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Supply Chain Management
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Supply chain management

  1. 1. 1<br />Basics of Supply Chain Management<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />Definitions<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturers<br />Warehouses &<br />Distribution Centers<br />Customers<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Material Costs<br />Manufacturing Costs<br />Inventory Costs<br />What Is the Supply Chain? <br />Also referred to as the logistics network<br />Suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, distribution centers and retail outlets – “facilities”<br />and the<br />Raw materials<br />Work-in-process (WIP) inventory<br />Finished products<br />that flow between the facilities<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturers<br />Warehouses &<br />Distribution Centers<br />Customers<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Material Costs<br />Inventory Costs<br />Manufacturing Costs<br />The Supply Chain<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturers<br />Warehouses &<br />Distribution Centers<br />Customers<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Transportation<br />Costs<br />Material Costs<br />Manufacturing Costs<br />Inventory Costs<br />The Supply Chain – Another View<br />Plan<br /> Source<br /> Make<br /> Deliver<br /> Buy<br />
  6. 6. 6<br />Plan<br /> Source<br /> Make<br /> Deliver<br /> Buy<br />What Is Supply Chain Management (SCM)? <br />A set of approaches used to efficiently integrate<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturers<br />Warehouses<br />Distribution centers<br />So that the product is produced and distributed<br />In the right quantities<br />To the right locations<br />And at the right time<br />System-wide costs are minimized and<br />Service level requirements are satisfied <br />
  7. 7. 7<br />History of Supply Chain Management<br />1960’s - Inventory Management Focus, Cost Control<br />1970’s - MRP & BOM - Operations Planning<br />1980’s - MRPII, JIT - Materials Management, Logistics<br />1990’s - SCM - ERP - “Integrated” Purchasing, Financials, Manufacturing, Order Entry<br />2000’s - Optimized “Value Network” with Real-Time Decision Support; Synchronized & Collaborative Extended Network<br />
  8. 8. 8<br />Plan<br /> Source<br /> Make<br /> Deliver<br /> Buy<br />Why Is SCM Difficult? <br />Uncertainty is inherent to every supply chain<br />Travel times<br />Breakdowns of machines and vehicles<br />Weather, natural catastrophe, war<br />Local politics, labor conditions, border issues<br />The complexity of the problem to globally optimize a supply chain is significant<br />Minimize internal costs<br />Minimize uncertainty<br />Deal with remaining uncertainty<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />The Importance of Supply Chain Management <br />Dealing with uncertain environments – matching supply and demand<br />Boeing announced a $2.6 billion write-off in 1997 due to “raw materials shortages, internal and supplier parts shortages and productivity inefficiencies”<br />U.S Surgical Corporation announced a $22 million loss in 1993 due to “larger than anticipated inventories on the shelves of hospitals”<br />IBM sold out its supply of its new Aptiva PC in 1994 costing it millions in potential revenue<br />Hewlett-Packard and Dell found it difficult to obtain important components for its PC’s from Taiwanese suppliers in 1999 due to a massive earthquake<br />U.S. firms spent $898 billion (10% of GDP) on supply-chain related activities in 1998<br />
  10. 10. 10<br />The Importance of Supply Chain Management <br />Shorter product life cycles of high-technology products<br />Less opportunity to accumulate historical data on customer demand<br />Wide choice of competing products makes it difficult to predict demand<br />The growth of technologies such as the Internet enable greater collaboration between supply chain trading partners<br />If you don’t do it, your competitor will<br />Major buyers such as Wal-Mart demand a level of “supply chain maturity” of its suppliers<br />Availability of SCM technologies on the market<br />Firms have access to multiple products (e.g., SAP, Baan, Oracle, JD Edwards) with which to integrate internal processes<br />
  11. 11. 11<br />Multi-tier<br />Suppliers<br />Wholesale Distributors<br />Consumers<br />Manufacturer<br />Retailers<br />Sales<br />Sales<br />Sales<br />Sales<br />Time<br />Time<br />Time<br />Time<br />Bullwhip Effect<br />Supply Chain Management and Uncertainty<br />Inventory and back-order levels fluctuate considerably across the supply chain even when customer demand doesn’t vary<br />The variability worsens as we travel “up” the supply chain<br />Forecasting doesn’t help!<br />
  12. 12. 12<br />Factors Contributing to the Bullwhip <br />Demand forecasting practices<br />Min-max inventory management (reorder points to bring inventory up to predicted levels)<br />Lead time<br />Longer lead times lead to greater variability in estimates of average demand, thus increasing variability and safety stock costs<br />Batch ordering<br />Peaks and valleys in orders<br />Fixed ordering costs<br />Impact of transportation costs (e.g., fuel costs)<br />Sales quotas<br />Price fluctuations<br />Promotion and discount policies<br />Lack of centralized information<br />
  13. 13. 13<br />Today’s Marketplace Requires: <br />Personalized content and services for their customers<br />Collaborativeplanning with design partners, distributors, and suppliers<br />Real-time commitments for design, production, inventory, and transportation capacity<br />Flexiblelogistics options to ensure timely fulfillment<br />Order tracking & reporting across multiple vendors and carriers<br />Shared visibility for <br />trading partners<br />
  14. 14. 14<br />Supply Chain Management – Key Issues<br />Forecasts are never right<br />Very unlikely that actual demand will exactly equal forecast demand<br />The longer the forecast horizon, the worse the forecast<br />A forecast for a year from now will never be as accurate as a forecast for 3 months from now<br />Aggregate forecasts are more accurate<br />A demand forecast for all CV therapeutics will be more accurate than a forecast for a specific CV-related product<br />Nevertheless, forecasts (or plans, if you prefer) are important management tools when some methods are applied to reduce uncertainty<br />
  15. 15. 15<br />Purchasing<br />Manufacturing<br />Distribution<br />Customer Service/<br />Sales<br />Low pur-chase price<br />Multiple vendors<br />Few change- overs<br />Stable schedules<br />Long run lengths<br />High inventories<br />High service levels<br />Regional stocks<br />Low invent-ories<br />Low trans-portation<br />SOURCE<br />MAKE<br />DELIVER<br />SELL<br />Supply Chain Management – Key Issues<br />Overcoming functional silos with conflicting goals<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />Supply Chain Management – Key Issues<br />Source: Simchi-Levi<br />
  17. 17. 17<br />Supply Chain Management Operations Strategies<br />Source: Simchi-Levi<br />
  18. 18. 18<br />Supply Chain Management – Benefits<br />A 1997 PRTM Integrated Supply Chain Benchmarking Survey of 331 firms found significant benefits to integrating the supply chain<br />Source: Cohen & Roussel<br />
  19. 19. 19<br />Supply Chain Imperatives for Success<br />View the supply chain as a strategic asset and a differentiator<br />Wal-Mart’s partnership with Proctor & Gamble to automatically replenish inventory<br />Dell’s innovative direct-to-consumer sales and build-to-order manufacturing<br />Create unique supply chain configurations that align with your company’s strategic objectives<br />Operations strategy<br />Outsourcing strategy<br />Channel strategy<br />Customer service strategy<br />Asset network<br />Reduce uncertainty<br />Forecasting<br />Collaboration<br />Integration<br />Supply chain configuration components<br />
  20. 20. 20<br />Value of Informationand SCM<br />
  21. 21. 21<br />Order Lead Time<br />Delivery Lead Time<br />Production Lead Time<br />Information In The Supply Chain<br />Plan<br />Warehouses &<br />Distribution Centers<br />Retailer<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturers<br /> Source<br /> Make<br /> Deliver<br /> Sell<br />Each facility further away from actual customer demand must make forecasts of demand<br />Lacking actual customer buying data, each facility bases its forecasts on ‘downstream’ orders, which are more variable than actual demand<br />To accommodate variability, inventory levels are overstocked thus increasing inventory carrying costs<br />It’s estimated that the typical pharmaceutical company supply chain carries over 100 days of product to accommodate uncertainty<br />
  22. 22. 22<br />Taming the Bullwhip<br />Four critical methods for reducing the Bullwhip effect:<br />Reduce uncertainty in the supply chain<br />Centralize demand information<br />Keep each stage of the supply chain provided with up-to-date customer demand information<br />More frequent planning (continuous real-time planning the goal) <br />Reduce variability in the supply chain<br />Every-day-low-price strategies for stable demand patterns<br />Reduce lead times<br />Use cross-docking to reduce order lead times<br />Use EDI techniques to reduce information lead times<br />Eliminate the bullwhip through strategic partnerships<br />Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)<br />Collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR)<br />
  23. 23. 23<br />Methods for Improving Forecasts<br />Judgment Methods<br />Market Research Analysis<br />Panels of Experts<br /><ul><li> Internal experts
  24. 24. External experts
  25. 25. Domain experts
  26. 26. Delphi technique
  27. 27. Market testing
  28. 28. Market surveys
  29. 29. Focus groups</li></ul>Accurate<br />Forecasts<br />Time-Series Methods<br />Causal Analysis<br /><ul><li> Moving average
  30. 30. Exponential smoothing
  31. 31. Trend analysis
  32. 32. Seasonality analysis
  33. 33. Relies on data other than that being predicted
  34. 34. Economic data, commodity data, etc.</li></li></ul><li>24<br />The Evolving Supply Chain<br />
  35. 35. 25<br />Supply Chain Integration – Push Strategies<br />Classical manufacturing supply chain strategy<br />Manufacturing forecasts are long-range <br />Orders from retailers’ warehouses<br />Longer response time to react to marketplace changes <br />Unable to meet changing demand patterns<br />Supply chain inventory becomes obsolete as demand for certain products disappears<br />Increased variability (Bullwhip effect) leading to:<br />Large inventory safety stocks<br />Larger and more variably sized production batches<br />Unacceptable service levels<br />Inventory obsolescence<br />Inefficient use of production facilities (factories)<br />How is demand determined? Peak? Average? <br />How is transportation capacity determined?<br />Examples: Auto industry, large appliances, others?<br />
  36. 36. 26<br />Supply Chain Integration – Pull Strategies<br />Production and distribution are demand-driven<br />Coordinated with true customer demand<br />None or little inventory held<br />Only in response to specific orders<br />Fast information flow mechanisms<br />POS data<br />Decreased lead times<br />Decreased retailer inventory<br />Decreased variability in the supply chain and especially at manufacturers<br />Decreased manufacturer inventory<br />More efficient use of resources<br />More difficult to take advantage of scale opportunities<br />Examples: Dell, Amazon<br />
  37. 37. 27<br />Supply Chain Integration – Push/Pull Strategies<br />Hybrid of “push” and “pull” strategies to overcome disadvantages of each<br />Early stages of product assembly are done in a “push” manner<br />Partial assembly of product based on aggregate demand forecasts (which are more accurate than individual product demand forecasts)<br />Uncertainty is reduced so safety stock inventory is lower<br />Final product assembly is done based on customer demand for specific product configurations<br />Supply chain timeline determines “push-pull boundary”<br />Push-<br />Pull<br />Boundary<br />“Generic” Product<br />“Customized” Product<br />Push Strategy<br />Pull Strategy<br />Raw<br />Materials<br />End<br />Consumer<br />Supply Chain Timeline<br />
  38. 38. 28<br />Choosing Between Push/Pull Strategies<br />Pull<br />High<br />Where do the following industries fit in this model:<br /> Automobile?<br /> Aircraft?<br /> Fashion?<br /> Petroleum refining?<br /> Pharmaceuticals?<br /> Biotechnology?<br /> Medical Devices?<br />Industries where:<br /><ul><li> Demand is uncertain
  39. 39. Scale economies are High
  40. 40. Low economies of scale</li></ul>Industries where:<br /><ul><li> Customization is High
  41. 41. Demand is uncertain
  42. 42. Scale economies are Low</li></ul>Computer equipment<br />Furniture<br />Demand Uncertainty<br />Industries where:<br /><ul><li> Standard processes are the norm
  43. 43. Demand is stable
  44. 44. Scale economies are High</li></ul>Industries where:<br /><ul><li> Uncertainty is low
  45. 45. Low economies of scale
  46. 46. Push-pull supply chain</li></ul>Books, CD’s<br />Grocery,<br />Beverages<br />Push<br />Low<br />Low<br />High<br />Economies of Scale<br />Push<br />Pull<br />Source: Simchi-Levi<br />
  47. 47. 29<br />Characteristics of Push, Pull and Push/Pull Strategies<br />Source: Simchi-Levi<br />
  48. 48. 30<br />Supply Chain Collaboration – What Is It?<br />Many different definitions depending on perspective<br />The means by which companies within the supply chain work together towards mutual goals by sharing<br />Ideas<br />Information<br />Processes<br />Knowledge<br />Information<br />Risks<br />Rewards<br />Why collaborate?<br />Accelerate entry into new markets<br />Changes the relationship between cost/value/profit equation<br />
  49. 49. 31<br />Retailers<br />Synchronized Production Scheduling<br />Collaborative Product Development<br />Suppliers<br />Manufacturer<br />Collaborative Demand Planning<br />Distributors/<br />Wholesalers<br />Collaborative Logistics Planning<br /><ul><li>Transportation services
  50. 50. Distribution center services</li></ul>Logistics Providers<br />Supply Chain Collaboration<br />Cornerstone of effective SCM<br />The focus of many of today’s SCM initiatives<br />The only method that has the potential to eliminate or minimize the Bullwhip effect<br />
  51. 51. 32<br />Benefits of Supply Chain Collaboration<br />Source: Cohen & Roussel<br />
  52. 52. 33<br />Supply Chain Collaboration Spectrum<br />Extensive<br />Synchronized<br />Collaboration<br />Not Viable<br />The green arrow describes increasing complexity and sophistication of: <br />Information systems<br />Systems infrastructure<br />Decision support systems<br />Planning mechanisms<br />Information sharing<br />Process understanding<br />Higher levels of collaboration imply the need for both trading partners to have equivalent (or close) levels of supply chain maturity<br />Synchronized collaboration demands joint planning, R&D and sharing of information and processing models<br />Movement to real-time customer demand information throughout the supply chain <br />Coordinated<br />Collaboration<br />Extent of Collaboration<br />Cooperative<br />Collaboration<br />Transactional<br />Collaboration<br />Limited<br />Low Return<br />Many<br />Few<br />Number of Relationships<br />Source: Cohen & Roussel<br />
  53. 53. 34<br />Successful Supply Chain Collaboration<br />Try to collaborate internally before you try external collaboration<br />Help your partners to work with you<br />Share the savings<br />Start small (a limited number of selected partners) and stay focused on what you want to achieve in the collaboration<br />Advance your IT capabilities only to the level that you expect your partners to manage<br />Put a comprehensive metrics program in place that allows you to monitor your partners’ performance<br />Make sure people are kept part of the equation<br />Systems do not replace people<br />Make sure your organization is populated with competent professionals who’ve done this before<br />
  54. 54. 35<br />Emerging Best Practices in SCM Strategy<br />
  55. 55. 36<br />The SCOR Model<br />
  56. 56. 37<br />Collaboration and the SCOR Model<br />The Supply-Chain Council (SCC) is a global, not-for-profit trade association open to all types of organizations<br />800 world-wide members<br />Multi-industry<br />SCC sponsors and supports educational programs including conferences, retreats, benchmarking studies, and development of the Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model (SCOR), the process reference model designed to improve users' efficiency and productivity<br />Promotes research and thought leadership in the supply chain management area<br />Adoption of common standards for reference to process, information and material goods flows is essential to enable trading partner collaboration<br />
  57. 57. 38<br />Process Reference Models<br />Process reference models integrate the well-known concepts of business process reengineering, benchmarking, and process measurement into a cross-functional framework<br />Best Practices Analysis<br />Process Reference Model<br />Business Process Reengineering<br />Benchmarking<br />Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results<br />Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance<br />Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state<br />Capture the “as-is” state of a process and derive the desired “to-be” future state<br />Quantify the operational performance of similar companies and establish internal targets based on “best-in-class” results<br />Characterize the management practices and software solutions that result in “best-in-class” performance<br />
  58. 58. 39<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Plan<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Source<br />Source<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Source<br />Customer’sCustomer<br />Your Company<br />Supplier<br />Customer<br />Suppliers’Supplier<br />Source<br />Return<br />Return<br />Deliver<br />Internal or External<br />Internal or External<br />SCORModel<br />Building Block Approach<br /> Processes Metrics<br /> Best Practice Technology<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />SCOR Structure<br />
  59. 59. 40<br />SCOR 7.0 Model Structure<br />Plan<br />P1 Plan Supply Chain<br />P4 Plan Deliver<br />P5 Plan Returns<br />P3 Plan Make<br />P2 Plan Source<br />Source<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />M1 Make-to-Stock<br />S1 Source Stocked Products<br />D1 Deliver Stocked Products<br />Suppliers<br />M2 Make-to-Order<br />S2 Source MTO Products<br />D2 Deliver MTO Products<br />Customers<br />M3 Engineer-to-Order<br />S3 Source ETO Products<br />D3 Deliver ETO Products<br />D4 Deliver Retail Products<br />Return Deliver<br />Return Source<br />Enable<br />
  60. 60. 41<br />SCOR Implementation Roadmap<br /><ul><li>Competitive Performance Requirements
  61. 61. Performance Metrics
  62. 62. Supply Chain Scorecard
  63. 63. Scorecard Gap Analysis
  64. 64. Project Plan</li></ul>Analyze Basis<br />of Competition<br />Operations Strategy<br />SCOR Level 1<br /><ul><li>AS IS Geographic Map
  65. 65. AS IS Thread Diagram
  66. 66. Design Specifications
  67. 67. TO BE Thread Diagram
  68. 68. TO BE Geographic Map</li></ul>Configure<br />supply chain<br />SCOR Level 2<br />Material Flow<br />Align<br />Performance <br />Levels, Practices, and Systems<br /><ul><li>AS IS Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps
  69. 69. Disconnects
  70. 70. Design Specifications
  71. 71. TO BE Level 2, 3, and 4 Maps</li></ul>Information<br />and Work Flow<br />SCOR Level 3<br />Implement<br />supply chain Processes and <br />Systems<br />Develop, Test, and Roll Out<br /><ul><li>Organization
  72. 72. Technology
  73. 73. Process
  74. 74. People</li></li></ul><li>42<br />Examples of SCOR Adoptions<br />Consumer Foods<br />Project Time (Start to Finish) – 3 months<br />Investment - $50,000 <br />1st Year Return - $4,300,000 <br />Electronics<br />Project Time (Start to Finish) – 6 months<br />Investment - $3-5 Million <br />Projected Return on Investment - $ 230 Million <br />Software and Planning<br />SAP bases APO key performance indicators (KPIs) on SCOR Model <br />Aerospace and Defense<br />SCOR Benchmarking and use of SCOR metrics to specify performance criteria and provide basis for contracts / purchase orders<br />
  75. 75. 43<br />Segment Analysis, Marketing Planning<br />Patients<br />Plan<br />Pharmacies, Hospitals, Doctors<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Source<br />Source<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Source<br />Source<br />Return<br />Return<br />Customer’sCustomer<br />Deliver<br />Your Company<br />Supplier<br />Customer<br />Suppliers’Supplier<br />Internal or External<br />Internal or External<br />Doctors, Hospitals<br />Marketing Data Suppliers<br />Marketing and Sales Functions<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />The SCOR Model As Context for This Course<br />Pharmaceutical sales and marketing activities have their own set of logistics related activities that can be fully described using the SCOR model<br />
  76. 76. 44<br />Plan<br />Plan<br />Source<br />Return<br />Return<br />Source<br />Return<br />Return<br />Deliver<br />Deliver<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Source<br />Source<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Source<br />Source<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Make<br />Deliver<br />Source<br />Source<br />Customer’sCustomer<br />Customer’sCustomer<br />Your Company<br />Your Company<br />Supplier<br />Customer<br />Supplier<br />Customer<br />Suppliers’Supplier<br />Suppliers’Supplier<br />Internal or External<br />Internal or External<br />Internal or External<br />Internal or External<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />Return<br />The SCOR Model As Context for This Course<br />Two interrelated “supply chains” work together to deliver drugs to market:<br />The Marketing and Sales “supply chain” which is principally information-based<br />The Logistics supply chain which is principally product-based<br />Sales<br />Manufacturing<br />&<br />Distribution<br />
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