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  1. 1. Breaking Barriers: Communication In Practice
  2. 2. Identifying barriers <ul><li>Communication is about overcoming barriers. </li></ul>State all the barriers that you can think of that impact on your day-to-day communication.
  3. 3. Impact Of Communication Barriers: <ul><li>Message does not reach the destination. </li></ul><ul><li>Causes interruption. </li></ul><ul><li>Delay. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause misunderstanding and thereby increases conflicts. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause managerial & administrative problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Cause financial crises. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence communication goal is not achieved satisfactorily. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Today’s Topics <ul><li>Physiological barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Social barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational barriers; </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal & interpersonal barriers. </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming the barriers. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physiological Barriers <ul><li>Physiological barriers to communication are those that result from the performance characteristics and limitations of the human body and the human mind . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social, Cultural And Ethical Barriers <ul><li>Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity ; a process in which the norms, values and behaviours of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers to communication, which often arise where individuals in one social group have developed different norms, values, or behaviours to individuals associated with another group. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical barriers to communication; these occur when individuals working in an organisation find it difficult to voice dissent , even though their organisation is acting in ways they consider to be unethical. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Barriers to ethical behaviour <ul><li>Three communication-related barriers to ethical behavior in business organizations are: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Moral Silence’ , failing to speak up about issues that are known to be wrong; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Moral Deafness’ , failure to hear or attend to moral concerns raised by others; </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Moral Blindness’ , failure to recognize the moral implications of actions. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Mechanical Barriers <ul><li>Caused due to technical problems in mechanical equipment, loose connection mechanism, poor performance of light ,sound and voltages, Distance and Time etc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Psychological barriers: <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><li>Inferiority complex </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority complex </li></ul><ul><li>Negative attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Misconception </li></ul><ul><li>High degree of emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Absent mindness </li></ul>
  10. 10. Organizational barriers. <ul><li>Its include the complexity in the organizational structure, </li></ul><ul><li>Status and positions, </li></ul><ul><li>Policies, rules & regulations, </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong choice of medium, </li></ul><ul><li>Communication overload , </li></ul><ul><li>Fears of superiors. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Intrapersonal Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Varied Perception. </li></ul><ul><li>Differing Background. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong Inferences. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong Assumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Impervious Category. </li></ul><ul><li>Categorical thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Limited vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Incongruity of verbal & non-verbal message. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication selectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural variation. </li></ul><ul><li>Noise in the channel. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Memo from CEO to Manager : Today at 11o¶clock there will be total eclipse of the sun. This is when the sun disappears behind the moon for two minutes. A s this is something that cannot be seen every day , time will be allowed for employees to view the eclipse in the parking lot. Staff should meet in the lot at ten to eleven, when I will deliver a short speech introducing the eclipse, and giving some background information. Safety goggles will be made available at a small cost. Memo from Manager to Department Head : Today at ten to eleven , all staff should meet in the car park. This will be followed by a total eclipse of the sun which will appear for two minutes. F or a moderate cost, this will be made safe with goggles. The CEO will deliver a short speech beforehand to give up some information. This is not something this can be seen every day
  13. 13. Memo from Department Head to floor manger: The CEO will today deliver a short speech to make the sun disappear for two minutes in the form of an eclipse. This is something that cannot be seen every day, so staff will meet in the car park at ten or eleven. This will be safe if you pay moderate cost . Memo from Supervisor to staff : Some staff will go to the car park today to see the CEO disappear. It is a pity this doesn't happen everyday
  14. 14. Overcoming the barriers <ul><li>Taking the receiver more seriously </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking more clearly about the message </li></ul><ul><li>Delivering messages skilfully </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focusing on the receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using multiple channels and encoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing appropriate feedback </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Communication failures are endemic , often resulting in significant costs and harm to the organisation and its stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to understand the underlying causes of communication failures, which may involve a range of factors : physiological, psychological, cultural, political, economic, technological and physical, finding out the alternative solution for the same and then implementing it. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Summary (continued) <ul><li>Communicators need a basic understanding of physiological processes including differences in alertness, selective attention, powers of perception and memory, and their potential impact on communication. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also important to consider social and cultural barriers, including a tendency towards excessive conformity in social groups (‘groupthink’), moral silence and the complex issues arising from cultural diversity . </li></ul>
  17. 17. Summary (continued) <ul><li>In more general terms, barriers can be overcome by taking the receiver more seriously, and by thinking more clearly about the content, format and delivery of messages, including the use of multiple channels and forms of encoding. </li></ul><ul><li>****************** </li></ul>