Complications of Rhinosinusitis  Xavier Vega-Cordova, M.D. Division of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds SIU-SOM October, 1 st  ...
Objectives <ul><li>Describe the orbital, intracranial, and bony complications of rhinosinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Define ...
Case <ul><li>13-month-old Caucasian male. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent of right preseptal cellulitis 3 weeks prior that re...
CT scan
CT scan
Rhinosinusitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the mucosal lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute, suba...
Complications <ul><li>Complications of rhinosinusitis range from relatively benign to potentially fatal. </li></ul><ul><li...
CT or MRI? <ul><li>Computed tomography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish technique for evaluating patients with sinusitis. <...
Younis RT, et al.  [4] <ul><li>Retrospective chart review of  82  patients with complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Orbital complications <ul><li>The orbit is the structure most commonly involved in complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><l...
Herrmann BW, et al.  [5] <ul><li>Chart review of  74  pediatric patients with orbital complications of sinusitis. </li></u...
Anatomic factors <ul><li>Thin lamina papyracea. </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital, surgical, or traumatic dehiscences in the me...
Chandler´s classification Bilateral eye findings and worsening of all other previously described findings. V.  Cavernous s...
<ul><li>Shapiro ED, Wald ER, Brozanski BA. Periorbital cellulitis and paranasal sinusitis: a reappraisal. Pediatr Infect D...
I. Inflammatory edema (preseptal cellulitis) <ul><li>Infection limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the eyelid,...
Diagnosis <ul><li>Eyelid swelling, erythema, and tenderness. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual acuity, pupillary reaction, extraocu...
Treatment <ul><li>Broad spectrum oral antibiotics, head elevation, and management of the underlying cause (nasal decongest...
II. Orbital cellulitis <ul><li>Infectious process within the orbit proper, behind the septum, and within the bony walls of...
Diagnosis <ul><li>Eyelid edema, mild  proptosis , chemosis, and orbital pain. </li></ul><ul><li>In severe cases motility m...
Treatment <ul><li>Admission for daily assessments of visual acuity and color vision, pupillary reactions, and extraocular ...
Surgical drainage <ul><li>Surgical drainage is recommended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT evidence of abscess formation. </li><...
III. Subperiosteal abscess (SPA) <ul><li>Most commonly located in the superomedial or inferomedial orbit in conjunction wi...
Diagnosis <ul><li>Ophthalmologic evaluation is  essential . </li></ul><ul><li>Clinically, SPA is suspected in a patient wi...
Treatment <ul><li>Controversy exists (surgical vs. medical), especially in children. </li></ul><ul><li>Several studies hav...
Oxford and McClay <ul><li>Older children with SPA managed successfully with medical therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>The ages of...
Surgical approaches <ul><li>External ethmoidectomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lynch incision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eleva...
Endoscopic approach  [12] <ul><li>Widely accepted as an alternative to open approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased bleedi...
 
Combined approaches <ul><li>Lemoyne puncture trephination.  [14] </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus is irrigated, and endoscopically ...
Transcaruncular approach Bailey, BJ (2006). Head & Neck Surgery - Otolaryngology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott William...
IV. Orbital abscess <ul><li>Progression to this state often represents delay in diagnosis and therapy or immunocompromised...
Diagnosis <ul><li>Marked proptosis, chemosis,  complete ophthalmoplegia , visual impairment with risk for progression to i...
Treatment <ul><li>Drainage is mandatory (ESS and cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>Endoscopic preferred over external. </li></ul...
V. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) <ul><li>Results from spread of infection from sinuses or middle third of the face. </l...
Ebright JR, Pace MT, Niazi AF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2671-2676.
V. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) <ul><li>Results from spread of infection from sinuses or middle third of the face. </l...
Diagnosis <ul><li>Bilateral  orbital involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly progressive chemosis and ophthalmoplegia. </li...
Treatment <ul><li>High-dose IV antibiotics that cross BBB. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nafcillin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cef...
Anticoagulation <ul><li>The role of anticoagulation to minimize progression of thrombosis is debatable. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Steroids <ul><li>Many current reviewers don’t recommend their use.  [1,3,18] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Is this recommendatio...
8 y.o. F with CST secondary to petrous apicitis.  [20] <ul><li>Additional steroid therapy 5 days after the administration ...
So… are they useful?
Intracranial complications  [21] <ul><li>IC are uncommon but devastating. </li></ul><ul><li>Two major mechanism: </li></ul...
Meningitis <ul><li>Neurologic sequelae are common (seizures, hearing loss). </li></ul><ul><li>The most common pathogen is ...
Intracranial abscess ESS / Neurosurgery (stereotactic vs. open) IV Abx., craniotomy, ESS, anticonvulsivants, +/- steroids ...
Venous sinus thrombosis (superior sagittal and cavernous) <ul><li>Retrograde thrombophlebitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal ...
Bony complications <ul><li>Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone is known as  Pott’s puffy tumor . </li></ul><ul><li>Subperios...
Conclusions <ul><li>The orbit is the most common structure involved in complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan is...
REFERENCES <ul><li>1.  Bailey, BJ (2006). Head & Neck Surgery - Otolaryngology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams ...
QUESTIONS?
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  • CT was initial test always. Obtained in first 48h in all pt. MRI only obtained when there was clinical suspition of intracranial complication or failure to improve to medical therapy. Indications for surgery (abscess suspected, or failure to improve after 24h of abx.)
  • Authors recommeded MRI in addition to CT along with aggressive management in children older than 7. Age of frontal being radiologicaly present
  • 15 to 30% of patients will develop various visual sequelae, despite aggressive medical and surgical intervention.
  • Suggesting younger children have less virurent infections than older children. Even though there is high variavility in studies… these are inclussion criteria suggested for medical management:
  • In contrast to other series… Criteria for medical management… In conclusion there is a subset of pt that can be treated medically (as long as there is close ophto/otorrino f/u)
  • Surgical approaches to drain a PTA include external, endoscopic and combined.
  • Combined approaches have the advantage of preserving lamina. Keeping separate compartments. This technique useful when FRONTAL also involved.
  • Say the nerves after 2.
  • Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003
  • No concensus on timing of sinus surgery ( no controlled trials)
  • 1 complications of rhinosonusitis

    1. 1. Complications of Rhinosinusitis Xavier Vega-Cordova, M.D. Division of Otolaryngology Grand Rounds SIU-SOM October, 1 st 2009
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Describe the orbital, intracranial, and bony complications of rhinosinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Define risk factors, routes of extension, and typical findings in patients with complicated rhinosinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Detail the classification systems used to categorize orbital and intracranial complications. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the indications for surgical intervention. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Case <ul><li>13-month-old Caucasian male. </li></ul><ul><li>Antecedent of right preseptal cellulitis 3 weeks prior that responded to a 10 day course of Augmentin. </li></ul><ul><li>He presented with a 2 day history of progressive swelling and erythema of the right periorbita, to the point that his eye was almost completely closed. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a fever of 101, was tearful, but had a good appetite. </li></ul>
    4. 4. CT scan
    5. 5. CT scan
    6. 6. Rhinosinusitis <ul><li>Inflammation of the mucosal lining of the nose and paranasal sinuses. </li></ul><ul><li>Acute, subacute, and chronic. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most common diseases in the US. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>20 million cases of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis are diagnosed annually. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 million people suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis. [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The cost is substantial and increasing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute $3.5 billion/yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic $4.3 billion/yr. [1] </li></ul></ul>http://s3.images.com/huge.57.289573.JPG
    7. 7. Complications <ul><li>Complications of rhinosinusitis range from relatively benign to potentially fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>The incidence of complications from both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis has decreased as a result of the use of antibiotics. [2] </li></ul><ul><li>Complications can be divided into three categories: Orbital, intracranial, and bony. </li></ul>
    8. 8. CT or MRI? <ul><li>Computed tomography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish technique for evaluating patients with sinusitis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excellent anatomic resolution of bony areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has a superior delineation of soft tissue. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may demonstrate infections without bony artifacts and brain pathology. </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Younis RT, et al. [4] <ul><li>Retrospective chart review of 82 patients with complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical, CT, and MRI findings compared for accuracy in diagnosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common orbital complication was periorbital cellulitis and for intracranial was meningitis. </li></ul><ul><li>CT is standard, but MRI is necessary. </li></ul>97% 87% 82% Intracranial complications n=39 - 91% 82% Orbital complications n=43 MRI CT Clinical
    10. 10. Orbital complications <ul><li>The orbit is the structure most commonly involved in complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Orbital extension is usually the result of ethmoid sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Children are more prone to orbital complications, probably secondary to high incidence of URI and sinusitis. </li></ul>http://myweb.lsbu.ac.uk/dirt/museum/228-414.html
    11. 11. Herrmann BW, et al. [5] <ul><li>Chart review of 74 pediatric patients with orbital complications of sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients with dual complications had : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mean age of 15 yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100% were male. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presented with significant frontal disease. </li></ul></ul>24% 9.3% > 7 years of age 0% 0% < 7 years of age If surgery was required n=17 Simultaneous intracranial n=43
    12. 12. Anatomic factors <ul><li>Thin lamina papyracea. </li></ul><ul><li>Congenital, surgical, or traumatic dehiscences in the medial and superior walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior & posterior ethmoid neurovascular foramina. </li></ul><ul><li>Valveless veins (nose, paranasal sinuses, pterygoid plexus, and orbit). </li></ul>http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2275/2283713755_684b090423_m.jpg
    13. 13. Chandler´s classification Bilateral eye findings and worsening of all other previously described findings. V. Cavernous sinus thrombosis Discrete pus collection in orbital tissues, proptosis and chemosis with ophthalmoplegia and decreased vision. IV. Orbital abscess Collection of pus between medial periosteum and lamina papyracea, impaired extraocular movement. III. Subperiosteal abscess Diffuse orbital infection and inflammation without abscess formation. II. Orbital cellulitis (postseptal) Lid edema, no limitation in ocular movement or visual change. I. Inflammatory edema (preseptal)
    14. 14. <ul><li>Shapiro ED, Wald ER, Brozanski BA. Periorbital cellulitis and paranasal sinusitis: a reappraisal. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1982;1:91-94. </li></ul>
    15. 15. I. Inflammatory edema (preseptal cellulitis) <ul><li>Infection limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissues of the eyelid, anterior to the orbital septum. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common and least severe complication. </li></ul><ul><li>Represents 70% of all orbital complications of sinusitis. </li></ul>www.entkent.comrhino-sinusitis.html
    16. 16. Diagnosis <ul><li>Eyelid swelling, erythema, and tenderness. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual acuity, pupillary reaction, extraocular motility, and intraocular pressure are normal . </li></ul><ul><li>CT is usually unnecessary , but, if done, would reveal diffuse increased density and thickening of the lid and conjunctiva. </li></ul><ul><li>CT is mandatory when intracranial complications are suspected or when there is progress in 24 to 48 hours to postseptal inflammation despite therapy. [3] </li></ul>
    17. 17. Treatment <ul><li>Broad spectrum oral antibiotics, head elevation, and management of the underlying cause (nasal decongestant, mucolytics, and saline irrigations). </li></ul><ul><li>Intravenous antibiotics were standard care in children before the introduction of the Hib vaccine in 1985 (Donahue SP, et al. 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>Older children and adults with mild cellulitis, outpatient amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or first-generation cephalosporin. Re-evaluate in 24-48 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Younger children or more severe cases, admission for observation and IV antibiotics is standard (2nd or 3rd generation cephalosporin), then bridge to oral antibiotics for 10 days. [8] </li></ul>
    18. 18. II. Orbital cellulitis <ul><li>Infectious process within the orbit proper, behind the septum, and within the bony walls of the orbit. </li></ul><ul><li>Orbital contents show diffuse edema with inflammatory cells and fluid, without distinct abscess formation. </li></ul>http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1218009-media
    19. 19. Diagnosis <ul><li>Eyelid edema, mild proptosis , chemosis, and orbital pain. </li></ul><ul><li>In severe cases motility may be limited; but visual acuity is not impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmologic consultation should be obtained. </li></ul><ul><li>CT with contrast is indicated , and it will show enhancement of edematous fat, which is usually maximal in the extraconal fat adjacent to the affected sinus. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlargement and enhancement of adjacent rectus muscle is sometimes present. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Treatment <ul><li>Admission for daily assessments of visual acuity and color vision, pupillary reactions, and extraocular motility. (Ophthalmologist) </li></ul><ul><li>Early intravenous antibiotics and imaging. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotic failure is indicated by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Progression of vision loss or clinical deterioration after 48 hours of therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to improve or persistent fever after 72 hours of therapy. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Surgical drainage <ul><li>Surgical drainage is recommended: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CT evidence of abscess formation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual acuity of 20/60 (or worse) on initial evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe orbital complications (e.g. blindness or an afferent pupillary reflex) on initial evaluation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progression of sign and symptoms despite therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of improvement within 48 hours despite therapy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Surgical treatment should include adequate drainage of the infected sinuses. </li></ul>
    22. 22. III. Subperiosteal abscess (SPA) <ul><li>Most commonly located in the superomedial or inferomedial orbit in conjunction with ethmoid sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Infection breaks through the lamina papyracea or travels through the anterior or posterior ethmoidal foramina. </li></ul><ul><li>May lead to blindness by direct optic nerve compression, elevation of intraorbital pressure, or proptosis causing a stretch optic neuropathy. </li></ul>www.mypacs.net/cases/LEFT-PRE-SEPTAL-CELLULITIS-AND-POST-SEPTAL-SUBPERIOSTEAL-ABSCESS-5546515.html
    23. 23. Diagnosis <ul><li>Ophthalmologic evaluation is essential . </li></ul><ul><li>Clinically, SPA is suspected in a patient with orbital cellulitis that has worsening proptosis and gaze restriction. </li></ul><ul><li>Color discrimination is better guide of progression since red/green perception is loss before deterioration of visual acuity. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast CT will show a contrast-enhancing mass in the extraconal space. There is marked proptosis with a conic deformity of the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>The medium rectus can be displaced (2mm). [3] </li></ul>
    24. 24. Treatment <ul><li>Controversy exists (surgical vs. medical), especially in children. </li></ul><ul><li>Several studies have suggested that responsiveness to medical treatment is age associated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age < 9 yr. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of frontal sinusitis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial location with absence of gas in the abscess cavity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small abscess volume. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonrecurrent SPA. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of acute optic nerve or retinal compromise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonodontogenic infection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surgical therapy was reserved for clinical deterioration or no improvement with medical therapy. [9] </li></ul>
    25. 25. Oxford and McClay <ul><li>Older children with SPA managed successfully with medical therapy. </li></ul><ul><li>The ages of the 18 patients treated medically were not statistically different from the 25 patients treated surgically. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal vision, pupil, and retina. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No ophthalmoplegia. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intraocular pressure of less than 20 mm Hg. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proptosis of 5 mm or less. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abscess width of 4mm or less. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Surgical approaches <ul><li>External ethmoidectomy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lynch incision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevation of periosteum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lacrimal bone and lamina papyracea are removed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethemoidectomy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication between nasal cavity and orbit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only useful for medially located abscesses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unpleasant scar, facial dysplasia . </li></ul></ul>Chen, W (2001). Oculoplastic surgery: the essentials. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 423.
    27. 27. Endoscopic approach [12] <ul><li>Widely accepted as an alternative to open approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased bleeding of acute inflamed mucosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Facial growth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative surgical resection is advocated. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malik technique of immediate lamina papyracea reconstruction. [13] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethmoidectomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletonizing the lamina papyracea. </li></ul><ul><li>Drainage of the orbital collection by cracking the lamina with Cottle or Freer. </li></ul><ul><li>The periorbita is not violated. </li></ul>
    28. 29. Combined approaches <ul><li>Lemoyne puncture trephination. [14] </li></ul><ul><li>Sinus is irrigated, and endoscopically the nasofrontal duct is identify. </li></ul><ul><li>Sinusotomy and ethmoidectomy </li></ul><ul><li>External incision used to drain SPO. </li></ul>
    29. 30. Transcaruncular approach Bailey, BJ (2006). Head & Neck Surgery - Otolaryngology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 499.
    30. 31. IV. Orbital abscess <ul><li>Progression to this state often represents delay in diagnosis and therapy or immunocompromised state. </li></ul><ul><li>May be inside or outside the muscle cone (discrete collection of pus). </li></ul>http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/784888-media
    31. 32. Diagnosis <ul><li>Marked proptosis, chemosis, complete ophthalmoplegia , visual impairment with risk for progression to irreversible blindness. </li></ul><ul><li>CT will show diffuse infiltration of the intraconal and extraconal fat with areas of cavitation. </li></ul><ul><li>MRI (true necrosis) hypointensity on T1 and hyperintensity on T2. [15] </li></ul>
    32. 33. Treatment <ul><li>Drainage is mandatory (ESS and cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>Endoscopic preferred over external. </li></ul><ul><li>Decompression of one or more orbital walls may be necessary (intraoperative orbital pressure). </li></ul><ul><li>Periorbita: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Endoscopic – extraconal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined – intraconal. [16] </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. V. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) <ul><li>Results from spread of infection from sinuses or middle third of the face. </li></ul><ul><li>Freely anastomosing, valveless venous system (superior and inferior ophthalmic veins). </li></ul>Cannon ML, Anonio BL, McCloskey JJ, et al. Cavernous sinus thrombosis complicating sinusitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004;5(1):86-8.
    34. 35. Ebright JR, Pace MT, Niazi AF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2671-2676.
    35. 36. V. Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) <ul><li>Results from spread of infection from sinuses or middle third of the face. </li></ul><ul><li>Freely anastomosing, valveless venous system (superior and inferior ophthalmic veins). </li></ul><ul><li>S. aureus is most common pathogen. </li></ul><ul><li>High morbidity/mortality . </li></ul>Cannon ML, Anonio BL, McCloskey JJ, et al. Cavernous sinus thrombosis complicating sinusitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004;5(1):86-8.
    36. 37. Diagnosis <ul><li>Bilateral orbital involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly progressive chemosis and ophthalmoplegia. </li></ul><ul><li>Retinal engorgement. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostration and fever. </li></ul><ul><li>MRI more sensitive than CT (MR venogram). </li></ul><ul><li>Carotid thrombosis (strokes, brain abscess, meningitis) </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary septic emboli. </li></ul>Cannon ML, Anonio BL, McCloskey JJ, et al. Cavernous sinus thrombosis complicating sinusitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004;5(1):86-8. Ebright JR, Pace MT, Niazi AF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2671-2676.
    37. 38. Treatment <ul><li>High-dose IV antibiotics that cross BBB. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nafcillin. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ceftriaxone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metronidazole. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vancomycin. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* 3 – 4 weeks; 6 – 8 weeks if intracranial complications. </li></ul><ul><li>Selective surgery – drainage of affected sinuses is advisable. </li></ul>
    38. 39. Anticoagulation <ul><li>The role of anticoagulation to minimize progression of thrombosis is debatable. </li></ul><ul><li>Its efficacy is undetermined, since no prospective trials have been performed. </li></ul><ul><li>It may aggravate intracranial hemorrhagic sequelae of CST. </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospective reviews show that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemorrhage caused by anticoagulation is rare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early anticoagulation is beneficial if commenced after excluding the hemorrhagic sequelae radiologically. [19] </li></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Steroids <ul><li>Many current reviewers don’t recommend their use. [1,3,18] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Is this recommendation valid? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dramatic response on orbital inflammation and optic nerve dysfunction that were resistant to antibiotics in response to steroids. </li></ul>
    40. 41. 8 y.o. F with CST secondary to petrous apicitis. [20] <ul><li>Additional steroid therapy 5 days after the administration of intravenous antibiotics resulted in rapid improvement of ocular function and complete resolution of nerve VI palsy. </li></ul>
    41. 42. So… are they useful?
    42. 43. Intracranial complications [21] <ul><li>IC are uncommon but devastating. </li></ul><ul><li>Two major mechanism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct extension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrograde thrombophlebitis via valveless diploe veins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>* Frontal sinus is rich in diploe veins especially during adolescence. </li></ul></ul></ul>Frontal. Epidural abscess Frontal. Subdural abscess Frontal. Intracerebral abscess Sphenoid, ethmoid. Cavernous sinus thrombosis Frontal. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis Sphenoid, ethmoid. Meningitis
    43. 44. Meningitis <ul><li>Neurologic sequelae are common (seizures, hearing loss). </li></ul><ul><li>The most common pathogen is S. pneumoniae. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental status changes, photophobia, and meningismus. </li></ul><ul><li>CT will be normal, but MRI typically shows dural enhancement (falx cerebri, tentorium, and dural convexities). </li></ul><ul><li>IV antibiotics and endoscopic sinus surgery. [3] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If no improvement after 24 – 48 hours of antibiotics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early use of ESS has the potential to accelerate clinical improvement. </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Intracranial abscess ESS / Neurosurgery (stereotactic vs. open) IV Abx., craniotomy, ESS, anticonvulsivants, +/- steroids IV Abx. + Surgery (craniotomy / ESS) Treatment MRI (T2) Hypointense with capsule CT may show it but MRI is better CT or MRI Diagnosis Subtle if frontal (mood) H/A, lethargy, seizures, focal deficits Meningismus, rapid progression to coma Mild, non-specific for weeks. Increase ICP Symptoms Asymptomatic phase while it coalesces Spreads diffusely convexities, interhemispheric Slow expanding Progression Frontal/frontopariental white/gray matter Subdural space no boundaries Between skull and dura Location Intracranial Subdural Epidural *
    45. 46. Venous sinus thrombosis (superior sagittal and cavernous) <ul><li>Retrograde thrombophlebitis. </li></ul><ul><li>Sagittal usually found in association with intracranial abscesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical severity depends on extent of the thrombosis (extremely ill, high spiking fevers, meningeal signs, coma). </li></ul><ul><li>MRI focal defects of enhancement (MR angio or venogram). </li></ul><ul><li>High dose IV abx., ESS, anticoagulants, Surgery (thrombectomy, thrombolysis via burr-hole). </li></ul>
    46. 47. Bony complications <ul><li>Osteomyelitis of the frontal bone is known as Pott’s puffy tumor . </li></ul><ul><li>Subperiosteal collection of pus produces a “puffy” fluctuant swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Polymicrobial ( Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Bacteroides, and Proteus ) </li></ul><ul><li>IV Abx., drainage of the abscess with removal of infected bone. Frontal obliteration may be performed. </li></ul>Epstein VA, Kern RC. Invasive fungal sinusitis and complications of rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2008;41:505.
    47. 48. Conclusions <ul><li>The orbit is the most common structure involved in complicated sinusitis. </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan is the study of choice to evaluate orbital complications. Whereas, intracranial complications are better assessed with MRI. </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical treatment of orbital infections is variable. Preseptal cellulitis rarely requires surgery. While, postseptal infection often require surgery and multiple options are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Early Neuro/Neurosurgical consultation is advisable in intracranial complications. </li></ul>
    48. 49. REFERENCES <ul><li>1. Bailey, BJ (2006). Head & Neck Surgery - Otolaryngology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 493-504. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Gallagher RM, Gross CW, Phillips CD. Suppurative intracranial complications of sinusitis. Laryngoscope 1998;108:1635-42. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Epstein VA, Kern RC. Invasive fungal sinusitis and complications of rhinosinusitis. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2008;41:497-524. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Younis RT, Anand VK, Davidson B. The role of computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with sinusitis with complications. Laryngoscope 2002;112(2):224-9. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Herrmann BW, Forsen JW Jr. Simultaneous intracranial and orbital complications of acute rhinosinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2004;68(5):619-25. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Shapiro ED, Wald ER, Brozanski BA. Periorbital cellulitis and paranasal sinusitis: a reappraisal. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1982;1:91-94. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Donahue SP, Schwartz G. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis in childhood. A changing microbiologic spectrum. Ophthalmology 1998;105(10):1902-5 [discussion: 1905-6] </li></ul><ul><li>8. Sobol AL, Hutcheson KA. Cellulitis, Preseptal. eMedicine. Apr 4, 2008. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1218009 </li></ul><ul><li>9. Coenraad S, Buwalda J. Surgical or medical management of subperiosteal orbital abscess in children: a critical appraisal of the literature. Rhinology 2009 Mar;47(1):18-23. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Oxford LE, McClay J. Medical and surgical management of subperiosteal orbital abscess secondary to acute sinusitis in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2006;70(11):1853-61. </li></ul><ul><li>11. Chen, W (2001). Oculoplastic surgery: the essentials. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc. 423. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Llorente Pendas JL, Del Campo A, Perez Vazquez P, et al. Sinusitis complicada y cirugia endoscopica nasal. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2003;54:551-56. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Malik V, Khwaja S, De Carpentier J. Immediate Lamina Papyracea Reconstruction during Endoscopic Sinus Surgery for Surgically Managed Subperiosteal Abscess in Children. Laryngoscope 2006;116(5):835-838. </li></ul><ul><li>14. Pomar Blanco P, Martin Villares C, San Roman Carbajo M, et al. Minimally invasive surgery for treating complicated fronto-ethmoidal sinusitis. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2005;56:252-256. </li></ul><ul><li>15. Sepahdari AR, Aakalu VK, Kapur R, et al. MRI of orbital cellulitis and orbital abscess: The role of dissusion weighted imaging. AJR 2009;193:W244-W250. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Fakhri S, Pereira K. Endoscopic management of orbital abscesses. Otolaryngol Clin N Am 2006;39:1037-1047. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Cannon ML, Anonio BL, McCloskey JJ, et al. Cavernous sinus thrombosis complicating sinusitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004;5(1):86-8. </li></ul><ul><li>18. Ebright JR, Pace MT, Niazi AF. Septic thrombosis of the cavernous sinuses. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:2671-2676. </li></ul><ul><li>19. Bhatia K, Jones NS. Septic cavernous sinus thrombosis secondary to sinusitis: are anticoagulants indicated? A review of the literature. J Laryngol Otol. 2002;116(9):667-76. </li></ul><ul><li>20. Park SN, Yeo SW, Suh BD. Cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis secondary to petrous apicitis: A case report. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2003;128(2);284-286. </li></ul><ul><li>21. Germiller JA, Monin DL, Sparano AM, et al. Intracranial complications of sinusitis in children and adolescents and their outcomes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2006;132:969-976. </li></ul>
    49. 50. QUESTIONS?
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

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