European Union


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A short history of EU.
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  • European Union Learn about the history and economic operation of the European Union.
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European Union

  1. 2. <ul><li>The European Union has gone through many incarnations since its origins fifty-seven years ago. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Reichstag, 1945 Frankfurter Allee, 1945 A Climate for Radical Change:
  3. 4. A Climate for Radical Change: Rotterdam, 1940
  4. 5. A Climate for Radical Change: London 1940
  5. 6. <ul><li>The European Union is based on the rule of law and democracy. It is neither a new State replacing existing ones nor is it comparable to other international organizations. Its Member States delegate sovereignty to common institutions representing the interests of the Union as a whole on questions of joint interest. All decisions and procedures are derived from the basic treaties ratified by the Member States. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>The European Union (EU) is a political and economic community of twenty-seven member states , located primarily in Europe . It was established in 1993 by the Treaty of Maastricht , adding new areas of policy to the existing European Community . With almost 500 million citizens, the EU combined generates an estimated 30% share of the world's nominal gross domestic product ( US$ 16.6 trillion) in 2007. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Single Market <ul><li>Based on Four Freedoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement of goods; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement of capital; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement of persons; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free movement of services. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GDP boosted by nearly €900 billion over 10 year period 1992-2002 (over $1 trillion) and 2.5 million jobs created from the single market alone. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>West Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>To continue to improve Europe’s economy by </li></ul><ul><li>regulating trade and commerce. </li></ul><ul><li>To form a single market for Europe's </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As these goals were accomplished, other </li></ul><ul><li>goals were developed: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental movements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory acts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human rights concerns. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Establish European Citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure freedom, security, and justice </li></ul><ul><li>Promote economic and social progress </li></ul><ul><li>Assert Europe’s role in the world </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Neighborhood Policy: invites our neighbors to the East and to the South to share in the peace, stability and prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Donating to more than 160 countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leading donor for emergency & humanitarian aid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals: poverty reduction, long-term development, institution building </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strong supporter of effective </li></ul><ul><li>multilateralism: active role in WTO, UN, G8 </li></ul><ul><li>Trade: the European Union's 25 members represent just 7% of the world's population, but they account for more than a fifth of global imports and exports. </li></ul>
  12. 13. 1950 2008 April 1951 European Coal and Steel Community French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman and French Businessman Jean Monnet I. A Brief History of the European Union
  13. 14. March 1957 Rome Treaties European Economic Community (EEC) European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  14. 15. 1973 United Kingdom, Ireland and Demark I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  15. 16. 1981 Greece I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  16. 17. 1986 Spain and Portugal I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008 Same year: the “Single European Act” was signed, revising the Treaty of Rome and re-launching European integration
  17. 18. 1992 “ Deadline” for completing the single market (Dec. 31, 1992) I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  18. 19. <ul><li>1992 </li></ul><ul><li>The Maastricht Treaty was ratified, which rechartered the EC as the European Union . </li></ul>
  19. 20. 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  20. 21. 1993 Maastricht Treaty 1 2 3 TREATIES I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008 Treaty of European Union Established 3 pillars of Cooperation : Economic, Political, Judicial
  21. 22. 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  22. 23. 1999 EURO launched I. A Brief History of the European Union 1950 2008
  23. 24. European Court of Justice 25 judges European Parliament 732 members European Commission 25 Commissioners European Council 15 Heads of State or government and the President of the Commission Council of the EU 15 ministers European Court of Justice 15 ministers European Parliament 626 members European Commission 20 Commissioners European Investment Bank European Central Bank Court of Auditors 25 members Committee of The Regions 317 members Econ. & Social Committee 317 members European Council 25 Heads of State or government and the President of the Commission Council of the EU 25 ministers
  24. 25. European Commission Council of the EU European Parliament
  25. 26. <ul><li>Legislative Powers (with Parliament) </li></ul><ul><li>Co-ordinate economic policies </li></ul><ul><li>External agreements </li></ul><ul><li>Approves EU budget (with Parliament) </li></ul><ul><li>Common Foreign and </li></ul><ul><li>Security Policy (CFSP) </li></ul><ul><li>Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) </li></ul>Council of the EU session
  26. 27. <ul><li>Members elected every 5 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>625 members as of July 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three essential functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislate laws along w/ Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budget authority along w/ Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision of Commission </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Composed of the head of each member country (Prime Minster/President, etc) & the President of the EU Commission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 Minister acts as President, rotating twice yearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 meetings a year, in President’s country </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main decision making body of the EU </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation & budgetary policies along w/ Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International agreements </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Embodies and upholds the general interest of the Union. </li></ul><ul><li>20 members: 1 President, 2 vice-Presidents & 17 Commissioners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected every 5 years by the Member States after they have been approved by the European Parliament. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As the EU’s executive body, it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drafts legislation for Parliament & Council; Implements legislation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardian of treaties, along with Court of Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represents EU internationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the 15 EU agencies </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Proposes legislation to Parliament and the Council. </li></ul><ul><li>Manages and implements EU policies and the budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Enforces European law (with the Court of Justice). </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the EU in external relations </li></ul>European Commission President Jose-Manuel Barroso
  30. 31. <ul><li>President is appointed </li></ul><ul><li>(not elected) by the </li></ul><ul><li>EU Council for a 5-year </li></ul><ul><li>term and confirmed </li></ul><ul><li>by Parliament. </li></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>15 judges and 8 advocate generals appointed </li></ul><ul><li>by member states for 6 year terms. </li></ul><ul><li>The Court of Justice ensures that Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>law is uniformly interpreted and effectively applied. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It has jurisdiction in disputes involving Member States, EU institutions, businesses and individuals </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Brussels, Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Selected as the headquarters of the European Union because of its centralized location in Europe. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>1. Enlargement: </li></ul><ul><li>* Ten countries joined the EU in 2004, making 27 countries total. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Euro: </li></ul><ul><li>*The Common Currency for the EU Countries. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Multilingualism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*20 official languages (as of 2004) for 27 countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Openness, Access and Transparency: </li></ul><ul><li>* How to get the documents to the people? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Safety & security of Europe: </li></ul><ul><li>*Against terrorism. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>country - date of EU application </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus - 3 July 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Malta - 16 July 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary - 31 March 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Poland - 5 April 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia - 27 June 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia - 13 October 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia - 24 November 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania - 8 December 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic - 17 January 1996 </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia - 10 June 1996 </li></ul>
  35. 37. <ul><li>country - date of EU application </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey - 14 April 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Croatia - 2003 </li></ul>
  36. 38. <ul><li>27 CURRENT EU COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>Bulgaria </li></ul><ul><li>Czech Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Cyprus </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>Finland </li></ul><ul><li>France </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Latvia </li></ul><ul><li>Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>Luxembourg </li></ul><ul><li>Malta </li></ul><ul><li>The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul><ul><li>Romania </li></ul><ul><li>Slovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Slovenia </li></ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul>
  37. 39. <ul><li>Norway has never been a member of the EU, but is ‘partners’ with EU for certain economic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Their economy has historically been very good and they had no desire to ‘merge’ with lesser economies. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2002, the Norwegian economy began to decline. There is a now a developing majority of Norwegian that want Norway to join the EU. </li></ul>
  38. 40. <ul><li>Switzerland has </li></ul><ul><li>never been a </li></ul><ul><li>member of the EU, </li></ul><ul><li>but is ‘partners’ </li></ul><ul><li>with EU for certain </li></ul><ul><li>economic reasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Switzerland </li></ul><ul><li>Just joined </li></ul><ul><li>UN in 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss Government want Switzerland to join for </li></ul><ul><li>economic reasons but the Swiss people continue to </li></ul><ul><li>vote against joining the EU. </li></ul>
  39. 41. <ul><li>The euro – Europe's new single currency - represents the consolidation and culmination of European economic integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Its introduction on January 1, 1999, marked the final phase of Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), a three-stage process that was launched in 1990 as EU member states prepared for the 1992 single market. </li></ul>
  40. 42. <ul><li>1990: Aimed at boosting cross-border business activity, the first stage of EMU lifted restrictions on movements of capital across internal EU borders. </li></ul><ul><li>1994: The European Monetary Institute was established in Frankfurt to pave the way for the European Central Bank. </li></ul><ul><li>1999: the Euro was introduced as the single currency for eleven EU member states: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain. </li></ul>
  41. 43. <ul><li>1999-2002: The Euro and the previous national currencies were concurrently used in participating states. </li></ul><ul><li>2002: The participating countries had their previous national currencies withdrawn permanently as legal tender. </li></ul><ul><li>EU member states not yet using the Euro as currency: Denmark, Greece, Sweden, United Kingdom </li></ul>
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