode AMode BMode CDon’t
    89. 89. 89 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADCharts and GraphsCharts and Graphs01020304050607080NorthNorthAmericaAmericaEurope AustraliaMode AMode BMode CDo !
    90. 90. 90 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADIllustrationsIllustrations• Use only when needed, otherwise they becomedistracters instead of communicators• They should relate to the message and help makea point• Ask yourself if it makes the message clearer• Simple diagrams are great communicatorsDo !
    91. 91. 91 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADDon’t !
    92. 92. 92 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADLimit Each Slide to One IdeaLimit Each Slide to One Idea• UseUse Bullet PointsBullet Points to Coverto CoverComponents of Each IdeaComponents of Each Idea
    93. 93. 93 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADBulletsBullets• Keep each bullet to 1 line, 2 at the most• Limit the number of bullets in a screen to 6, 4 ifthere is a large title, logo, picture, etc.– This is known as “cueing”– You want to “cue” the audience on what you’regoing to say• Cues are a a brief “preview”• Gives the audience a “framework” to build upon
    94. 94. 94 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADBulletsBullets (con.)(con.)• If you crowd too much text, the audience won’tread it– Too much text looks busy and is hard to read– Why read it, when you’re going to tell them what itsays?– Our reading speed does not match our listeningspeed; hence, they confuse instead of reinforce
    95. 95. 95 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPoints to RememberPoints to Remember• Limit each slide to 1 idea• Limit each bullet point to only a few words toavoid long sentences that go on and on!
    96. 96. 96 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPoints to RememberPoints to Remember• Limit animation• Too much animation can be distracting.• Be consistent with animation and have all textand photos appear on the screen the same wayeach time.• There are many animation modes to choosefrom, but it is best to use just one throughout.
    97. 97. 97 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADLimit AnimationLimit Animation• Use the same animation throughout the entirepresentation• Using more than one can be very distracting– The audience will only see the animation and notthe message you’re trying to get across!!Bam!Don’t
    98. 98. 98 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADPoints to RememberPoints to Remember• Keep bullet points brief• Use the same background for eachslide• Use dark slides with light colored text inlarge hall eventsDo !
    99. 99. 99 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADAvoid the “All Word” SlideAvoid the “All Word” SlideAnother thing to avoid is the use of a largeblock paragraph to introduce your information.Attendees do not like to have what is on thescreen, read to them verbatim. So, pleaseuse short, bulleted statements and avoid typingout your whole presentation on to the slides.Also, it is difficult for some to listen and read alarge amount of text at the same time.Don’t
    100. 100. 100 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD• To make a slide stand out,To make a slide stand out,change the font, background,change the font, background,or add animation.or add animation.
    101. 101. 101 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAADYOUYOU• Do not use the media to hide you• The audience came to SEE you• The media should ENHANCE the presentation, notBE the presentation• If you’re only going to read from the slides, then justsend them the slides!• Remember, only you can prevent“Death by PowerPoint”
    102. 102. 102 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD“Make sure you have finishedspeaking before your audiencehas finished listening.”-Dorothy Sarnoff
    103. 103. 103 ©Copyright by AB. PRASAAD