Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging either to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
Presentation on water pollution By :- Ashwin Betharia Vrushali Tijare Aparna Khapre Guided By Ashish Ghorpade(pdimtr) tqma2z.blogspot.com
Pollution Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms
Water pollution Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes , rivers , oceans , groundwater ). Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
Point source pollution refers to contaminants that enter a waterway through a discrete conveyance, such as a pipe or ditch . Examples of sources in this category include discharges from a sewage treatment plant, a factory , or a city storm drain
<ul><li>Non-point source (NPS) pollution refers to diffuse contamination that does not originate from a single discrete source. NPS pollution is often accumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants gathered from a large area. The leaching out of nitrogen compounds from agricultural land which has been fertilized is a typical example. Nutrient runoff in stormwater from "sheet flow" over an agricultural field or a forest are also cited as examples of NPS pollution </li></ul>
Measurement of water pollution <ul><li>Sampling </li></ul><ul><li>Physical testing </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical testing </li></ul><ul><li>Biological testing </li></ul>
Hard and Soft Water with Soap HARD WATER water which does not readily forms a leather with soap . This hardness is due to the presence of dissolved Ca ,Mg, in the water. Water without hardness is called SOFT WATER
Distribution of water on Earth WATER SOURCE PERCENT OF TOTAL WATER OCEANS 97.24% ICECAPS,GLACIERS 2.14% GROUNDWATER 0.61% FRESHWATER LAKES 0.009% INLAND SEAS 0.008% SOIL MOISTURE 0.005% ATMOSPHERE 0.001% RIVERS 0.0001% TOTAL WATER VOLUME 100%
Causes of water pollution <ul><li>The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals , pathogens , and physical or sensory changes such as elevated temperature and discoloration. While many of the chemicals and substances that are regulated may be naturally occurring ( calcium , sodium , iron , manganese , etc.) </li></ul>
Marine pollution Marine pollution occurs when harmful effects, or potentially harmful effects, can result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles , industrial, agricultural and residential waste , noise, or the spread of invasive organisms . Most sources of marine pollution are land based. The pollution often comes from nonpoint sources such as agricultural runoff and wind blown debris.
Direct discharge <ul><li>Pollutants enter rivers and the sea directly from urban sewerage and industrial waste discharges, sometimes in the form of hazardous and toxic wastes </li></ul>
Land runoff <ul><li>Surface runoff from farming, as well as urban runoff and runoff from the construction of roads, buildings, ports, channels, and harbours, can carry soil laden with carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and minerals. This have the potential to create hypoxic conditions by using all available oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>About 75 percent of the toxic chemicals that flow into Puget Sound are carried by stormwater that runs off paved roads and driveways, rooftops, yards and other developed land. </li></ul>
Ship pollution <ul><li>Ships can pollute waterways and oceans in many ways. Oil spills can have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil , are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. </li></ul>
Atmospheric pollution <ul><li>Another pathway of pollution occurs through the atmosphere. Wind blown dust and debris, including plastic bags, are blown seaward from landfills and other areas </li></ul>
<ul><li>Climate change is raising ocean temperatures and raising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. These rising levels of carbon dioxide are acidifying the oceans .This, in turn, is altering aquatic ecosystems and modifying fish distributions,with impacts on the sustainability of fisheries and the livelihoods of the communities that depend on them. Healthy ocean ecosystems are also important for the mitigation of climate change. </li></ul>
Acid rain <ul><li>Acid rain simply means the presence of excessive acids in rain water. It is one of the effects of air pollution .A large quantity of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide reach the atmosphere through the burning of coal,fuel-wood or petroleum products. These oxides reacts with water-vapour of the atmosphere and produce sulphuric acids and nitric acids which then return to the earth surface with rain water .Acid rain is defined as precipitation in which pH is below 5.6. </li></ul>
What is pollution prevention? <ul><li>Pollution prevention is source reduction and other practices that reduce or eliminate the creation of pollutants through the increased efficiency in the use of raw resources by conservation. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution prevention basic principle is that waste is the result of inefficiency,whether it is from management,production,material selection ,operation or from the organisation or society’s general culture. </li></ul>
Role of individual in pollution prevention <ul><li>Individuals can undertake a wide range of pollution prevention activities that offer environmental and economic benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>The extraction and use of raw materials creates pollution and uses energy . </li></ul><ul><li>By changing the way we use products and resources we can prevent pollution and often save money in the process. </li></ul>
MANAGEMENT OF MUNCIPAL SEWAGE <ul><li>Sewage is the waste water generated from residential areas and it generally consists of wastewater from kitchens, bathrooms, toilets. </li></ul><ul><li>A few commonly used terms associated with the waste water management are listed below: </li></ul><ul><li>Sewer </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Sullage </li></ul>
Management of municipal sewage <ul><li>Domestic sewage </li></ul><ul><li>Storm drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Outfall sewer </li></ul><ul><li>Sewerage </li></ul><ul><li>Dry weather flow </li></ul>
System of sewerage <ul><li>Combined system </li></ul><ul><li>Separate system </li></ul><ul><li>Partially combined or partially separate system . </li></ul>