Effective oral presentations


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Effective oral presentations

  1. 1. Effective Oral Presentations <ul><li>Determine the purpose: Inform /Persuade /Entertain </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the Audience & the Occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Select the main ideas for the Message </li></ul><ul><li>Research the Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Organize the data and write the Draft: Intro, Body, Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearse the Presentation (Thrice) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Delivery Options <ul><li>Extemporaneous (may use notes) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Impromptu </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Stage Fright </li></ul>
  3. 3. Voice <ul><li>Varying Pitch: Highness or Lowness of your voice. (Mary, don’t do that). </li></ul><ul><li>Rate: 80-160wpm. Pauses. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume: Loudness or Softness of voice </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Voice quality </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation: Don’t add or omit sounds </li></ul>
  4. 4. Speaking: Informative and Persuasive <ul><li>Informative: making an idea clear. Make it specific. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive: Gaining willing acceptance of your thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Search for unity in Title: General Purpose and Specific Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Process as Purpose: Topical or Chronological Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Policy as Purpose </li></ul>
  5. 5. Kinds <ul><li>Informative: Reports; Goodwill; Briefings (background information, options, pros and cons for informed decision); Instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive: Policy, Procedure, Value, Facts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Audience and Occasion <ul><li>Audience Analysis: So that chances of content or attitudinal errors are minimised. </li></ul><ul><li>When speaking before hostile groups, begin with areas of agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare agreements and disagreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul>
  7. 7. Organization <ul><li>Intro/Body/Conclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Intro: Porch/Aim/Layout (PAL) </li></ul><ul><li>Body: Topical, chronological, cause-to-effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solution format: 1) Establish the existence of the Problem, 2)Supply the remedy, 3) Benefits of Solution if adopted, 4)Negative consequences if not adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Inferences from date different from summary (reiterating what was covered). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Bases of good Oral Communication <ul><li>Ethos: your credibility as speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Pathos: using emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Logos: Using evidence and Reasoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Six forms of Support: Examples; Illustrations (elongated examples); Statistics (numbers); Quotations/Testimony; Comparison/Analogues; Definitions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Listening Problems <ul><li>Prejudice against the Speaker. Be cautious in drawing conclusions about others. </li></ul><ul><li>External Distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Premature Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Delivery Issues </li></ul>
  10. 10. Dictating <ul><li>Collect Info/ Plan for your specific purpose/ organize ideas clearly/ speak in a firm, clear voice more slowly than the usual. </li></ul><ul><li>More Instructions to the Steno: </li></ul><ul><li>Precise name & address to whom the message is to be sent </li></ul><ul><li>Speak clearly. Be careful with plurals </li></ul><ul><li>Spell unusual words/names </li></ul><ul><li>Suggest punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid side comments </li></ul><ul><li>Conclude by telling when you would need the recorded info and how you can be reached. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Meetings: Planning <ul><li>Kinds of Leadership: Authoritarian; Leaderless; Democratic or Participative. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the problem and Determine the precise purpose of the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Decide who should participate. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange for meeting Date, Time, & Place. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an Agenda (Facts/Values/Policy) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute the Announcement for the meeting. </li></ul><ul><li>Check on Physical Arrangements </li></ul>
  12. 12. Procedures during the meeting <ul><li>Begin with an Opening statement. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulate Discussion. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the Roles of the Participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret data for Solution Evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>State the Major Conclusions and Plan of Action. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up: Secretaries take minutes; chairpersons check for accuracy. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Participant Roles <ul><li>Organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Clarifier </li></ul><ul><li>Questioner </li></ul><ul><li>Factual Contributor </li></ul><ul><li>Energizer </li></ul><ul><li>Idea Creator </li></ul><ul><li>Critical Tester </li></ul><ul><li>Conciliator </li></ul><ul><li>Helper of Others </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dealing with <ul><li>The reticent, non-participating member </li></ul><ul><li>The Know-it-All </li></ul><ul><li>The Long-winded speaker </li></ul><ul><li>The Erroneous Member </li></ul><ul><li>One who shows personal animosity </li></ul>