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02 el bus_comm_ch_02

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  • Presentation is like an iceberg, the delivery is only a tip. The major chunk is the time and effort spent in planning and preparing for the presentation.

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  • 1. Breaking barriers: communication in practice
  • 2. Identifying barriers
    • Communication is about overcoming barriers.
    State all the barriers that you can think of that impact on your day-to-day communication.
  • 3. Common barriers to communication: Table 2.1 Common barriers to communication: probing for ‘causes’ Message cannot be heard and visual aids cannot be seen by some members of the audience Physical Message not delivered due to technical failure Technological Message not available to a public sector organisation due to lack of resources Economic Message from internal stakeholder not sent because individual is marginalised Political Message from organisation misinterpreted by members of a particular group Cultural Message from external stakeholder ignored due to ‘groupthink’ Psychological Message in an internal report not received due to blindness. Physiological Practical Example Apparent ‘cause’
  • 4. Today’s Topics
    • Physiological barriers;
    • Social barriers;
    • Cultural barriers;
    • Ethical barriers;
    • Overcoming the barriers.
  • 5. Physiological Barriers
    • Physiological barriers to communication are those that result from the performance characteristics and limitations of the human body and the human mind .
  • 6. Human memory processes Figure 2.4 Human memory processes: a three-stage model
  • 7. Social, cultural and ethical barriers
    • Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity ; a process in which the norms, values and behaviours of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group.
    • Cultural barriers to communication, which often arise where individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviours to individuals associated with another group.
    • Ethical barriers to communication; these occur when individuals working in an organisation find it difficult to voice dissent , even though their organisation is acting in ways they consider to be unethical.
  • 8. Excessive conformity e.g. ‘groupthink’ ‘ Groupthink’ is a term introduced by a North American psychologist, Janis (1982), to explain an extreme type of social conformity occurring within close-knit groups.
  • 9. The symptoms of ‘groupthink’ (p.38) 2. Collective rationalisation of the problem, which discounts negative feedback and neutralises problematic information
  • 10. Cultural barriers
    • Cultures shape the way we think and behave .
    • They can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication.
    • Nations, occupations, organisations, teams and other social groupings , all share a tendency to develop distinctive cultures .
  • 11. The iceberg metaphor for culture Figure 2.5 The iceberg metaphor for culture Source : http://www.indoindians.com/lifestyle/culture.htm
  • 12. Culture and environment
    • Where are they?
    • What is above the woman's head?
    Robert Laws, a Scottish missionary working in Malawi, Africa, in the late 1800s: “The influence of culture and environment can have an effect on our visual perception. What you see will largely depend on where you live in the world.” 
  • 13. Barriers to ethical behaviour
    • Three communication-related barriers to ethical Behaviour in business organizations are:
    • ‘ moral silence’ , failing to speak up about issues that are known to be wrong;
    • ‘ moral deafness’ , failure to hear or attend to moral concerns raised by others;
    • ‘ moral blindness’ , failure to recognize the moral implications of actions.
    • (Bird 2002)
  • 14. Ethical choice (1) Your company has been a major employer in the local community for years, but shifts in the global marketplace have forced some changes in the company. In fact, the company plans to reduce staffing by as much as 50% over the next 3 to 5 years. The size and timing of future layoffs have not been decided, but a small layoff will certainly start next month. You are in charge of writing a letter on this issue. Your first draft is as follows: “ this first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.”
  • 15. Ethical choice (2) Your first draft is as follows: “ this first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” Your boss is concerned about the negative tone of the language and suggests the following sentence: “ this layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions.” Do you think this suggested wording is ethical?
  • 16. Ethical choice (3)
    • “ This first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” (Too Negative)
    • “ This layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions.” (Unethical)
    • The company should be as specific as possible without causing itself unnecessary damage.
      • “ Unless business conditions change, we anticipate further reductions in the future, but we are currently unable to identify the timing or extent of such reductions .”
  • 17. Overcoming Bias in Language Workers with physical disabilities face many barriers on the job Crippled workers face many barriers on the job Disability bias Jim Wong is very tall Jim Wong is an unusually tall Asian Ethnic bias Artificial; Manufactured Man-made Workforce; Workers Manpower Salesperson; Sales representative Salesman Gender bias Preferable Unacceptable Example
  • 18. Overcoming the barriers
    • Taking the receiver more seriously
    • Thinking more clearly about the message
    • Delivering messages skilfully
      • Focusing on the receiver
      • Using multiple channels and encoding
      • Securing appropriate feedback
  • 19. Summary
    • Communication failures are endemic , often resulting in significant costs and harm to the organisation and its stakeholders.
    • It is important to understand the underlying causes of communication failures, which may involve a range of factors : physiological, psychological, cultural, political, economic, technological and physical.
  • 20. Summary (continued)
    • Communicators need a basic understanding of physiological processes including differences in alertness, selective attention, powers of perception and memory, and their potential impact on communication.
    • It is also important to consider social and cultural barriers, including a tendency towards excessive conformity in social groups (‘groupthink’), moral silence and the complex issues arising from cultural diversity .
  • 21. Summary (continued)
    • In more general terms, barriers can be overcome by taking the receiver more seriously, and by thinking more clearly about the content, format and delivery of messages, including the use of multiple channels and forms of encoding.
  • 22. That's All for Today See You again
  • 23.
    • Communication is important because it is about how information is sent and received within firms
    • The way information is communicated is often governed by how firms are structured
  • 24. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 1. SEMANTICS
      • Definition of words
      • Choice of words
  • 25. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 2. POOR CHOICE, USE OF CHANNELS
      • When to use certain channel
      • Oral alone:
        • Simple reprimand
        • Settle simple dispute
      • Written alone:
        • Don’t need immediate feedback
        • Need record
  • 26. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 2. USE OF CHANNELS
      • Both channels:
        • Commendation
        • Serious reprimand
        • Important policy change
      • Nonverbal
        • Be aware of it.
  • 27. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 3. PHYSICAL DISTRACTIONS
    • 4. NOISE, PHYSICAL,
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL
    • 5. STATUS DIFFERENCE
    • 6. EFFECTS OF EMOTIONS
  • 28. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 7. PERCEPTIONS
      • Stereotypes
      • Halo effects
      • Selective perception
        • See and hear what we expect
        • Ignore if conflicts with “what we know.”
      • Projection
  • 29. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 8. FILTERING, SCREENING
    • NEGATIVE INFORMTAION
    • 9. EVALUATING THE SOURCE
    • 10.ABSENCE OF FEEDBACK, POOR FEEDBACK
  • 30. COMMON BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
    • 11. INFORMATION, DATA
    • OVERLOAD
    • 12. POOR LISTENING
      • LISTEN TO RESPOND
      • LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
  • 31. TO OVERCOME BARRIERS:
    • Learn to use feedback well.
    • Be sensitive to receiver’s point of view.
    • Listen to UNDERSTAND!
    • Use direct, simple language, or at least use language appropriate to the receiver.
    • Use proper channel(s). Learn to use channels well.
    • Learn to use supportive communication, not defensive communication .
  • 32. LISTENING WITH...
    • “ EXPERIENCE”
    • “ WHAT WE KNOW”
    • BIASES
    • STEREOTYPES
    • PERCEPTIONS
    • EMOTIONS
  • 33. LISTENING
    • LISTEN TO RESPOND
    • LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
  • 34. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND 1. RESTATE/REPEAT 2. PARAPHRASE 3. REFLECT FEELING 4. PARAPHRASE CONTENT AND REFLECT FEELING 5. SAY NOTHING
  • 35. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND Before I can walk in another person’s shoes, I must remove my own. Unknown
  • 36. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND ASSUMES WIN-WIN 1. ASK PERMISSION 2. ESTIMTE TIME LIMIT 3. STATE BOUNDARIES STATE WHAT IS NOT ACCEPTABLE 4. USE RESPECT, GENTLENESS 5. USE COURAGE
  • 37. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND ASSUMES WIN-WIN RESPECT COURAGE LOW HIGH LOW HIGH X
  • 38. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND ASSUMES WIN-WIN
    • BE DIRECT
    • BE CLEAR
    • BE SPECIFIC
    • BE HONEST
    • BE RESPECTFUL
    • BE TACTFUL
    • TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR YOURSELF
  • 39. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
      • WHEN YOU …………………..
        • (State observed action.)
      • I FEEL …………………………
    • (State feeling.)
      • BECAUSE I THINK …………..
      • (Thought that causes the feeling.)
      • AND I WOULD LIKE ………..
      • (Request for positive action.)
  • 40. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
      • When you meet me an hour after you said you would
      • I feel angry and hurt
      • Because I think you don’t care much about my job demands
      • And I would like you to call when you are going to be late.
  • 41. LISTEN TO UNDERSTAND
    • YOU’RE AN HOUR LATE!
    • YOU MAKE ME ANGRY!
    • YOU’RE ALWAYS LATE!
    • YOU DON’T CARE ABOUT MY
      • TIME/FEELINGS!
    • YOU MAKE ME SICK!
  • 42. NOT LISTENING?
    • AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL RESPONSES:
      • PROBE
      • GIVE ADVICE
      • EVALUATE
      • INTERPRET
  • 43. UNDERSTANDING?
    • I KNOW WHAT YOU MEAN
    • KNOW WHAT I MEAN?
    • I HEAR YOU
    • I’VE BEEN THERE!
    • YOU UNDERSTAND ME?
    • YOU HEAR WHAT I SAID?
    • YOU KNOW WHAT TO DO?
    • I KNOW WHAT YOU’RE TALKING ABOUT.
  • 44. “ FIXING” = LISTENING?
      • “ DON’T FEEL BAD.”
      • “ DON’T CRY.”
      • “ DON’T BE UPSET.”
      • “ YOU SAY THAT BUT YOU ALWAYS DO WELL.”
  • 45. Ten Rules for Good Listening Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule 1. Stop talking You cannot listen if you are talking. 2. Put the person at ease Help a person feel free to talk; create a permissive environment. 3. Show the person you Look and act interested; listen to want to listen understand, not to oppose. 4.Remove distractions Don’t doodle, tap, or shuffle papers; shut the door if necessary to achieve quiet.
  • 46. Ten Rules for Good Listening Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule 5. Empathize Try to see the other person’s point of view. 6. Be patient Allow plenty of time; do not interrupt; don’t start for the door or walk away. 7. Hold your temper An angry person takes the wrong meaning from words.
  • 47. Ten Rules for Good Listening Rule Listening Reasoning Behind the Rule 8.Go easy on argument Don’t put people on the defensive and criticism and cause them to “clam up” or become angry; do not argue- even if you win, you lose. 9. Ask questions This encourages a person and shows that you are listening; it helps to develop points further. 10. Stop talking This is first and last, because all other guides depend on it; you cannot listen effectively while you are talking. Source: Adapted from Human Behavior at Work , Fifth Edition, by Keith Davis. 1977.
  • 48. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION 1.Channels Congruent. Incongruent. “Oh, do I Verbal and non-verbal seem upset? No, everything channels must agree. is fine” - while obviously upset. 2.Descriptive. “This is what Evaluative. “You are happened and this is how I wrong for doing what you felt about it. I’d like to suggest did.” an alternative that would be more acceptable. 3.Problem oriented. “How Person oriented. “Why can we solve this problem?” are you so slow?”
  • 49. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION 4.Specific. “I felt like I did not Global. “You are always get equal time to cover my seeking all the recognition material in that presentation.” for our work.” 5.Owned. “I have decided Not owned. “You have a to turn down your request pretty good idea, but you because…” know how it is in this organization -- everyone can’t get everything they want.” 6.Validating. “That is an Not validating. “I can’t interesting suggestion.” believe you could think such a thing.”
  • 50. KEY CHARACTERISTICS OF SUPPORTIVE COMMUNICATION 7.Equality oriented. “I have Superiority oriented. some ideas, but do you have “Your suggestion is dumb. any suggestions?” This is the way to handle this problem.” 8.Flexible. “I have some Closed-minded. “What- questions, but let’s explore ever made you think that it further.” would work?” 9.Appropriately intimate. Overbearing or aloof. “ Since we have known each “I know we just met, but I other a long time, I’d like really need to tell you to tell you how I feel about something personal.” our relationship.”
  • 51. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION
    • STRUCTURE SHOULD FACILITATE, NOT HINDER
    • MANAGE INFORMATION FLOW
    • CLIMATE INFLUENCES
    • INTERGROUP INTERACTIONS, BARRIERS?
    • USE GRAPEVINE
  • 52. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • . . .
    • . . . .
    • .
    • . .
    • Y WHEEL, STAR
    • CENTRALIZED
  • 53. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
    • . .
    • . . . .
    • . . . .
    • CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL
    • DECENTRALIZED
  • 54. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS SIMPLE TASKS COMPLEX TASKS SLOW LESS ACCURATE FASTER MORE ACCURATE CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL Y WHEEL STAR Y WHEEL STAR CIRCLE ALL CHANNEL
  • 55.  
  • 56. Effective Communication
  • 57. Overview
    • Functions of Communication
    • The Communication Process
    • Communication Fundamentals
    • Key Communication Skills
  • 58. Functions of Communication
    • Control
    • Motivation
    • Emotional Expression
    • Information
  • 59. The Communication Process
    • Receiver
    Feedback Decoding Channel Encoding Source
  • 60. Communication Fundamentals
    • Direction:
    • Downward
    • Upward
    • Crosswise
    • Networks:
    • Formal vs. Informal
  • 61. Communication Networks Chain Wheel All Channels
  • 62. Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Filtering
    • Selective Perception
    • Emotions
    • Language
  • 63. Key Communication Skills
    • Listening Skills
    • Feedback Skills
    • Presentation skills
  • 64. Basic Communication Skills Profile
    • ________________________________________________
    • Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught
    • ____________________________________________
    • Listening First First Fourth
    • Speaking Second Second Third
    • Reading Third Third Second
    • Writing Fourth Fourth First
  • 65. Meaning
    • Listening Is With The Mind
    • Hearing With The Senses
    • Listening Is Conscious.
    • An Active Process Of Eliciting Information
    • Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions
    • Interpersonal, Oral Exchange
  • 66. Fallacies about Listening
    • Listening is not my problem!
    • Listening and hearing are the same
    • Good readers are good listeners
    • Smarter people are better listeners
    • Listening improves with age
    • Learning not to listen
    • Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker
    • Talking when we should be listening
    • Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said
    • Not paying attention
    • ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type)
    • Listening skills are difficult to learn
  • 67. Stages of the Listening Process
    • Hearing
    • Focusing on the message
    • Comprehending and interpreting
    • Analyzing and Evaluating
    • Responding
    • Remembering
  • 68. Barriers to Active Listening
    • Environmental barriers
    • Physiological barriers
    • Psychological barriers
    • Selective Listening
    • Negative Listening Attitudes
    • Personal Reactions
    • Poor Motivation
  • 69. How to Be an Effective Listener
    • What You Think about Listening ?
    • Understand the complexities of listening
    • Prepare to listen
    • Adjust to the situation
    • Focus on ideas or key points
    • Capitalize on the speed differential
    • Organize material for learning
  • 70. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)
    • What You Feel about Listening ?
    • Want to listen
    • Delay judgment
    • Admit your biases
    • Don’t tune out “dry” subjects
    • Accept responsibility for understanding
    • Encourage others to talk
  • 71. How to Be an Effective Listener (cont.)
    • What You Do about Listening ?
    • Establish eye contact with the speaker
    • Take notes effectively
    • Be a physically involved listener
    • Avoid negative mannerisms
    • Exercise your listening muscles
    • Follow the Golden Rule
  • 72. Feedback Skills
    • Positive vs. Negative Feedback
    • Positive feedback is more readily and accurately perceived than negative feedback
    • Positive feedback fits what most people wish to hear and already believe about themselves
    • Negative feedback is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a credible source if it is objective in form
    • Subjective impressions carry weight only when they come from a person with high status and credibility
  • 73. Developing Effective Feedback Skills
    • Focus on specific behaviours
    • Keep feedback impersonal
    • Keep feedback goal oriented
    • Make feedback well timed
    • Ensure understanding
    • Direct feedback toward behaviour that is controllable by the recipient
  • 74. Group Think
    • Phenomena in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action
  • 75. Presentation Skills
    • Ideas, concepts or issues talked about or spoken to a group or audience
    • Public speaking is one of the most feared things
    • “ I could make such a fool of myself”
    • Skills required to give a good presentation can be developed
    • Preparation is the Key
  • 76. Presentation Skills
    • Preparation/ Planning is the first step on the ladder to success
    • Aspects in the development of a good presentation
    • Self Centered (Self)
    • Audience Centered (Audience)
    • Subject Centered (Material)
    • “ I want (who) to (what) (where, when and how)
    • because (why)”
  • 77. Presentation Skills
    • Helpers
    • What do you want to present (content)?
    • Why do you want to present (purpose)?
    • Where will you be presenting (place)?
    • How do you want to present (words to be used or not, slides to be used)
    • Who is your audience?
  • 78. Presentation Skills
    • Preparation: Audience Analysis
    • What is the audience interested in
    • What does the audience want
    • What does the audience already know and needs to know
    • What are their needs, expectations from this presentation
    • How will the audience benefit from this presentation
  • 79. Presentation Skills
    • Structure the content in line with the audience’s needs
    • What do you want to tell the audience?
    • What is your objective?
    • Prepare keeping in mind the time allotted
    • Anticipate the questions and prepare
    • Collect material from a variety of sources
    • Arrange points logically and sequentially
    • Prepare handouts as well
  • 80. Presentation Skills
    • Structuring the presentation
    • 2 to 2.5 mins--- opening/beginning
    • 20 to 21 mins--- middle section
    • 2 to 3 mins --- closing/end
    • 5 mins --- questions
  • 81. Presentation Skills
    • The Begining
    • Should be carefully designed
    • Get attention
    • - shock, humour, question, story, facts &figures
    • - well rehearsed yet natural
    • Motivate audience to listen
    • - listen to their needs
  • 82. Presentation Skills
    • Preparation – Structure
    • Sequence should be logical & understandable
    • Interim summaries- Recaps
    • Value of visual aids-flip charts, handouts etc.
  • 83. Presentation Skills
    • Prepare Closing
    • Last 2 to 2.5 minutes are as critical as the first five minutes for a successful presentation
    • Summarize- highlight important points
    • Suggest action- what to do and when, where and how to do it
  • 84. Presentation Skills
    • Stage Fright
    • Everyone has it to some degree
    • Can be used constructively
    • Key issue is not elimination of fear
    • Instead channel the energy it generates for an effective presentation
  • 85. Presentation Skills
    • Effective Delivery
    • Be active - move
    • Be purposeful - controlled gestures
    • Variations – vocal (pitch, volume, rate)
    • Be natural
    • Be direct – don’t just talk in front of the audience talk to them
  • 86. Group Facilitation
    • Verbal Communication- barriers
    • Speaking too fast
    • Using jargon
    • Tone and content
    • Complicated or ambiguous language
    • Not questioning
    • Physical State of the audience
  • 87. Presentation Skills
    • Sensitivity to the audience
    • “ see” the audience
    • Take non-verbal feedback
    • -congruent and incongruent body language
    • Modify to meet audience needs
    • Don’t just make it as a presentation
  • 88. Presentation Skills
    • Handling Questions
    • Do not get confused
    • You are not supposed to know everything
    • Anticipate and keep answers ready
    • Sometime questions themselves give you a lead to highlight your point of view
  • 89. Presentation Skills
    • Visual Aids
    • While using a over head projector face the audience while talking
    • Point with a pen
    • Appropriate lighting
    • Watch the colours
    • Ensure clear visibility
    • 10 lines, 10 words per line
  • 90. Presentation Skills
    • So to conclude :
    • Always prepare
    • Channelize you fear
    • Interact with your audience
  • 91.  
  • 92. Business Communication BTEC Business
  • 93. Importance of Communication
    • Communication is important because it is about how information is sent and received within firms
    • The way information is communicated is often governed by how firms are structured
  • 94. Forms of Business Structure
    • Entrepreneurial - decisions made centrally
    • Pyramid - staff have a role, shared decision making, specialisation is possible
    • Matrix - staff with specific skills join project teams, individuals have responsibility
    • Independent - seen in professions where organisation provides support systems and little else
  • 95. Illustrating Structures 1
    • The Pyramid
    Traditional view of organisations Decisions pass down formal channels from managers to staff Information flows up formal channels from staff to management
  • 96. Illustrating Structures 2
    • Entrepreneurial
    Most small businesses have this structure One or two people make decisions Great reliance on key workers supporting decision makers Quick to act but pressure on decision makers Decision maker Key worker Key worker Key worker Key worker
  • 97. Illustrating Structures 3
    • Matrix
    Marketing Production Finance Project A Project teams created Staff with specialist skills Project B
  • 98. Illustrating Structures 4
    • Independent
    Dr A Dr B Dr C Dr D Support systems to professionals such as doctors Not suited to most businesses due to lack of control
  • 99. More on Business Structure
    • Centralisation
    • Managers keep control
    • Decisions are made in the interests of the whole business
    • Costs can be cut by standardising purchasing and so on
    • Strong leadership
    • Decentralisation
    • Empowering and motivating
    • Freeing up senior managers’ time
    • Better knowledge of those closer to customers
    • Good staff development
  • 100. Channels of Communication
    • Communication in organisations follows paths or channels
    • Communication between managers and subordinates is known as vertical communication
    • This is because the information flows up or down the hierarchy
  • 101. Vertical/Lateral Communication
    • Organisation chart shows vertical (black arrows) and lateral (green arrows)
    Finance Marketing Production Board of Directors Finance Officers Marketing Assistants Factory Operatives
  • 102. Channels of Communication
    • Channels between departments or functions involve lateral communication
    • As well as formal channels of communication, information also passes through an organisation informally
    • Communication is not complete until feedback has been received
  • 103.
    • Overview
    • Types of structures
    • Contingencies of organizational design
    • Organizational technology
    • Organizational environment
    • Organizational structure preferences
  • 104.
    • Defining organizational structure Organizational structure refers to the way tasks are divided up, how the
    • work flows, how this flow is coordinated and the forces and mechanisms that allow this coordination to occur.
    • The organizational chart cannot fully capture the organizational structure but gives us a place to begin when studying it.
  • 105. Two fundamental requirements of an organisational structure
    • 1. Division of labour into distinct tasks. Note that this leads to specialisation.
    • 2. Coordination of that labour so workers are able to work in concert to accomplish the organisation’s goal-s. Coordination occurs through:
    • Informal communication
    • Formal hierarchy
    • c. Standardisation
  • 106.
    • Forms of work coordination
    • Informal communication
    • Sharing information
    • High media-richness
    • Important in teams
    • Formal hierarchy
    • Direct supervision
    • Common in larger firms
    • Problems − costly, slow, less popular with young staff
    • Standardization
    • Formal instructions
    • Clear goals/outputs
    • Training/skills
  • 107. Elements of organizational structure
    • Organizational structure elements
    • 1. Department- alisation
    • 2.Span of control
    • 3.Formalisation
    • 4.Centralisation
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  • 123. Structure in an Organization
  • 124.  
  • 125. Aspects of external communication
  • 126.  
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