National Aeronautics and Space Administrationwww.nasa.govUnmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in theNational Airspa...
NASA’s Current UAS Operations• The Science Mission Directorate owns/leases UAS for the conduct ofscience missionso Wide ra...
Problem Statement, Goals, Objectives• There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vitalimport...
Airspace Integration Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Uncertainty surrounding the ability of UAS to ...
Standards/Regulations Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Lack of civil UAS standards, regulations, and...
Relevant Test Environment Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Lack of an adaptable, scalable, and sched...
Subproject Technical Challenge AlignmentAirspace IntegrationValidate technologies and proceduresfor unmanned aircraft syst...
UAS-NAS ProjectSSISubproject“Body of Evidence” DevelopmentInterfaceRTCAWG3DataPlanProject RTCA InterfaceProject FAA Interf...
Body of EvidenceRealization, Evaluation, and Transition• Continuous FAA & RTCA Involvement(Right Research, Right Methods, ...
SSI Technical ActivitiesAugmented the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) to model UAS operationsand sense-and-avoid...
SSI Technical Activities (cont.)Controller in the Loop Simulation Software Capability• Sense and Avoid (SAA) implementatio...
HSI Technical ActivitiesFirst Part Task Simulation: An Examination of Baseline ComplianceThe part task sim, which ran in F...
Communications Technical ActivitiesFirst Air-Ground Channel Propagation TestsGround verification testing, followed by a te...
Communications Technical Activities (cont.)Initial results from Dec 5, 2012 flight0.5 1 1.5 2x 104100110120130140150160170...
Certification Technical ActivitiesDraft Report on Perspectives on Unmanned Aircraft Classification forCivil Airworthiness ...
IT&E Technical Activities• Integrated a commercial off the shelf (COTS)(Garmin GDL-90) ADS-B onto a large UAS(Ikhana MQ-9)...
IT&E Technical Activities (cont.)• Leveraged existing LVC-DE infrastructureo Established a gateway at DFRC to connect toth...
StakeholdersPartnerships and CollaborationsAviation SafetyProgramAirspace SystemsProgramForeignOrganizationsAcademiaIndust...
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Uas nas uas symposium briefing sd

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Reference for Podcast #49. Air date May 29 at 1:00pm Pacific

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  • Slide builds – view in slide show
  • Results of this part-tasksim were documented in a paper published on October 22, 2012 – “UAS Integration into the NAS: An Examination of Baseline Compliance in the Current Airspace System”
  • The UAS communication ground station trailer was located at the NASA Glenn Research Center hangar ramp, and the aircraft was the NASA GRC S-3B. The transmitter was at the ground station and the receiver was onboard the aircraft. Data was taken simultaneously in L & C bands, to observe if there was similarity in the fading profiles.A total of 2,108,112 power delay profile data points were recorded. The total recorded time duration was 31 mins 52 seconds. The altitude of flight had a mean value of 2692 m, a maximum of 2778 m, a minimum of 2603 m, and standard deviation of 40 m. Channel Impulse Response (CIR)Tapped-Delay Line (TDL)
  • Estimated completion date for final report release – February 22
  • Uas nas uas symposium briefing sd

    1. 1. National Aeronautics and Space Administrationwww.nasa.govUnmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in theNational Airspace System (NAS) ProjectPresented by: Mr. Chuck JohnsonManager, UAS Integration in the NAS ProjectUAS SymposiumMarch 13, 2013
    2. 2. NASA’s Current UAS Operations• The Science Mission Directorate owns/leases UAS for the conduct ofscience missionso Wide range of science missions including hurricane tracking, fire sensing andobservations, hyperspectral environmental data collectiono Planned missions including measurement of polar ice melt and atmosphericparticulate data collection• Science missions are all successfully completed in the NAS using a COAo COA process has become extremely efficiento Resource and time required to acquire the COA has been significantly reducedo Some missions are limited by constraints of the COA process• The Aeronautics Mission Directorate develops and tests UAS technologiesin conjunction with external partnerso Partners include DARPA, AFRL, industryo Testing is conducted in restricted airspace• The Aeronautics Mission Directorate has established the UAS Integrationin the NAS Project to develop technologies for enabling civil access to theNAS2
    3. 3. Problem Statement, Goals, Objectives• There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vitalimportance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, andScience. There is also an emerging need to enable commercial applicationssuch as cargo transport (e.g. FedEx)Capitalizing on NASA’s unique capabilities, the project will utilize integratedsystem level tests in a relevant environment to eliminate or reduce criticaltechnical barriers of integrating UAS into the NAS• The project will develop a body of evidence (validated data, algorithms,analysis, and recommendations) to support key decision makers, establishpolicies, procedures, standards, and regulations to enable routine UAS accessto the NAS• The project will also provide a methodology for developing airworthinessrequirements for UAS, and data to support development of certificationstandards and regulatory guidance for civil UAS• The project will support the development of a national UAS access roadmap3
    4. 4. Airspace Integration Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Uncertainty surrounding the ability of UAS to interoperate in ATC environmentsand maintain safe separation from other aircraft in the absence of an on-boardpiloto Lack of requirements for Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems and theirinteroperability with Separation Assurance (SA) functionso Lack of standards and guidelines with respect to UAS display/informationo Lack of data to validate that civil frequency spectrum allocated during WRC12for UAS control and non- payload communication (CNPC) communications aresecure, scalable, and suitable for safety of flight operations• Project Contributions to Advance the State of the Arto We will analyze capacity, efficiency and safety impacts of SAA-equipped UAS in theATC environment to validate the requirements for SAA and SA/SAA interoperabilitythrough simulation and flight testso We will evaluate ground control station (GCS) system human intervention inautomated systems to inform and validate standards for UAS GCSs throughprototyping, simulation and flight testso We will develop a candidate UAS CNPC prototype system to validate that allocatedcivil UAS spectrum is secure, scalable, and suitable for safety-of-flight operations4
    5. 5. Standards/Regulations Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Lack of civil UAS standards, regulations, and guidelines for GCS design anddisplay of informationo Lack of validated regulations, standards, and practices for safe, secure, andefficient UAS CNPC including integration with air traffic controlcommunicationso Lack of safety-related data available to support decision making for definingcivil airworthiness requirements specific to the full range of UAS, or for theiravionics systems or other components• Project Contributions to Advance the State of the Arto We will determine the required information to be displayed in the GCS to support thedevelopment of standards and guidelines through prototyping and simulationo We will analyze integration of UAS CNPC system and ATC communications tovalidate recommendations for regulations and standardso We will collect and analyze UAS hazard and risk related data to support safety caserecommendations for the development of certification/regulation standards5
    6. 6. Relevant Test Environment Technical Challenge• Barriers Being Addressed by NASAo Lack of an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable operationally relevant testenvironment for evaluating UAS concepts and technologies Due to the constraints and safety implications, it is impossible to fully testUAS capabilities in the NAS Due to the requirements for the actual test environment, it would be costlyto locate all of the infrastructure required to validate UAS concepts in onelocation or range• Project Contributions to Advance the State of the Arto We will develop a Live Virtual Constructive – Distributed Environment (LVC-DE)linking national assets and capabilities required to conduct high-fidelity testing The nodes of this distributed environment will include NASA Dryden, Ames,Langley, and Glenn Research Centers; the FAA Technical Center; and, variousDoD entities (i.e. Pax River, AFRL, NORTHCOM) The nodes can be expanded to include other necessary entities such as NASAKennedy Space Center, NMSU, the six test ranges, other DoD ranges, etc.6
    7. 7. Subproject Technical Challenge AlignmentAirspace IntegrationValidate technologies and proceduresfor unmanned aircraft systems toremain an appropriate distance fromother aircraft, and to safely androutinely interoperate with NAS andNextGen Air Traffic ServicesCommunicationsPEJim Griner - GRCSeparation Assurance/Sense andAvoid Interoperability (SSI)Co-PEsEric Mueller - ARCMaria Consiglio - LaRCHuman SystemsIntegration (HSI)PEJay Shively -ARCCertificationPEKelly Hayhurst- LaRCIntegrated Test andEvaluationCo-PEsJim Murphy - ARCSam Kim - DFRCStandards/RegulationsValidate minimum system andoperational performancestandards and certificationrequirements and procedures forunmanned aircraft systems tosafely operate in the NASRelevant Test EnvironmentDevelop an adaptable, scalable,and schedulable relevant testenvironment for validatingconcepts and technologies forunmanned aircraft systems tosafely operate in the NASPE – Project Engineer7
    8. 8. UAS-NAS ProjectSSISubproject“Body of Evidence” DevelopmentInterfaceRTCAWG3DataPlanProject RTCA InterfaceProject FAA InterfaceFAAUASIODataPlanTestRequirementsUAS-NAS Project“Body of Evidence” Development8
    9. 9. Body of EvidenceRealization, Evaluation, and Transition• Continuous FAA & RTCA Involvement(Right Research, Right Methods, Right Deliverables)IHITLResultsReadinessDecisionsRequirementsFT3ResultsReadinessDecisionsRequirementsFT4ResultsReadinessDecisionsRequirementsSeparation Assurance/Sense and Avoid InteroperabilityHuman Systems IntegrationCommunications… Spectrum Studies, Candidate Communication Technologies, Prototype radio Flight Test, Simulations, Security Assessments …… Candidate Displays, Part-task HITL simulations, Scenario Development, Continuous Guideline Development…… Model Development, Fast-time and HITL Simulations, Scenario Development, Continuous Algorithm Improvement …Body ofEvidenceReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReportReport9PT-1 PT-2 PT-3 MR-1 PT-4FM-1 PT-5 PT-6FM-2A Fast-1 L Fast-1 A HITL-1 A Fast-2 L Fast-2 L HITL-1 A Fast-3Ch-1 Ch-2 Comm-1 Comm-2 FT Radio FT Sat-1 FT Sat-2 Comm-3 Comm-4 Lg Scale Impact
    10. 10. SSI Technical ActivitiesAugmented the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES) to model UAS operationsand sense-and-avoid systems in nationwide gate-to-gate ATC simulationsDocumented NASAUAS-NAS integrationconcepts according to• mission planning• trajectory-basedoperations• separation assurance• sense-and-avoidResults being published in Air Traffic Control Quarterly Special UAS Edition(May/June 2013)Showed slow-speed UAS may haveless impact on existing traffic thanfaster UAS17 newunmannedaircrafttypesGround controlstation, pilot,comm. link, SAAsurveillance andalgorithms10
    11. 11. SSI Technical Activities (cont.)Controller in the Loop Simulation Software Capability• Sense and Avoid (SAA) implementation concept developed and published• Sense and Avoid-Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (SAA-TCAS)interoperability analytical model developed and implemented• Control/Communication delay and UA performance models Implemented• Simulation capability developed and demonstrated• Controller in the loop experiment underway for data collection in FY13-1411
    12. 12. HSI Technical ActivitiesFirst Part Task Simulation: An Examination of Baseline ComplianceThe part task sim, which ran in Feb-March 2012, utilized Multiple UAS Simulator (MUSIM)and the Cockpit Situation Display (CSD) to achieve two main objectives:1. Examine baseline compliance of UAS operations in the current airspace system2. Examine the effects of introducing a traffic display into a UAS ground control station(GCS) on pilot performance, workload and situation awarenessMain results/conclusions:• Potential benefits to both Pilots and Controllers when a traffic display is present in theGCS evidence by significantly higher pilot situational awareness (SA) on severaldimensions and significantly lower workload for pilots when communicating with ATC• ATC reported appropriate and immediate compliance by UAS pilots, and comparablelevels of perceived workload and safety controlling their sectorPilot SAPilot Workload12
    13. 13. Communications Technical ActivitiesFirst Air-Ground Channel Propagation TestsGround verification testing, followed by a test flight in the airspace northwest ofCleveland during the week of Nov 19, 2012. Two additional flights were conductedon Nov 26, 2012 and Dec 5, 2012.Data is currently being analyzed, before flight testing is initiated at other ground sitelocations.LkktjkggsF tettttth k1)(00)())(()()()()()()();(LOS + Ground Reflection + MultipathCIR— TDL ModelFrom the collected Power Delay Profile data,statistical channel models will be developed fornine different environmental locations.LOSLOSGroundReflection MultipathLOSFlight tracks during datacollection on Dec 5, 201213
    14. 14. Communications Technical Activities (cont.)Initial results from Dec 5, 2012 flight0.5 1 1.5 2x 104100110120130140150160170180Tx-Rx distance (meter)PathLoss(dB)Free SpaceVertical FlatHorizontal FlatVertical CurvedHorizontal Curved0.5 1 1.5 2x 1048090100110120130140150160Tx-Rx distance (meter)PathLoss(dB)Free SpaceVertical FlatHorizontal FlatVertical CurvedHorizontal CurvedSignal loss (as indicated by the peaks) as well as signal gain (as indicated by the troughs) isobserved, due to the arrival of a combination of line of sight, ground reflection, and multipathsignals with different phases at the receiver at the same time.Understanding the environmental effects on the propagation of the two UAS communicationbands is critical to the development of UAS control communication systems which can becertified for use in the NAS.C-bandPath loss vs. Tx-Rx distance for analytical 2 ray modelL-bandPerfect Free-Space Loss14
    15. 15. Certification Technical ActivitiesDraft Report on Perspectives on Unmanned Aircraft Classification forCivil Airworthiness StandardsDocuments the subproject’s identification and examination of different approachesto classification of unmanned aircraft for the purpose of assigning airworthinessstandards.Identifies issues and implications for various approaches to UAS classification forairworthiness certificationObservations:• UAS classification for airworthinesscertification is complicated (more sothan obvious) Because much of the basis for existingaircraft categories is not directlyapplicable to UAS• Most UAS classification systems includeoperational dimensions and otherfactors in addition to weight This implies that some classificationaspects for UAS may be different fromthose used for manned aircraftAircraft class + weight largely determinesairworthiness standards for manned aircraft today15
    16. 16. IT&E Technical Activities• Integrated a commercial off the shelf (COTS)(Garmin GDL-90) ADS-B onto a large UAS(Ikhana MQ-9)o Full ADS-B Out and In functionalityo Unprecedented traffic situational awareness to UASpilots• Ikhana flight tests (Series 1) completed Mar 15and 20 for ADS-B Out and May 8 and 11 forADS-B Ino Collected ADS-B “as installed” performance flighttest datao Verified ADS-B Out met FAA Advisory Circular (AC)20-165 for ADS-B Out equipageo Valuable FAA Tech Center support with validateddata analysis tools• System Requirements Definitiono Completed the System Requirements Review (SRR)for an IT&E UAS Surrogate on Nov 2916Ikhana flight path as tracked by thenational ITT ADS-B SurveillanceNetworkAutomatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) Integration
    17. 17. IT&E Technical Activities (cont.)• Leveraged existing LVC-DE infrastructureo Established a gateway at DFRC to connect tothe LVC environmento Distributed data to Cockpit Situation Displays(CSDs) and to Air Traffic Control (ATC)workstationso Integrated Ikhana Pilot Simulatoro Established connection to the Flight MonitorServer live surveillance data feed at the FAATech Center• Flight tests (series 1) completed May 8 and11o Verified data exchange of live, virtual, andconstructive traffic information between allparticipantso Verified preliminary voice communicationsnetworko Informed the Team of refinements needed tomore accurately time-tag and record data• System Requirements Definitiono Completed the System Requirements Review(SRR) for the LVC-DE core connectivityarchitecture on Dec 1217Live Virtual Constructive Distributed Environment (LVC-DE)
    18. 18. StakeholdersPartnerships and CollaborationsAviation SafetyProgramAirspace SystemsProgramForeignOrganizationsAcademiaIndustryScience MissionDirectorateUAS Integration in the NAS ProjectStandardsOrganizationsOther GovernmentOrganizations andFFRDCs18telework time-stamptelework time-stamp

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