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Power & Urban Space
 

Power & Urban Space

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    Power & Urban Space Power & Urban Space Presentation Transcript

    • Vedalaxmi Naik | Asawari Shinde I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • Case studies Conclusion Bibliography Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I Characteristic features of manifestations of power in urban space I Vedalaxmi Naik, Aspects in which manifestations are reflected in urban spaces Political Religious Social Economic Cultural Semester II 2012-14 Definition of Power Power and society Power and the common man Structure of power Impact of power on urban space Defining power and urban space Historic references of manifestations of power I Urban Design Introduction :
    • I • a state or country, especially one viewed in terms of its international influence and military strength • a person or organization that is strong or influential within a particular context • a supernatural being, deity, or force • To enhance the status of a specified group • physical strength and force exerted by something or someone I Vedalaxmi Naik, • authority that is given or delegated to a person or body Semester II 2012-14 • political or social authority or control, especially that exercised by a government I Urban Design • the capacity or ability to direct or influence the behaviour of others or the course of events Asawari Shinde I • the a b i l i t y or c a p a c i t y to do something or act in a particular way Power and Urban Space DEFINITION OF POWER Povoir (french 1300’s)
    • Power and Urban Space I •Military strength •Monetary superiority •Knowledge Ordinary •Common people SOURCE: Patel, P., City as an Imprint Of Power, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Dominant Semester II 2012-14 Imbalanced Society (INEGALITARIAN) I Urban Design Balanced Society (EGALITARIAN) Asawari Shinde I UNDERSTANDING IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIETY .
    • I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space COMMON MAN : Aam Aadmi And Power I
    • I (No society can function without divisions of functions and hierarchy) HIERACHY Power is constituted by subjugation and hierarchy entails subjugation. SOURCE: Patel, P., City as an Imprint Of Power, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. I Vedalaxmi Naik, DISTRIBUTION OF FUNCTIONS Semester II 2012-14 (As structure further leads to implication of control) I Urban Design CONTROL IS POWER Asawari Shinde I Power is inseparable and integral part of social structure that is formed within and of society itself. Power and Urban Space POWER AND SOCIETY
    • I Power and Urban Space MULTIPLE POWER CENTRES IN SOCIETY Equity - Balanced power distribution Hierarchy INCREASED INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES OF SYSTEMS Sharing of nucleus SOURCE: Patel, P., City as an Imprint Of Power, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. I Urban Design BALANCE OF POWER IN SOCIETY VARIES WITH TIME AND CULTURE Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, STRUCTURE OF POWER Apex – Dominance MULTIPLE POWER PYRAMIDS Competition Unbalanced power distribution Asawari Shinde I STRUCTURE OF POWER. :
    • Power and Urban Space I Building becomes an instrument of power; in its physical making, it expresses its strength, and becomes a player in the network of power in the city. focus and axis form and scale Semester II 2012-14 squares I Urban Design Built form is the lasting creation of mankind, it is an instrument for attaining immortality. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I IMPACT OF POWER. ON URBAN SPACE
    • I IN URBAN SPACE IS Physical manifestations of these happen with the motive of - Influencing the behaviour of masses (social regulation) - retention of authority - asserting of the superiority or moral high-handedness. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Power is the medium through which ideologies function, and how power is formed, captured, owned, traded, and distorted is central to an understanding of the ideology Semester II 2012-14 P o s s e s s i o n of control, a u t h o r i t y, or influence over others I Urban Design The imposition of order with the objective of control . Asawari Shinde I POWER Power and Urban Space DEFINING POWER AND URBAN SPACE
    • I Power and Urban Space Form Association Control Technology SOURCE: Naik, M., An Understanding of the early Colonial City : Manifest power as a Determinant of Urban form: The Case of Diu, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. I Urban Design Orientation Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Scale Asawari Shinde I TANGIBLE MANIFESTATIONS
    • I Power and Urban Space I SEGGREGATION (community, caste,Landuse) Asawari Shinde AGGRANDIZATION ( exaggerating the power in which it is manifested) I Vedalaxmi Naik, BELIEFS (Religious, social) Semester II 2012-14 LAWS AND RULES (authority deciding the rules) I Urban Design INTANGIBLE MANIFESTATIONS
    • Haussmann’s plan Paris, France - redefining identity I Power and Urban Space I Taj Mahal – Identity, iconic, scale Asawari Shinde Great wall of China – defining territory I Vedalaxmi Naik, Pyramid of Giza, Egypt – Form, shape and scale Semester II 2012-14 Citadel, Mohenjodaro and Ziggurats, palace and Hanging gardens of Babylon – physicality I Urban Design HISTORIC REFERENCES OF MANIFESTATIONS OF POWER IN DIFFERENT FORMS :
    • I Urban Design Citadel, Mohenjodaro and Ziggurats, palace and Hanging gardens ofBabylon – physicality Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Power and Urban Space I Asawari Shinde I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 I Urban Design Pyramid of Giza, Egypt – Form, shape and scale Citadel, Mohenjodaro and Ziggurats, palace and Hanging gardens of Babylon – physicality
    • I Urban Design Great wall of China – defining territory Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Taj Mahal – Identity, iconic, scale Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Haussmann - Paris France Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • Power and Urban Space I Economic Cultural I Vedalaxmi Naik, Social Semester II 2012-14 Religious I Urban Design Political Asawari Shinde I ASPECTS IN WHICH MANIFESTATIONS ARE REFLECTED IN URBAN SPACES :
    • I POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I A) Iconic / Monument / Focal Point Power and Urban Space Characteristic features : NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Power and Urban Space An axis may be symmetrical. But usually it is not. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 Often objects adjacent to a strong axis suffer in the relationship I Urban Design Terminus as a generator of axial movement Asawari Shinde I Characteristic features : B). Axis SOURCE: Urban design 1992 Batch, Role of Axis in Making of a Space, Urban Form and Space, Term paper, CEPT University, Ahmedabad POWER AND URBAN SPACE NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Power and Urban Space I Grid is imposed on the existing format. In nature we do not find right angles and straight roads. It is enforced to show the power. I Urban Design Ex : grid organisation Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Characteristic features : C) Organisation SOURCE: Dudhaiya,URBAN SPACE the Grid as organizational principles in architecture, Thesis, CEPT University Ahmedabad. POWER AND V., Evaluation of NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Entry to the lower caste person’s house through secondary/tertiary road Institutions Segregation amongst various classes •Control over height •Placements of the buildings •Plot Sizes Temple Haveli HEIGHT CONTROL SOURCE: URBAN City as POWER ANDPatel, P., SPACE an Imprint Of Power, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Lower caste residential house Semester II 2012-14 Entry to the higher caste person’s house through primary road I Urban Design PLANNING I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I D) Zoning and Spatial segregation Power and Urban Space Characteristic features : NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Urban Design POLITICAL POWER Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Power control the use of space. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Political power has been primary force behind expansion of urban centers and urbanity. Semester II 2012-14 Most manifestation of power are through physical structure. Earlier religious and now economic powers are expressed through the political system. I Urban Design Symbolic: Projection of an image to ensure loyalties and popular support. Extractive: Appropriation of the states resources. (Egypt) Distributive: dispense of material and non-material distributions. (Inca empire) Regulative: Penetration of personal and social activity. (Inca empire) Responsive: Outputs affected by demands from society. Asawari Shinde I Relation of political power and built form is through Capabilities: Power and Urban Space Power is generally exerted through the political structure, thus it is of primary concern while discussing the relation between power and city.
    • Examples: - Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi, INDIA Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I Power of Colonialism - Control by one power over a dependent area or people I Vedalaxmi Naik, Power of communism - Historical development of the productive forces (military, market, religion, democratic, political) Examples: - Red Square, Moscow, RUSSIA Power of Democratic Capitalist - Dynamic complex of economic, political, moral-cultural, ideological and institutional forces Examples: - Capitol Complex, Washington DC, USA Semester II 2012-14 Power of individual - Singular ruler - Religious ruler Examples: - Imperialism - Forbidden city, Beijing, CHINA - Vatican City I Urban Design FORMS OF POWER - POLITICAL
    • Capital Complex, Chandigarh, INDIA Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi, INDIA Asawari Shinde Capitol Complex, Washington DC, USA I Vedalaxmi Naik, Capitalist Semester II 2012-14 Unter Den Linden, Berlin, GERMANY I Power and Urban Space I POWER AND URBAN SPACE Red square, Moscow, RUSSIA Socialist iii. Colonialism Forbidden city, Beijing,CHINA Fascism ii. Democratic Imperialism Communism i. Single Ruler I Urban Design EXAMPLES OF POWER - POLITICAL NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Power and Urban Space Bigger grains and Low density POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 Moat Segregation I Urban Design Smaller grains , High Density Asawari Shinde I SINGLE RULER – Imperialism - Forbidden city, Beijing,CHINA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Power and Urban Space SINGLE RULER – Communism – Red Square, Moscow, RUSSIA I Facing the river – highly susceptible for attack. Asawari Shinde Open space for firing MARKET / RELIGIOUS DEMOCRATIC POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Urban Design MILITARY / POLITICAL Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Moat Market NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Power and Urban Space I POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I SINGLE RULER – Communism – Red Square, Moscow, RUSSIA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Power and Urban Space I POWER AND URBAN SPACE Semester II 2012-14 I Urban Design Style taken from Classic order. Hitler interpreted class architecture as symbol of power and implemented in Berlin I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I SINGLE RULER – Fascism – Unter Den Linden, Berlin, GERMANY NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Power and Urban Space I I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Radial planning superimposed on secondary grid pattern. Asawari Shinde DEMOCRATIC– Capitalist – Capitol Complex, Washington DC, USA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • I Power and Urban Space L'Enfant's plan was modelled in the Baroque style and incorporated avenues radiating out from rectangles, providing room for open space and landscaping.[His design also envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue“. Semester II 2012-14 POWER AND URBAN SPACE I Urban Design I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I DEMOCRATIC– Capitalist – Capitol Complex, Washington DC, USA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Power and Urban Space I POWER AND URBAN SPACE Semester II 2012-14 60% of land in central Washington – streets. Anticipated advent of vehicles I Urban Design The entire skyline is low, because of the building height restriction. The skyline of the surrounding building should not surpass beyond the height of White House. This makes the entire skyline low height. The streets were wide compared to the height, which makes the area green and airy. I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I DEMOCRATIC– Capitalist – Capitol Complex, Washington DC, USA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Chandigarh I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Capital Complex Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • Power and Urban Space I Source: The ConciseURBAN SPACE POWER AND townscape – By Gordon Cullen I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I COLONIALISM– Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi, INDIA NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • Power and Urban Space I 3 4 RASHTRAPATI BHAVAN 4 3 SECRETERIAT INDIA GATE 2 POWER AND URBAN SPACE 1 I Vedalaxmi Naik, VIEW AT POSITION 3 The sequence at axis of The Rastrapati Bhavan in New Delhi emphasizes the role of levels and screening in serial vision. For here what could simply have been one picture reproduced four times, enlarging the centre of the previous view and bringing us near to the terminal building, turns out to be four separate and unique views. This Bhavan acts as an enticer to the observer as he is gradually lead further. Semester II 2012-14 VIEW AT POSITION 1 2 I Urban Design 1 Asawari Shinde I COLONIALISM– Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi, INDIA Source: The Concise townscape – By Gordon Cullen NEHA MUNGEKAR |NIKHIL CHAUDHARY
    • • • Source: .Google earth I Asawari Shinde I Vedalaxmi Naik, • Semester II 2012-14 • The Tian'anmen square was designed and built in 1651, and has since enlarged four times its original size in the 1950s. Near the centre of today's square, stood the "Great Ming Gate", the southern gate to the Imperial City, renamed "Great Qing Gate" during the Qing Dynasty, and "Gate of China" during the Republic of China era. In the early 1950s, the Gate of China was demolished, allowing for the enlargement of the square. Used as a massive meeting place since its creation, its flatness is contrasted by the 38-meter (125 ft) high Monument to the People's Heroes, and the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong It is heavily monitored by uniformed and plain clothes policemen. I Urban Design • Power and Urban Space I TIANANMEN SQUARE
    • ` Tiananmen Square View of Tiananmen square and Forbidden city, Beijing, CHINA Source: .Google earth • • Shift in political power increase in shear length of place Democratic political set up changed the meaning I Urban Design ` Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Forbidden City Power and Urban Space I TIANANMEN SQUARE
    • Monument to the People's Heroes Chairman Mao memorial hall • • • The third biggest square in the world (440,000 m² - 880m by 500m) The ceremonial center of the People's Republic of China. In Chinese history, several important events performed in square I Vedalaxmi Naik, National Museum of China Semester II 2012-14 Great Hall of the people I Urban Design Tiananmen gate Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I TIANANMEN SQUARE
    • I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I TIANANMEN SQUARE View of Tiananmen square from Forbidden city, Beijing, CHINA Public gathering in Tiananmen square 1st October parade at Tiananmen square Built form at Tiananmen square I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 Source: www.flickr.com
    • I Power and Urban Space CAPITOL COMPLEX, WASHINGTON DC View of Washington monument Plan of Capitol Complex, Washington DC In 1901,formulated the McMillan Plan, an architectural plan for the redevelopment of the National Mall. The commission was inspired by L'Enfant 1791 plan for the city, which had not been fully realized. The members of the commission also sought to emulate the grandeur of European capitals such as Paris, London, and Rome. They were also strongly influenced by the City Beautiful movement, a Progressive ideology that intended to build civic virtue in the poor through important, monumental architecture. The National Mall is a unique National Park, filled with an intense concentration of monuments, memorials, museums, and monumental government buildings instantly recognizable to people all over the world. View of Capitol building White house Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Capitol building I Urban Design Washington monument Asawari Shinde I White house
    • 60% of land in central Washington – streets. Anticipated advent of vehicles I Power and Urban Space I Urban Design The entire skyline is low, because of the building height restriction. The skyline of the surrounding building should not surpass beyond the height of White House. This makes the entire skyline low height. The streets were wide compared to the height, which makes the area green and airy. Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I CAPITOL COMPLEX, WASHINGTON DC
    • I Inauguration by Barack Obama on January 20, 2009 facing west from the Capitol I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 The 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on the National Mall facing east from the Lincoln Memorial I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space CAPITOL COMPLEX, WASHINGTON DC
    • I Urban Design Parliament of India, Delhi Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Ambedkar Park, Lucknow Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design RELIGIOUS POWER Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design St. Peter’s Square, Vatican City Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • INCREASED INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES OF SYSTEMS Means of power •Aggrandization •Buildings used as instruments for religious aggrandization. •Visual domination •Allocation of activities – seggregation •Centrality I Power and Urban Space I Holy city as a center : a sacred city was generally part of a network, also connected with other places of religious importance on a pilgrimage route. Not only the city contains a network of holy places within it, but also at the apex of the network, all with varying importance form a pilgrimage route. Hindu imagination – it is constructed universe in religion. Islamic cities – organized around mosque. All the mosques facing the city of Mecca. Thus creating a centre within a network spread over the land. Large area of influence. Asawari Shinde Religion as a focus of all social activities. The impact of other powers is negligible or non-existent. I Vedalaxmi Naik, The religion responsible or influential on urban space can be discussed as, •Religion as the basis of social consciousness, social order, reflected in city – structural influence •Religion as supreme power in the city / region – Local influence Semester II 2012-14 As an Ideology, religion seeks centers around which the metaphysical world is ordered. All religions have a similar philosophy: religion sees the world as an ordered whole with a centre. I Urban Design RELIGIOUS POWER
    • I Mecca, Saudi Arabia I Power and Urban Space iii. Space around Islamic religious Institution Asawari Shinde Srirangam, Tamil Nadu, INDIA I Vedalaxmi Naik, ii. Temple Semester II 2012-14 St. Peter’s Square, Vatican City I Urban Design i. Church
    • Power and Urban Space I • • • • • • Pope – main dominant of power Strong cardinal axis Hierarchical segregation of spaces and approach towards the destination Large public gathering space Strong difference between built Vs Human scale Visual coherence 140 M Associated rules for defining Power 190 M Plan of St. Peter’s Basilica Semester II 2012-14 Image of Vatican city www.saintpetersbasilica.org I Urban Design Location map of Vatican city www.saintpetersbasilica.org I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I ST. PETER’S SQUARE, VATICAN CITY (1656-67)
    • I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • Pantheon www.romeitaly.ca I Power and Urban Space I Shrirangam www.divineindia.blog.co.in Asawari Shinde St Peter's Basilica, Vatican city www.saintpetersbasilica. org I Vedalaxmi Naik, Tool to read power of religion in urban form and space: - Geographical location - Ritual procession - Hierarchical approach towards the center - Symmetry of elements - Axis - Monumentality - Visual coherence - Relation between Earth and Sky Example: - St. Peter square, Vatican city - Mecca - Madurai Temple - Banganga Tank, Mumbai. Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, www.atlastours.net Semester II 2012-14 Power of religion: - Myth and belief - cosmic ideology I Urban Design POWER OF RELIGION AS GENERATOR OF URBAN FORM AND SPACE
    • I JERUSALEM, ISRAEL I Urban Design Segregation of space Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Jerusalem is a holy city to the three major religions — Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Power and Urban Space Religious / Social
    • I Power and Urban Space I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 I Urban Design Dome of rock Asawari Shinde I The Muslim Quarter is the largest and most densely populated quarter of the Old City. The quarter has changed hands many times from the 12th through 15th centuries, resulting in decay since the 16th century. It is one of the most fascinating and least explored parts of Jerusalem.
    • According to Islamic tradition, the rock is the spot from which Muhammad ascended to Heaven accompanied by the angel Gabriel. Further, Muhammad was taken here by Gabriel to pray with Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. After Muhammad's return, he called all who would believe him to join with him and be Muslim. I Asawari Shinde I Cosmic alignment and the orientation of the mosque – as a centre of the universe Power and Urban Space DOME OF THE ROCK 689 – 691 CE I Urban Design Mecca Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Jerusalem
    • I Power and Urban Space Asawari Shinde Focal point The Dome is not a mosque, but a shrine which protects beneath its high ceiling, a large piece of Rock sacred to Muslims, Jews and Christians. Monumentality and form I Urban Design Built over the Herodian mount after destroying the Herodian temple – dominance over other religion – proving supremacy of the Islam. Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Axis I Grandness of space
    • I Power and Urban Space Religious / Social I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 I Urban Design Until the mid-nineteenth century, non-Muslims were not permitted in the area. Since 1967, non-Muslims have been permitted limited access, however non-Muslims are not permitted to pray on the Temple Mount. Asawari Shinde I Scale and Location
    • I Power and Urban Space I Asawari Shinde I Vedalaxmi Naik, Semester II 2012-14 Associated rules for defining Power • Kaaba – main dominant of power • Notion of centre and cosmic universe • Sacredness of place • Circumambulation around the Kaaba I Urban Design Arial view of Mecca, Saudi Arabia
    • SOCIAL I Urban Design POWER Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • Semester II 2012-14 Asawari Shinde Priests and Acharyas I Vedalaxmi Naik, I Traders Power and Urban Space Shudras Srirangam Temple, India I Urban Design I SOCIAL POWER – Caste based
    • I Women restricted into garba griha Shabiramala temple, India I Urban Design Men allowed into garba griha Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space SOCIAL POWER – gender based
    • ECONOMIC I Urban Design POWER Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Power and Urban Space I Asawari Shinde Times Square, New York, USA I Vedalaxmi Naik, Post-Liberalisation Semester II 2012-14 Manek Chowk, Ahmedabad, INDIA San Marco, Venice, ITALY I Urban Design Pre-Industrial (Trade)
    • I Urban Design Times square, New York, USA Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Dubai Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design La Defense, Paris Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design San Marco, Venice Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Manek Chowk, Ahmedabad Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • CULTURAL I Urban Design POWER Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Kumbhmela, Allahabad Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Janmashtmi, Mumbai Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design Ganpati Visarjan, Mumbai Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I Urban Design World Disney, US Semester II 2012-14 I Vedalaxmi Naik, Asawari Shinde I Power and Urban Space I
    • I How can we incorporate such changes in design process and policies ? I Vedalaxmi Naik, Shouldn’t people themselves have the power in the making process of urban spaces? Semester II 2012-14 Do PUBLIC PLACES really need to be governed by hierarchies and segragations and economic differences, etc ? I Urban Design Shouldnt an urban space be more of a democratic character and hold the essence of its “publicness” ? Asawari Shinde I Should power really define an urban space ? Power and Urban Space CONCLUSION
    • I Power and Urban Space I Asawari Shinde • I Vedalaxmi Naik, • • • • Francis D.K.Ching; Form, space and order; second edition Barnow, F., City of the Divine king, (2001)Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Lynch, K., Good City Form, (1981), MIT Press, (Chapter 4, Three Normative Theories) Bacon, E. – Design Of cities (Revised edition), (May 1976), Penguin Group (USA) Patel, P., City as an Imprint Of Power, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad Urban design 1992 Batch, Role of Axis in Making of a Space, Urban Form and Space, Term paper, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Naik, M., An Understanding of the early Colonial City : Manifest power as a Determinant of Urban form: The Case of Diu, Thesis, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. Semester II 2012-14 • • I Urban Design Bibliography :