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Course Sampler From ATI Professional Development Short Course                         Unmanned Aircraft Systems           ...
www.ATIcourses.comBoost Your Skills                                             349 Berkshire Drive                       ...
DAY 1                                          DAY 2                                         DAY 3      INTRODUCTION      ...
Lecturer Background                    Dr Jerry LeMieux, Engineer and Pilot         Hometown: Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (Gree...
Course Description• This 3-day classroom instructional program is designed to meet the needs  of engineers, researchers an...
Why Are You Here• Senior military leadership: Improve planning,  organization and training. Develop new doctrine and  make...
What You Will Learn•   Basic Definitions & Attributes              •   Civil UAS News, Civil Airspace Integration•   Desig...
Where Are We•   Predator has become to the UAS world what Kleenex is to tissue•   Predator synonymous with long dwell time...
Where Do We Want to Go•   Want more UAS, military wants 1/3 of vehicles to become unmanned•   Want one pilot to control mu...
How Do We Get There•   Lots of dollars, annual worldwide spending will reach $10 billion•   R&D at military labs, commerci...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems        BasicsContact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX   Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com   Phone: 920-744-7154   SKY...
Overview•   Definition, Attributes•   Manned vs Unmanned•   Design Considerations•   Acquisition & Life Cycle Costs•   UAS...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems     Types & Roles                                                                               ...
Overview•   Categories/Classification•   Military Missions•   Large UAS Platforms•   Small UAS for Tactical Missions•   La...
Categories                               Classification of UAS•   By US Military Group                      •   Bt Range/A...
Civil Roles                                             Manned Aircraft             High                                  ...
Law Enforcement                                          Small UAS Case Study      Home Invasion Investigation Scenario   ...
Unmanned Air Systems  Sensors & Payloads
Overview•   Electro Optical (EO)                 •   Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)•   Infrared (IR)                      ...
Sensor Range Calculation                    Nomo graphs           Uncooled 320 x 240 detector   Cooled 320 x 240 detectorS...
Black Body Radiation•   All matter emits electromagnetic radiation. Thermal radiation is conversion of a    bodys thermal ...
Atmospheric                 Absorption/TransmittanceInfrared SpectroscopyAbsorbance = a*b*ca= molar absorbtivityb= path le...
Multispectral/Hyperspectral IR                                        21Source: Penn State
Global Hawk SAR Images     Impact of two AC-130 weapons (bottom left and                                                  ...
Space Weather ImpactsSource: USAF                                       23
Unmanned Aircraft Systems   Alternative Power                                                                             ...
Overview•   The Need for Alternative Propulsion for UAS•   Alternative Power Trends & Forecast•   Solar Cells & Solar Ener...
Propulsion ForecastUAS Roadmap 2005 - 2030                         26
Solar Energy                           Irradiance Model• A good model of irradiance depending on variables such as geograp...
Great Flight Diagram Statistics for 62 Solar Planes Mass ModelsIncreased weightmeans higher wingloading. Tocalculate theco...
Fuel Cells                  ComparisonSource: US DOE                 29
Fuel Cells                                            PEM• The Department of Energy (DOE) is focusing on the PEMFC as the ...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems   Com & Data Links                                                                              ...
Overview•   Current State of Data Links•   Future Needs of Data Links•   Line of Sight Fundamentals•   Beyond line of Sigh...
LOS Fundamentals                        Link Budget Analysis• Free space attenuation depends on frequency & distance• Free...
Link Enhancements                                              Spread Spectrum                                            ...
Image Compression                                                  JPEG•   JPEG is a lossy compression format conceived ex...
STANAG 4586• Processes, procedures, terms and conditions for common military or  technical procedures or equipment between...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems     Weaponization                                                                               ...
Overview•   First UAS Air to Air Engagement•   Limitations & Desired Characteristics•   Desired Capabilities•   Acquisitio...
Weaponization     Common Techniques for Reconfigurable Flight ControllersSource: Duchard                                  ...
Weaponization                  17 Design Considerations•   Degree of Autonomy      •   Command & Control•   Achieving Reli...
Hellfire• Anti-armor air-to-ground precision guided weapon• 47 kg / 106 pounds, including 9 kg / 20 pound warhead, range o...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems     System DesignContact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX   Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com   Phone: 920-744-7154  ...
Overview•   UAS Design Process•   Airframe Design Considerations•   Launch & Recovery Methods•   Propulsion Considerations...
Airframe                            Initial Weight EstimateBaseline design: Initialestimate of max takeoff wtTextbooks do ...
Propulsion                    3 Variable Plot                                      45Source: Sobester
Communications                              Antenna Types• Most common types   –   Quarter wave length diploe   –   Yagi  ...
Unmanned Aircraft Systems   Improving Reliability                                                                         ...
Overview•   Current State of UAS Reliability•   Fault Tolerant Control Architecture•   Fault Detection & Identification•  ...
Predator Case Study• The Predator design evolved from a DARPA program (FY84–FY90).• In January 1994, the Army awarded Gene...
Failure Mode Findings                                #2   This module will focus on                                     im...
Unmanned Air Systems          Civil Airspace Integration                                                                  ...
Overview•   Civil UAS News•   FAA Civil UAS Roadmap•   UAS Certificate of Authorization Process•   AFS-400 UAS Policy 05-0...
FAA Civil UAS Roadmap                     Evolution• Accommodation  – COAs for Public Operators  – Experimental for Civil ...
COA Process                       Certificate of Authorization• In 1997 the FAA and DoD agreed upon and wrote the initial ...
SUAS FAA Regulation 107•   sUAS aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) proposed regulations•   Begins comment & review proces...
UAS Autonomous Operations                      Unmanned Air Systems                    Autonomy & Alt Navigation          ...
Overview•   Vision•   Definitions•   Autonomy•   Automatic Control•   Automatic Air to Air Refueling•   Intelligent Contro...
Automatic UAS AARDARPA/NASA program called KQ-X will perform UAS to UAS refueling                                         ...
59
Sensor Navigation Control System                                                                    Desired               ...
Unmanned Air Systems          Human Machine Interface                                                                     ...
Overview•   Human Factors Engineering Explained•   Heron Tour at Suffield, Canada•   Human Machine Interface•   Voice Reco...
Human Machine Interface                    Sensory Isolation of Operator• One of the most prominent HMI issues is sensory ...
Human Machine Interface                    Sensory Isolation of Operator• In 2002 one of the USAF GHs returning from a mis...
Improve SA in Urban Clutter                              65
Unmanned Air Systems           Case Study: Swarming                                                                       ...
Overview•   UAS Swarming Concept•   History of Military Swarming Attacks•   Modern Military Swarming•   Single Operator Mu...
Swarming Algorithms                    Particle Swarm Optimization• UAS Application: Navigation /route planning• Mission R...
Unmanned Air Systems                            Future Capabilities                                                       ...
Overview• Goals & Operational Issues• Future Platforms  – Space, Hypersonic, Submarine Launched  – UCAS, Pseudolites, BAMS...
Space UAS                                      Reusable VTHL Space Plane                                                  ...
Future Military Missions                                               Ultra-Long EnduranceSource: Exploiting Unmanned Air...
Questions      Dr Jerry LeMieuxUnmanned Air System Expert       920-744-7154  jetdoc2001@yahoo.com
To learn more please attend ATI course               Unmanned Aircraft Systems    Please post your comments and questions ...
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Unmanned Aircraft System Fundamentals

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This 3-day, classroom and practical instructional program provides individuals or teams entering the unmanned aircraft system (UAS) market with the need to 'hit the ground running'. Delegates will gain a working knowledge of UAS system classification, payloads, sensors, communications and data links. You will learn the UAS weapon design process and UAS system design components. The principles of mission planning systems and human factors design considerations are described. The critical issue of integrating UAS in the NAS is addressed in detail along with major considerations. Multiple roadmaps from all services are used to explain UAS future missions.

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  1. 1. Course Sampler From ATI Professional Development Short Course Unmanned Aircraft Systems Instructor: Jerry LeMieux, PhDATI Course Schedule: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htmATIs UAS Funamentals: http://www.aticourses.com/Unmanned_Aircraft_System_Fundamentals.htm
  2. 2. www.ATIcourses.comBoost Your Skills 349 Berkshire Drive Riva, Maryland 21140with On-Site Courses Telephone 1-888-501-2100 / (410) 965-8805Tailored to Your Needs Fax (410) 956-5785 Email: ATI@ATIcourses.comThe Applied Technology Institute specializes in training programs for technical professionals. Our courses keep youcurrent in the state-of-the-art technology that is essential to keep your company on the cutting edge in today’s highlycompetitive marketplace. Since 1984, ATI has earned the trust of training departments nationwide, and has presentedon-site training at the major Navy, Air Force and NASA centers, and for a large number of contractors. Our trainingincreases effectiveness and productivity. Learn from the proven best.For a Free On-Site Quote Visit Us At: http://www.ATIcourses.com/free_onsite_quote.aspFor Our Current Public Course Schedule Go To: http://www.ATIcourses.com/schedule.htm
  3. 3. DAY 1 DAY 2 DAY 3 INTRODUCTION COMMUNICATIONS AND DATA LINKS CIVIL AIRSPACE INTEGRATION BASICS UAS WEAPONIZATION SENSE AND AVOID SYSTEMS TYPES & CIVILIAN ROLES UAS SYSTEM DESIGN HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE MILITARY OPERATIONS IMPROVING RELIABILITY AUTONOMOUS CONTROLSENSORS & CHARACTERISTICS REGULATIONS & DOD OPERATIONS ALTERNATIVE NAVIGATION ALTERNATIVE POWER CASE STUDY: UAS SWARMING FUTURE UAS DESIGNS & ROLES Unmanned Aircraft Systems Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  4. 4. Lecturer Background Dr Jerry LeMieux, Engineer and Pilot Hometown: Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (Green Bay Packers) 40 Years Aviation Experience with Over 10,000 hours BS EE, MS EE and PhD EE with 20 Years PM, Systems Engineer 30 Years USAF Experience: Commander & Fighter/Instructor Pilot 10 Years Flight Test Experience with AEW & Fighter AircraftFaculty & Staff; MIT, Boston University, UM, Daniel Webster College, ERAU Patent Author, Book Author, Lecturer Current Interests: Unmanned Aircraft
  5. 5. Course Description• This 3-day classroom instructional program is designed to meet the needs of engineers, researchers and operators. Attendees will gain a working knowledge of UAS system classification, sensors, communications and data links• You will learn about military operations and the UAS weapon design and integration process. You will learn the process for UAS system design as well as methods for improving reliability• You will understand regulatory issues and civil airspace integration requirements including sense and avoid systems. You will learn the principles of how a UAS performs autonomous operations using intelligent control techniques• Case studies are presented for alternative energy designs and multiple UAS employment using genetic swarming algorithms• Finally, the bright future of UAS is discussed including space, pseudo- satellites, UCAS, BAMS and technology roadmaps
  6. 6. Why Are You Here• Senior military leadership: Improve planning, organization and training. Develop new doctrine and make force planning decisions• Pilot/Sensor Operator: Learn more about your job• Researcher: Develop new concepts & technologies• Engineer/Programmer: Design, integrate & test• Acquisition Program Manger: Manage new programs an upgrades to existing programs
  7. 7. What You Will Learn• Basic Definitions & Attributes • Civil UAS News, Civil Airspace Integration• Design Considerations & Life Cycle Costs • FAA Small UAS Rule, RTCA SC-203• ISR, Precision Strike, CAS, Air-to-Air • Civil Requirements, Equivalent Level of Safety• Global Hawk, Predator, Reaper • Collision Avoidance Sensors: TCAS, ADS-B, Optical,• Small UAS & Tactical Missions Acoustic & Microwave• UAS for Law Enforcement & Fire Mgt • Automatic Control, Automatic Air to Air Refueling• Sensor Resolution, EO/IR, Gimbal Pkgs • Intelligent Control, Genetic Algorithms• LIDAR, CRBN, SIGINT, SAR • Alternatives to GPS Navigation: Sun Trackers, Image• Multi-Spectral, Hyper-spectral Matching, Video match to Stored Images• Weather Effects, Tech Trends • Case Study 1: Alternative Power (Solar and Fuel Cell)• LOS & BLOS Fundamentals, Lost Link • Case Study 2: Multiple UAS Swarming• CDL, TCDL, Link 16, STANAG 4586, UCGS • Space UAS, Global Strike, Hypersonic Weapon• Reliability, Redundancy, Fault Tolerance, • X-45/X-47/NEURON/Taranis UCAS• Fault ID, Reconfigurable Flight Control • Submarine Launched UAS, Pseudo-Satellites• UAS Regulations, DoD Operations • High Altitude Airship, Global Observer • Future Military Missions & Technologies• Spectrum Allocation, Airspace Problems
  8. 8. Where Are We• Predator has become to the UAS world what Kleenex is to tissue• Predator synonymous with long dwell time and lots of capabilities• Technology is changing doctrine, centralized control is challenged• Airspace control system is stressed, not ready for 1000s of new UAS• Overstressed command and control system• Overstressed intelligence system, more data than it can handle• Lack of interoperability and low reliability, high mishap rate• Information is not connected, platforms do not talk to each other• Struggling with adequate staff to perform training, lack of UAS career path• Jointness is lacking, AF & Army overlapping UAS, different dictrines• Each UAS is a stovepiped system, operations, training & support• No long term strategy, buying UAS to fight, not decide how we fight
  9. 9. Where Do We Want to Go• Want more UAS, military wants 1/3 of vehicles to become unmanned• Want one pilot to control multiple UAS to reduce manning requirements• Want more armed UAS (UCAS) w reduced signatures for deep strike• Want to employ for different missions such as SEAD/EA/Deep Strike• Want swarms of UAS to make multiple unpredictable attacks on targets• Want UAS to file and fly in the NAS for development, test & training• Want more autonomy, change navigation, make decisions, reduce BW• Want data processing on-board vs high BW data link for ground processing• Want better reliability, fault tolerance, redundancy, adaptive flight control• Civil agencies want UAS to improve capabilities, law enforcement, fire mgt• Want to integrate all UAS into the NAS so we can “file and fly”• Want solar/fuel cell power pseudo-satellites for 5-10 year endurance
  10. 10. How Do We Get There• Lots of dollars, annual worldwide spending will reach $10 billion• R&D at military labs, commercial companies Universities, military ACTD’s• Increase processor throughput and memory storage, onboard processing• Develop standardized, reliable, jam resistant data links, increase BW• Add multi/hyper spectral sensors for chemical properties• Use AESA (BAMS) for air surveillance, integrate air-to air missions• Use phase data to improve SAR resolution to improve CCD (coh chg det)• Use LIDAR for FOPEN and chem/bio agent detection• Increase sensor FOV, WAAS, full motion HDTV video,• Smaller more lethal weapons with precision guidance, SDB• Alternative power, electric motors, solar/fuel cells, 5 year airborne time• Develop airworthiness standards, add collision avoidance systems for NAS• Improve adverse weather capabilities
  11. 11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems BasicsContact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  12. 12. Overview• Definition, Attributes• Manned vs Unmanned• Design Considerations• Acquisition & Life Cycle Costs• UAS Architecture• UAS Components – Air Vehicle, Payload, Data Link, GCS• Mission Profiles• Survivability
  13. 13. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Types & Roles 11Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  14. 14. Overview• Categories/Classification• Military Missions• Large UAS Platforms• Small UAS for Tactical Missions• Law Enforcement Small UAS Case Study• Example Civilian UAS Roles• Other Civil Roles
  15. 15. Categories Classification of UAS• By US Military Group • Bt Range/Altitude• By Location • By Performance• By Physical Size • By Capabilities• By Weight • By Type – Weight vs Altitude • Micro• By Endurance • Small – Endurance vs Weight • Medium Altitude Long – Endurance vs Altitude Endurance (MALE) – Endurance vs Payload • High Altitude Long Endurance• By Altitude (HALE) – Altitude vs Speed • UK Classifications• By Wing Loading • International Classifications• By Engine Type
  16. 16. Civil Roles Manned Aircraft High Passenger Transport PAV Search & Satellite Rescue Emergency Repair Response National Autonomous Infrastructure Automated Vehicle Construction Repair Highway Mission Illegal Activity Cargo Transport Monitoring Complexity Crime Scene Interior Inspection of Resource Investigation Pipelines Exploration Border & Drug Traffic Patrol Infrastructure & Fire Fighting Riot Control Agriculture Inspections Traffic Fertilizer, Pesticide, Fire Atmospheric, Geological, Retardant Application Monitoring Volcanic, Oceanic Monitoring Investigative Journalism of Low Comm Automated Remote/Forbidden Areas Relay Distribution Warehouse Low High Safety ComplexityMission Complexity: Low - Preplanned and/or simple operator interaction, readily pre-programmable Medium -Frequent near-real time decisions, compatible with machine decision logic Source: UAS Roadmap High - Numerous complex, real-time decisions / reactions by operator. 2011 – 2036 & Boeing Highly situation dependent
  17. 17. Law Enforcement Small UAS Case Study Home Invasion Investigation Scenario UAS 1: Falcon Fixed Wing Aircraft• Its early morning and the Sheriffs office receives areport of a burglary in progress• Lights and sirens erupt and deputies are enroute• The supervisor directs the deputies to set up aperimeter and assess the situation• Deputies are able to confirm a home invasion is inprogress and it has escalated to a barricaded subject Deputy Contacts Dispatch & Requests UAS Deputy Contacts Dispatch & Requests UAS• Dispatcher assigns UAS 1 to the call and notifies the UAS • Yellow lights flash and an alarm sounds on the roofoperator who’s on scene and he begins his mission plan • The UAS is launched in the direction of the incident and the• Target and ditch location and waypoints are saved UAS is aloft and headed toward the scene• Dispatcher activates an automatic notification system • The UAS operator confirms the launch and reports to thealerting the FAA and ATC of the intended UAS flight supervisor an ETA to the target location• Dispatcher heads to the roof, conducts a preflight and • As the UAS nears the UAS operator announces on UNICOMreports to the UAS operator that the Falcon UAS is ready that UAS operations will be conducted in the area• UAS operator states the mission plan is complete and asks • 15 minutes after the initial request the UAS appearsif there are any mission provisions from ATC • The UAS orbits overhead and units receive real time• Dispatcher reports FAA request to remain below 500 AGL infrared video on their individual computers
  18. 18. Unmanned Air Systems Sensors & Payloads
  19. 19. Overview• Electro Optical (EO) • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)• Infrared (IR) • Moving Target Indication (MTI)• Infrared Linescan (IRLS) • Signals Intelligence (SIGINT)• Multi Spectral Imaging (MSI) • Atmospheric & Weather Effects• Hyper Spectral Imaging (HSI) • Sensor Data Rates• Light Detection & Ranging (LIDAR) • Future Sensor Trends• Laser Radar (LADAR)• Chemical, Biological, Radiological & Nuclear (CBRN) Detection
  20. 20. Sensor Range Calculation Nomo graphs Uncooled 320 x 240 detector Cooled 320 x 240 detectorSource: FLIR 18
  21. 21. Black Body Radiation• All matter emits electromagnetic radiation. Thermal radiation is conversion of a bodys thermal energy into electromagnetic energy• All matter absorbs electromagnetic radiation. An object that absorbs all radiation falling on it, at all wavelengths, is called a black body.• A black body at a uniform temperature has a characteristic frequency distribution that depends on the temperature.• Its emission is called blackbody radiation. Planks Law If you measure the intensity and you know wavelength you can determine the temperature 19
  22. 22. Atmospheric Absorption/TransmittanceInfrared SpectroscopyAbsorbance = a*b*ca= molar absorbtivityb= path lengthc= concentrationT=TransmittanceA=log10(1/T)T=e-abc Near IR 0.78-3 microns Mid IR 3-5 microns Far IR 8-12 microns NWIR MWIR LWIRIR spectra are obtainedby detecting changes intransmittance (orabsorption) intensityas a function offrequency 20
  23. 23. Multispectral/Hyperspectral IR 21Source: Penn State
  24. 24. Global Hawk SAR Images Impact of two AC-130 weapons (bottom left and A Global Hawks all-weather synthetic aperture radar (SAR) right). The pinpoints of light between and above captured this message in Arabic that was bulldozed in the the two impacts are heat from campfires of Taliban Earth. Roughly, it means "have mercy" and an arrow points to lookouts (left) and associated cave entrances a nearby Iraqi military camp near Buhayrat Atn Tharthar (right). Enlarging the image shows people standing reservoir, where the soldiers had decided they were ready to around the fires. They finally stopped building surrender to advancing U.S. forces. "They knew we were campfires, but the sensors still picked up the heat watching," said an industry official. from individuals. 22http://sgforums.com/forums/1164/topics/56536
  25. 25. Space Weather ImpactsSource: USAF 23
  26. 26. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Alternative Power 24Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  27. 27. Overview• The Need for Alternative Propulsion for UAS• Alternative Power Trends & Forecast• Solar Cells & Solar Energy• Solar Aircraft Challenges• Solar Wing Design• Past Solar Designs• Energy Storage Methods & Density• Fuel Cell Basics & UAS Integration• Fuel Cells Used in Current Small UAS• Hybrid Power• Future HALE Designs
  28. 28. Propulsion ForecastUAS Roadmap 2005 - 2030 26
  29. 29. Solar Energy Irradiance Model• A good model of irradiance depending on variables such as geographic position, time, solar panels orientation and albedo was developed• The maximum irradiance I max and the duration of the day Tday which are depending on the location and the date, allows to compute the daily energy per square meter as depicted in ENERGY = I * T 27
  30. 30. Great Flight Diagram Statistics for 62 Solar Planes Mass ModelsIncreased weightmeans higher wingloading. Tocalculate thecorrespondingincrease in surfacearea. Solarpowered aircraftcloser to: 28 Source: Noth
  31. 31. Fuel Cells ComparisonSource: US DOE 29
  32. 32. Fuel Cells PEM• The Department of Energy (DOE) is focusing on the PEMFC as the most likely candidate for transportation applications• High power density and a relatively low operating temperature (ranging from 60 to 80 degrees Celsius, or 140 to 176 degrees Fahrenheit).• The low operating temperature means that it doesnt take very long for the fuel cell to warm up and begin generating electricityHydrogen is channeled through flow plates to theanode on one side. Oxygen flows through plates onthe cathode side. At the anode the hydrogen splits Anode side:into ions and electrons. The membrane only allows 2H2 => 4H+ + 4e-positive ions to flow through to the cathode. The Cathode side: O2 + 4H+ + 4e- => 2H2Oelectrons must travel through a an external circuit Net reaction:to the cathode creating an electrical current. At the 2H2 + O2 => 2H2Ocathode, the electrons and positive hydrogen ionscombine with oxygen to form water which flows outof the cell. When the hydrogen and oxygen is used Used on Apollo mission andup, the fuel cell shuts down. provided drinking water 30
  33. 33. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Com & Data Links 31Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  34. 34. Overview• Current State of Data Links• Future Needs of Data Links• Line of Sight Fundamentals• Beyond line of Sight Fundamentals• UAS Communications Failure• Link Enhancements• Common Data Link (CDL)• Tactical Common Data Link (TCDL)• STANAG 4586• VMF & Link 16 Integration• Latest Ground Control Stations
  35. 35. LOS Fundamentals Link Budget Analysis• Free space attenuation depends on frequency & distance• Free space attenuation (or loss) increases with frequency• The amount of free space attenuation can be computed using the following formula:• FSL = 36.6 + 20 Log (F) + 20 Log (D)• Where:• F = Frequency in MHz• D = Distance in Miles• Example: A 2.4 GHz 5 mile path• Log (2400) = 3.380211 (x20) = 67.604225• Log (5) = 0.698970 (x20) = 13.979400• Path Loss = (36.6 + 67.604225 + 13.979400) = 118.183625 dB 33
  36. 36. Link Enhancements Spread Spectrum Can spread original Narrowband BW 20 -1 000 times Signal WidebandNoise Level Signal Makes Signal LPI Digitized Signal Spreading Sequence Source: National Instruments 34 Adds ECCM or Anti jam or Jamming Immunity
  37. 37. Image Compression JPEG• JPEG is a lossy compression format conceived explicitly for making photo files smaller• JPEG stands for the Joint Photographic Experts Group, a committee set up in 1986• The baseline uses an encoding scheme based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)• Compression ratios are normally 10:1 Source:www.fileformat.info 35
  38. 38. STANAG 4586• Processes, procedures, terms and conditions for common military or technical procedures or equipment between member countries• The objective of this standardization agreement is to specify and standardize elements that will be implemented in the UAS Control System The main elements that this agreement covers are: – UAS Control System (UCS) Architecture (GCS = UCS) – Data Link Interface (DLI). – Command Control Interface (CCI). – Human Control Interface (HCI)• The UCS communicates with the UAS through message sets in a Data Link Interface (DLI) through the Vehicle Specific Module (VSM)• STANAG 4586 does not regulate HW, SW, design or material solutions – UAV systems manufacturers are free to implement design of software solutions while still being able to produce interoperable units 36
  39. 39. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Weaponization 37Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  40. 40. Overview• First UAS Air to Air Engagement• Limitations & Desired Characteristics• Desired Capabilities• Acquisition Process• 17 Design Considerations• Current Weapons on UAS
  41. 41. Weaponization Common Techniques for Reconfigurable Flight ControllersSource: Duchard 39
  42. 42. Weaponization 17 Design Considerations• Degree of Autonomy • Command & Control• Achieving Reliability • Communications• CONOPS • Sensors• Cost • Weapon Type• Vehicle Scale • Weapon Characteristics• Safety • Target Characteristics• Vehicle Signature • Targeting• Mission Planning • Defenses• Support 40
  43. 43. Hellfire• Anti-armor air-to-ground precision guided weapon• 47 kg / 106 pounds, including 9 kg / 20 pound warhead, range of 8,000 m• Laser guidance can be provided either from the launcher or another airborne target designator or from ground based observersSingle stage, single thrust, solidpropellant motor, arming occurs VIDEObetween 150 to 300 metersafter launch. Maximum velocity950 miles per hour.21,000 Hellfire IIs have beenbuilt since 1990, at a cost ofabout $68,000 each 41
  44. 44. Unmanned Aircraft Systems System DesignContact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  45. 45. Overview• UAS Design Process• Airframe Design Considerations• Launch & Recovery Methods• Propulsion Considerations• Communications• Navigation• Control & Stability• Ground Control System• Support Equipment• Transportation
  46. 46. Airframe Initial Weight EstimateBaseline design: Initialestimate of max takeoff wtTextbooks do not have emptyweight fraction chartWeight fraction:(empty/takeoff) obtainedfrom statistical data200 lb UAS = 120 lb empty wtChart is a regression for 30 Source: SobesterUAS currently in serviceThis fraction with estimates of fuel and payload weights can be used to compute a firstiteration of takeoff weight 44
  47. 47. Propulsion 3 Variable Plot 45Source: Sobester
  48. 48. Communications Antenna Types• Most common types – Quarter wave length diploe – Yagi – Parabolic dish – Lens antenna Source: Austin – Phased array microstrip• Quarter wavelength: vertically polarized. Receive antenna must also be vertically polarized. Angle differences = power loss• Ominidirectional, rapid power loss w distance, model aircraft• Yagi: One active element and rest are passive. Passive elements modify radiation pattern to keep the sidelobes low – Usually seen on rooftops for TV signals (500 MHz – 2 GHz) 46
  49. 49. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Improving Reliability 47Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  50. 50. Overview• Current State of UAS Reliability• Fault Tolerant Control Architecture• Fault Detection & Identification• Reconfigurable Flight Controllers• Non-Adaptive Controllers• Adaptive Controllers• Active System Restructuring• Reconfigurable Path Planer• Mission Adaptation 48
  51. 51. Predator Case Study• The Predator design evolved from a DARPA program (FY84–FY90).• In January 1994, the Army awarded General Atomics Aeronautical Systems a contract to develop the Predator system.• The initial ACTD phase lasted from January 1994 to June 1996.• During the initial ACTD phase, the Army led the evaluation program, but in April 1996, the Air Force replaced the Army as the operating service for the initial ACTD aircraft (RQ-1) (the “R” designates reconnaissance role)• The Predator was designed to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) coverage of a specified target area.• As an ISR platform, the Predator carried either an electro-optics/infrared (EO/IR) sensor package or a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) package.• In FY02, the RQ-1 migrated into MQ-1 (the“M” designates multirole) with the addition of a weapon-carrying capability. 49
  52. 52. Failure Mode Findings #2 This module will focus on improving Flight Control Reliability using Fault Tolerant Control SystemsSource: UAS Roadmap 50
  53. 53. Unmanned Air Systems Civil Airspace Integration 51Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  54. 54. Overview• Civil UAS News• FAA Civil UAS Roadmap• UAS Certificate of Authorization Process• AFS-400 UAS Policy 05-01• 14 CFR Part 107 Rule: Small UAS• NASA UAS R&D Plan• NASA Capability Needs & Technology Requirements• RTCA SC 203 52
  55. 55. FAA Civil UAS Roadmap Evolution• Accommodation – COAs for Public Operators – Experimental for Civil – AC 91-57 for modelers• Transition• Integration 53
  56. 56. COA Process Certificate of Authorization• In 1997 the FAA and DoD agreed upon and wrote the initial COA process• FAA amended Order 7610.4 Special Military Operations to implement the current COA process that is used by the military today.• Use and number of requests for UAS use has grown over the past 10 years• The increase has caused a backlog and slowed down the COA process• Need to examine the current process and determine how to improve• The Application for COA should be submitted at least 60 days prior• The FAA’s UAPO processes COA, determines updates or changes, either grants the request for a specified period of time, up to a year, or denies it• Granted to DoD and other public agencies operating UA in the support of: – National Defense COMPANIES WILL NOT BE APPROVED – Disaster Relief – Scientific Research – Technological Development 54
  57. 57. SUAS FAA Regulation 107• sUAS aviation rulemaking committee (ARC) proposed regulations• Begins comment & review process that could see a final rule in mid 2013• No COA required, Dayligt only, VMC, LOS, not over populated areas• Must establish com and notify ATC if operating with 10 miles of airport• Within 3 miles must notify the airport manager• Greater than 400 ft or 30 minutes must issue a NOTAM (24-48 hrs in adv)• Cant operated in special use airspace, on MTRs or Class B airspace• Need an observer if the pilot is in a shelter or heads down, or > 400 ft• Observer must have 2 way com with the pilot• Must yield right of way to manned aircraft, maneuver early to prevent collision, must be able to descend 50 ft in 5 sec (for avoidance maneuver)• Must monitor ATC voice com as instructed by ATC 55
  58. 58. UAS Autonomous Operations Unmanned Air Systems Autonomy & Alt Navigation 56Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUXJERRY LEMIEUX Contact: Dr Email: jllemieux@unmannedexperts.com Phone: 920-744-7154 Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  59. 59. Overview• Vision• Definitions• Autonomy• Automatic Control• Automatic Air to Air Refueling• Intelligent Control• Neural Networks• Bayesian Probability• Fuzzy Logic• Alternatives to GPS Navigation Systems 57
  60. 60. Automatic UAS AARDARPA/NASA program called KQ-X will perform UAS to UAS refueling 58
  61. 61. 59
  62. 62. Sensor Navigation Control System Desired Noise Sensor Noise state Wind Gusts estimate INS Error For simplicity, only X,Y parameters shown Drogue INS position, INS error and sensor noise Wind GustsMeasure positionbetween receiverand drogue Combines feedback from aircraft with feedforward from sensor measurements 60 to adjust UAS position Control Laws
  63. 63. Unmanned Air Systems Human Machine Interface 61Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  64. 64. Overview• Human Factors Engineering Explained• Heron Tour at Suffield, Canada• Human Machine Interface• Voice Recognition & Control• Haptic Feedback• Spatial Audio (3D Audio)• Synthetic Vision• CRM• Other Issues 62
  65. 65. Human Machine Interface Sensory Isolation of Operator• One of the most prominent HMI issues is sensory isolation from operator• UAS operators receive visual information from sensors• Imagery collected is limited in terms of range and quality• UAV operators do not have access to vestibular cues such as turbulence, weather conditions, aircraft movement and gravitational forces.• Turbulence: manned aircraft detects immediate, UAS operator may only detect after noticing perturbation of the delayed video imagery• Could result in a failure to detect and if the turbulence is severe enough, this could jeopardize the safe and effective control of the vehicle• MCE operators for the 2001 GH demo rated ability to detect and diagnose abnormal conditions on the UAS via the HMI as poor 63
  66. 66. Human Machine Interface Sensory Isolation of Operator• In 2002 one of the USAF GHs returning from a mission in support of OEF crashed after departing from controlled flight• Part of the rudder mechanism failed• If the failure had occurred on a manned aircraft, sensory feedback would alert the pilot immediately, may have been time to recover• Installation of multisensory interfaces may be beneficial• Tactile feedback: vibration on the wrists, forearms, or control stick• Force feedback on the control stick• Cockpit environmental noise and spatial audio cueing• AFRL project called “multimodal immersive intelligent interface for remote operation (MIIIRO)• Provides a sense of presence but needs more investigation 64
  67. 67. Improve SA in Urban Clutter 65
  68. 68. Unmanned Air Systems Case Study: Swarming 66Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  69. 69. Overview• UAS Swarming Concept• History of Military Swarming Attacks• Modern Military Swarming• Single Operator Multiple UAS Control• Swarming Characteristics & Concepts• Emergent Behavior• Swarming Algorithms• Swarm Communications• Latest Test Results from Boeing & JHU/APL 67
  70. 70. Swarming Algorithms Particle Swarm Optimization• UAS Application: Navigation /route planning• Mission Routing Problem (MRP): Start at a point, multiple UAS go through enemy territory defended by SAMs and AAA to get to the target and return• Objectives: Find the shortest path, minimize flight time, minimize the possibility of being detected or shot down by enemy fire and minimize fuel• Must meet the constraints of TOT, total mission time & optimize the path• Two problems: – Develop the flight paths to optimize cost and risk – Develop the path order• Cost: How much energy or time t takes to cover the path• Risk: How dangerous the flight area is (SAMs, AAA)• PSO has been shown to obtain the solution successfully and quickly• Other names: Vehicle Routing Problem, Multi-Criteria Aircraft Routing prob• Bird flocking is one of the best example of PSO in nature 68
  71. 71. Unmanned Air Systems Future Capabilities 69Contact: Dr JERRY LEMIEUX Email: jetdoc2001@yahoo.com Phone: 920-744-7154 SKYPE: JETDOC2001
  72. 72. Overview• Goals & Operational Issues• Future Platforms – Space, Hypersonic, Submarine Launched – UCAS, Pseudolites, BAMS, Others• Future Missions• Technology Needs – Airframe, autonomy, propulsion, interoperability – Processor speed & memory, sensor capabilities 70
  73. 73. Space UAS Reusable VTHL Space Plane FACTS • Looks and acts like a miniature unmanned space shuttle • Demonstrator: airframe, avionics, autonomous guidance • X-37A (2005 drop tests), X-37B (launch 2010) • X-37C for USAF @ 165 – 180% times X-37B size • NASA: Possible astronaut x 6 transport in payload bay • USAF: Could be used as satellite for ISR from space VIDEO SPECIFICATIONS• Manufacturer : Boeing with NASA/DARPA• Cost: $8 Million• Orbital Speed: 17,500 mph, LEO• Endurance: Up to 270 days• Ceiling: Low Earth Orbit (255 mi)• Length: 29 ft Wingspan: 15 ft Height 9.5 ft• Payload Bay: 7 x 4 ft• Loaded Weight: 11,000 lb 71 Source: US Army
  74. 74. Future Military Missions Ultra-Long EnduranceSource: Exploiting Unmanned Aircraft Systems 72
  75. 75. Questions Dr Jerry LeMieuxUnmanned Air System Expert 920-744-7154 jetdoc2001@yahoo.com
  76. 76. To learn more please attend ATI course Unmanned Aircraft Systems Please post your comments and questions to our blog: http://www.aticourses.com/blog/ Sign-up for ATIs monthly Course Schedule Updates :http://www.aticourses.com/email_signup_page.html
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