surgical approaches to frontal sinus ppt


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surgical approaches to frontal sinuses

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surgical approaches to frontal sinus ppt

  1. 1. APPROACHES TO FRONTAL SINUS Dr. Vaibhav Lahane
  2. 2. EMBRYOLOGY • Ethmoturbinal ridges - A series of five to six ridges first appear during 8th week of gestation, due to fusion and regression only three to four ridges persists. • First ET Ridge – Ascending portion – Agger nasi Descending portion – Uncinate • Second ET Ridge- middle turbinate • Third ET Ridge – superior turbinate • Fourth & Fifth – supreme turbinate • Maxillo-turbinal ridge – inferior turbinate
  3. 3. EMBRYOLOGY • 1st Primary furrow- between first & second ET • Descending aspect – ethmoidal infundibulum, hiatus semilunaris, middle meatus. • Ascending aspect – frontal recess • 2nd primary furrow – superior meatus • 3rd primary furrow – supreme meatus
  4. 4. EMBRYOLOGY  SCHAEFFER and KASPER proposed four frontal pits or furrows. First frontal pit – agger nasi cell Second frontal pit – frontal sinus cell Third and fourth frontal pit – other anterior ethmoid cell such as suprabullar cell, supraorbital cell.
  5. 5. EMBRYOLOGY • At birth,volume of cranial vault is seven times the facial skeleton. This ratio decreases steadily in infancy and childhood due to growth and development of four pairs of paranasal sinuses .These sinuses develop from invaginations of nasal cavity that extend into surrounding bones. • Frontal sinus is absent at birth and develop at second year of birth from the anterior most ethmoidal cells which grow into frontal bone.
  6. 6. FRONTAL RECESS ANATOMY • Frontal sinus drains in to middle meatus and nasal cavity by a complex passage called frontal recess. • Previously known as nasofrontal duct ( tubular structure conducting fluids between frontal sinus and nasal cavity). • After understanding of more accurate anatomy the term frontal recess was recommended. • KILLIAN is credited for coining the term frontal recess. • Now a days the better term is frontal sinus drainage pathway. .
  7. 7. FRONTAL RECESS ANATOMY • Stammberger - frontal recess is superior continuation of ascending groove between first and second ET’s and frontal sinus originates from anterior pneumatization of frontal recess in frontal bone. • Boundaries – laterally - Lamina papyracea, uncinate process medially – Middle turbinate anteriorly- anterior wall of Agger nasi cell ( when present ) posteriorly- Anterior wall of Ethmoidal bulla ( if ethmoidal bulla is not reached up to skull base,frontal recess will also connect to suprabullar recess )
  8. 8. CT saggital view showing Frontal recess
  9. 9. FRONTAL RECESS ANATOMY • In a saggital section frontal recess along with frontal infundibulum and frontal ostium forms hourglass shaped structure. • Thus frontal sinus is much anterior to frontal recess when viewed endoscopically.
  10. 10. CT coronal view sagital view Normal frontal recess anatomy. Coronal (a) and sagittal (b) CT images show the right frontal recess (dotted red line), which is bounded anteriorly and laterally by an agger nasi cell (white arrow) and a type 1 frontal cell (black arrow), medially by the middle turbinate, and posteriorly by the ethmoid bulla and bulla lamella. The nasofrontal process (arrowhead in b) forms the floor of the frontal sinus and demarcates the level of the frontal sinus ostium.
  11. 11. Agger nasi cell Forms a bulge anterior to the middle turbinate on the lateral wall…under a plain structureless area lined by nasal mucosa called as atrium.
  12. 12. AGGER NASI CELL • Agger nasi cell plays a significant role in frontal recess obstruction, it may fill the recess but obstruction develops after a modest degree of oedema . • In previous surgery if agger nasi cap left in place, it may form scar in contact to bulla leads to iatrogenic frontal sinus disease. • During endoscopic dissection medial and posterior wall should be located and removed to prevent leaving cap behind.
  13. 13. FRONTAL CELLS by KUHN • Anterior ethmoidal cells migrate anterosuperiorly in frontal recess to produce different kind of frontal cell: • Type I - Single cell above the agger nasi • Type II - Two or more cells above the agger nasi cell • Type III - Single cell extending from the agger nasi cell into the frontal sinus • Type IV - Isolated cell within the frontal sinus (loner cell)
  14. 14. FRONTAL CELLS Frontal recess with type I frontal cell
  15. 15. SUPRAORBITAL ETHMOID CELL • Role of supraorbital ethmoid cells in sinus obstruction was described by Owen and Kuhn. • Develops posterior to agger nasi cell, frontal cell, and frontal sinus. • This cell should be suspected when on CT , pneumatization from ethmoid sinus out over the orbit seen. • Mistaking supraorbital ethmoid cell for frontal ostium is a potential problem, so internal frontal ostium may be left unopened and remain obstructed.
  16. 16. SUPRAORBITAL ETHMOID CELL • Septum between frontal sinus and supraorbital ethmoid cell should be removed, this provides a large common chamber for drainage in frontal recess. • Supraorbital ethmoidal cell (astreix) pneumatizes over orbit (coronal image) and opens into posterior and lateral portion of true frontal sinus (axial image)
  17. 17. RECESSUS TERMINALIS • In 80 % cases uncinate process attaches to lamina payracea in form of dome. Recess enclosed in the dome called as recessus terminalis • This attachment of uncinate in frontal recesss is described as egg-shell in an inverted egg cup • Causes the ethmoid infundibulum to open in a blind pocket. • In this case frontal sinus drains medially directly in middle meatus
  19. 19. History of Frontal Sinus Surgery First surgical procedure was defined in 1750. Still the optimal approach remains unclear. Frontal sinus disease is highly morbid with the danger of life threatening complications, because of its anatomic proximity to anterior skull base and orbit. History of frontal sinus surgery can be divided into following eras: 1. Era of trephination (1750): 2. Era of radical ablation procedures (1895): 3. Era of conservative procedures (1905): 4. External fronto-ethmoidectomy 1897 – 1921: 5. Osteoplastic anterior wall approach (1958): 6. Endoscopic intranasal approach (recent advancement)
  20. 20. Aims of ideal treatment modality of frontal sinus disease are: 1. Eradication of underlying disease process 2. Preservation of function of the sinus 3. To cause least morbidity and cosmetic deformity.
  21. 21. Era of trephination (1750): Frontal sinus surgery was first described in 1750. It was in 1884 Alexander Ogstun described a trephination procedure where an opening was made in the anterior table of frontal sinus to evacuate the sinus cavity. He also dilated the nasofrontal duct (a duct connecting the infundibulum and frontal sinus ) and curetted its mucosa for better drainage from the frontal sinus and placed a drainage tube inside the nasofrontal duct to prevent stenosis.
  22. 22. Era of radical ablation procedures (1895): • Kuhnt in 1895 described a procedure where he removed the anterior wall of frontal sinus to clear the frontal sinus off the diseased mucosa. • He stripped the mucosa up to the frontal recess and stented the frontonasal duct to improve the drainage. • In 1898 Riedel performed obliteration of frontal sinus. • He advocated complete removal of anterior table and floor of frontal sinus with stripping of mucosa which was performed in a patient with osteomyelitis of frontal bone but caused an unsightly deformity of skull.
  23. 23. Killian in 1903 advocated retention of 1 cm bar of supraorbital rim. Killian was able to avoid deformity by retaining this bar of bone and also advocated ethmoidectomy combined with rotation of mucosal flap to cover the frontal recess area. Killian’s procedure had complications like restenosis, supraorbital rim necrosis, post op meningitis and mucocele formation etc.
  24. 24. Era of conservative procedures (1905): Major advantage is avoidance of cosmetic defects. They involved intranasal approach to frontal sinus. It was Knapp in 1908 who performed external Fronto ethmoid surgery. He approached the frontal sinus through its floor, removed the diseased mucosa and stented the frontonasal duct to prevent restenosis. In 1908 Halle chiseled out the frontal process of maxilla and used a burr to remove the floor of frontal sinus.
  25. 25. In 1914 , Lothrop enlarged the frontal sinus drainage pathway using intranasal approach. He combined intranasal ethmoidectomy with external ethmoidal approach and managed to create a common fronto-nasal communication by removing the frontal sinus floor, intersinus septum and the superior portion of nasal septum. He also said that resection of medial orbital wall caused prolapse of orbital contents into the ethmoid area causing obstruction to frontal sinus drainage.
  26. 26. External fronto-ethmoidectomy 1897 – 1921: In 1897 Jenson performed the first external Fronto ethmoidectomy in Germany. Lynch and Howarth in 1921 popularized resection of floor of the frontal sinus with dilatation of the frontal sinus outlet via external approach. This approach is hence known as Lynch Howarth procedure. • A curvilinear incision is made just below the medial end of eyebrow. It is curved medial to the medial canthus. • The frontal process of maxilla and lamina papyracea is removed. • Frontal sinus is entered via its floor and the lining mucosa is curetted. • A stent is placed in the frontal sinus osteum to prevent stenosis. • The stent is left in place for a period of 4 weeks. • Boyden used silicone tube to prevent stenosis.
  27. 27. Osteoplastic anterior wall approach (1958): This procedure became popular during 1960’s. Backer introduced radiographic plate to outline the frontal sinus. This procedure was fraught with the risk of hemorrhage. Endoscopic intranasal approach: With the advent of nasal endoscopes (angled) approach to the frontal sinus outflow tract has become easy.
  28. 28. SURGICAL APPROACHES TO FRONTAL SINUS EXTERNAL APPROACHES – • Frontal sinus Trephination • External frontoethmoidectomy ENDOSCOPIC APPROACHES ( FULADA CONCEPT ) • Type-1 Simple Drainage ( DRAF 1 ) • Type-2 Extended Drainage ( DRAF 2 ) • Type -3 Endonasal median Drainage ( DRAF 3 , Modified Lothrop ) • Axillary flap approach
  29. 29. INTEGRATEED APPROACH TO FRONTAL SINUS SURGERY • Endoscopic frontal sinusotomy • Above and below approach ( trephine + endoscopic ) • Frontal sinus rescue procedure • Intranasal modified Lothrop • Above and Below ( osteoplastic + endoscopic )
  30. 30. FRONTAL SINUS TREPHINATION WITH ENDOSCOPY Modification of trephination using endoscopes for inspection and smaller interventions. 1 cm incision is made just above the medial end of eyebrow and with a 0.5 cm drill hole the anterior wall of frontal sinus is opened. Under Endoscopic control irrigation and inspection is possible. Preoperative CT should be done to see extent of frontal sinus and to prevent injury to dura.
  32. 32. EXTERNAL FRONTOETHMOIDECTOMY • A Curved medial and concave incision is taken towards medial canthus of eye straight down to bone. • Frontal sinus is reached by osteoclastic resection of lacrimal bone, part of frontal process of maxilla and frontal sinus floor. • Ethmoid cell system is resected to obtain an open cavity between frontal sinus, ethmoid and nasal cavity.
  33. 33. Results of External Fronto-ethmoidectomy • Danger of supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve injury. • Two third bony margins of frontal recess is resected and replaced by scar tissue, which may contract and lead to formation of mucocele. To overcome this complication stents are placed to prevent stenosis. • Trochlea mobilization may lead to diplopia (as it might lead to damage to superior oblique muscle.) Supraorbital N. Supratrochl ear N. Supraorbit al A.
  34. 34. ENDONASAL SURGERY OF FRONTAL SINUS ( FULADA CONCEPT ) TYPE I DRAINAGE INDICATIONS- • Acute rhinosinusitis ( failure of conservative surgery ) • Chronic rhinosinusitis ( first time surgery, no risk factors, revision after incomplete ethmoidectomy. TYPE II DRAINAGE INDICATIONS • Serious complications of acute rhinosinusitis • Medial mucopyocoele • Tumour surgery • Good quality mucosa
  35. 35. TYPE III DRAINAGE INDICATIONS- • Difficult revision surgery • Patients with severe polyposis and samter’s traid • Mucoviscidosis ( cystic fibrosis ) • Kartagener’s syndrome • Primary ciliary dyskinesia
  36. 36. TYPE 1 SIMPLE DRAINAGE ( Draf I Procedure/ NFA I) (as per May and Schaitkin) • Indicated when frontal sinus disease persists despite more conservative approaches. In cases of minor pathology in the frontal sinus and the patient does not suffer from ‘prognostic risk factors” like aspirin intolerance and asthma, which are associated with poor quality of mucosa and possible problems in outcome. • This procedure involves complete removal of the anterior ethmoid cells and uncinate process ,Obstructive frontal cells surrounding the frontal recess to the frontal ostium. • In the majority of cases the frontal sinus heals because of the improved drainage via the ethmoid cavity.
  37. 37. ENDOSCOPIC DRAF II PROCEDURE ( TYPE 2 EXTENDED DRAINAGE ) • This extended drainage procedure involves , after ethmoidectomy, resection of the floor of the frontal sinus from lamina papyracea to middle turbinate ( IIa / NFA II) or nasal septum anterior to the ventral margin of the olfactory fossa (IIb / NFA III). • In the classification of May and Schaitkin type IIa corresponds with NFA II (nasofrontal approach) and type IIb with NFA III. • When type IIa drainage is considered to be too small in regard to the underlying pathology , it is better to perform type IIb drainage.
  38. 38. It has been assessed that the maximum size of the neoostium of frontal sinus that can be achieved in Type IIa procedure is 11 mm with a mean of 5.6mm (Hosemann et al.). If neoostium is less than 5 mm in diameter , soft flexible silicon stents are used. If one needs to achieve a larger drainage opening like type II-b, a drill is used because of the increasing thickness of the bone medially towards the nasal septum. At this point microscope assistance is required. In revision cases after incomplete ethmoidectomy, it is recommended that a wide approach to the ethmoid sinuses is created using a microscope and drill or punch when possible. Wide approach to ethmoid is achieved by resection of ; • Lacrimal bone • Part of agger nasi cells • Frontal process of maxilla till lamina papyracea is clearly visible. This allows better visualization of frontal recess.
  39. 39. Frontal recess is identified by using middle turbinate and where identifiable anterior ethmoidal artery as landmark . Frontal infundibulum is exposed and anterior ethmoidal cells are resected. Preoperative CT scan may reveal the presence of so called frontal cells. These are anterior ethmoidal air cells that has encroached into the frontal sinus giving a false impression that the frontal sinus has been properly opened. If these frontal cells are present, a procedure known as uncapping the egg is performed resulting in type IIa drainage. After type IIa drainage , further widening to produce a type IIb drainge is done by introducing a diamond burr into the clearly visible gap in the infundibulum which is then drawn across the bone in medial direction. A large ethmoidal cell (blue) could be seen extending up to the level of frontal sinus. The frontal sinus could be drained only by uncapping this large ethmoidal air cell (frontal cell). This procedure is known as the uncapping the egg. (Black dotted lines)
  40. 40. During surgery , frontal sinus opening is bordered by bone on all side but mucosa is preserved on atleast one side. Rubber finger stall can be introduced into the sinus for 5 days . They provide safe hemostasis, are a stimulator of re-epithelialization of bare bone, are cost-effective and painless to remove. The risk of adhesions and synechiae is low because this type of packing suppresses the development of granulations. Post operative CTscan - after Draf II drainage
  41. 41. Endonasal frontal sinus drainage (A) Type I drainage (Simple drainage, right side). area, anterior ethmoidal artery; lp, lamina papyracea; mt, middle turbinate; ns, nasal septum; oc, olfactory cleft. (B) Type II a drainage (enlarged drainage, a, right side). Opening of frontal sinus between lamina papyracea and middle turbinate. Mostly possible without drill. (C) Type IIb drainage (enlarged drainage, b, right side). Drainage of the frontal sinus between lamina papyracea and nasal septum. Usually medially drill necessary.
  42. 42. Postoperative Frontal Sinusitis after Type I and Type II Drainage – Sometimes after ethmoidectomy and type I as well as type II drainage, the patients may develop more problems in the frontal sinus than before surgery. Postoperative sinus CT will provide information if frontal sinusitis has developed. The pathogenesis of recurrent frontal sinusitis after surgery Remnant ethmoidal cells Mechanical irritations of the mucosa in the frontal recess l/trecurrent sinusitis can result in a severe scar around Killian’s infundibulum. Both pathologies may result in blockage of the frontal sinus drainage
  43. 43. This can be avoided by performing ; 1. A complete anterior ethmoidectomy . 2. Using extremely atraumatic handling of the frontal recess mucosa. For treatment the following procedures recommended : 1. Type IIa drainage if a type I procedure was performed. 2. Previously a type IIb drainage if a type IIa. 3. Type III Drainage after a previous type IIb.
  44. 44. ENDOSCOPIC DRAF III PROCEDURE (MODIFIED LOTHROP, Endonasal MEDIAN DRAINAGE / NFA IV ) • This procedure involves removal of the inferior portion of the interfrontal septum, the superior part of the nasal septum, and the frontal sinus floor till the lamina papyracea. The lamina papyracea and posterior walls of the frontal sinus remain intact. • To achieve maximum possible opening , it is helpful to identify 1st oflactory fibre on both sides. • To achieve the maximum possible opening of the frontal sinus, it would be helpful to identify the olfactory fibers on both sides. • Frontal T – long crus – represented by post border of perpendicular ethmoid lamina resection Shorter wings on both sides – provided by posterior margin of frontal sinus floor resection.
  45. 45. (D) Type III drainage (median drainage) with “Frontal T” (red) and first olfactory fiber on both sides (View from left inferior). (E) Type III drainage (median drainage) sagittal view: removal of the frontal sinus floor in front of the olfactory cleft
  46. 46. • A rubber finger stall is placed into each frontal sinus and two are put into ethmoid cavity on each side for 7 days. Leaving rubber finger stalls for one week carries the following advantages – 1. The fibrinoid phase of wound healing is somehow overcome. Reclosure of the large drainage by scars is remarkably reduced, since bare bone is re-epithelialized almost completely. 2. Sedation and general anesthesia are not necessary for packing removal. Rubber finger packs do not bind to the wound. • Major part of surgical cavity gets re-epithelised making postoperative treatment simple. • Advantage over classical Jansen , Lynch and Howarth approach – Bony margins around frontal sinus drainage are preserved increasing long term stability and reducing scarring and complications like frontal sinusitis and mucocele formation.
  47. 47. In revision cases, type III drainage can begin from possible two points, from the lateral or medial side. Primary medial approach If previous ethmoidal surgery was complete, and the middle turbinate is absent. The medial approach starts with the partial resection of the perpendicular plate of ethmoid of the nasal septum, followed by identification of the olfactory fibers on each side. Primary lateral approach If previous ethmoidal surgery was incomplete and the middle turbinate is still present as a landmark.
  48. 48. Post operative Therapy – The patients are given the following instructions to ensure proper healing: 1. Irrigate the nasal cavities with saline solution at least once a day, sometimes more frequently. 2. Use one of the corticosteroid sprays 1–3 times/ day. 3. The recommendation is made to use liquid paraffin 1 hour after the use of corticosteroid spray, for general care of the mucosa. Antibiotics – for 1 to 2 weeks. Antiallergic treatment - for 6 weeks in proven cases of allergy.
  49. 49. Post operative evaluation – • Mean follow up period – 10 – 12 years . • Criteria for assessment – objective and subjective categorized in following grades ; Grade 1 - endoscopically normal mucosa , independent of subjective complaints. Grade 2 – endoscopically inflamed mucosa with subjectively free of symptoms. Grade 3 – endoscopically inflamed mucosa with no subjective improvement. • Maximum success rate is usually achieved by type III drainage followed by type II and I . • Recurrence rate - lesser compared to osteoclastic techniques of Jansen – Ritter and Riedel.
  50. 50. Reclosure after Type III Drainage - a)The “chimney” between the anterior ethmoid and the frontal sinus has not been opened well. It is important that after the anterior ethmoidal artery is identified, the surgeon proceeds along the skull base medial to the lamina papyracea to enter into the frontal sinus. b) The anterior-posterior opening of the frontal sinus floor, particularly in the midline, is too small. The identification of the first olfactory fiber bilaterally and the creation of the “Frontal T” are very helpful to avoid this problem. c) The resection of the septum has been missed or was not performed to a satisfying degree. The new curved drills between 15° and 60° angle are ideal for this purpose. d) The resection of the superior nasal septum was too small. The diameter of resection must be 1.5 cm just in front of the “Frontal T” and below the frontal sinus floor. e) The packing between the ethmoid and the frontal sinus was not left long enough. 7 days proved to be the best time frame for using rubber finger packings.
  51. 51. Frontal sinus rescue procedures: a. These procedures are indicated to clear up frontal sinus obstruction by laterally retracted middle turbinate and scar tissue. b. The scar tissue obstructing the frontal sinus drainage is resected first. After resection of scar tissue the remnant of middle turbinate becomes visible. c. The medial osseous and mucosal lamina of middle turbinate are resected, the lateral mucosal lamina is preserved. d. This lateral mucosal lamina is turned medially covering the skull base. The frontal sinus neoostium is epithelized.
  52. 52. Postoperative CT scan of Draf III procedure Coronal CT in a patient following modified Lothrop (Draf III) procedure. The frontal sinuses are well-aerated and an extensive drainage pathway has been created. The surgical defect in the nasal septum (arrow) should not be misinterpreted as an unintended septal perforation
  53. 53. Conclusion – The endonasal frontal sinus type I–III drainage procedures provide suitable surgical options for the treatment of frontal sinus disease. In cases where the endonasal approach is not possible or is unsuccessful, the osteoplastic flap procedure with or without obliteration may provide a solution. The chance of complete re-epitheliazation of eventually bare bone is very likely with the endonasal frontal sinus operations, since they respect the outer osseous borders of the newly created frontal sinus drainage and minimize the danger of frontal sinus outlet shrinking, thus preventing mucocele formation. This concept has revolutionized frontal sinus surgery, so that the classic external frontoorbital frontal sinus operations according to Jansen-Ritter or Lynch or Howarth are considered obsolete for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases of the frontal sinus.
  54. 54. AXILLARY FLAPAPPROACH • Axillary flap technique was designed to overcome the problems in ESS while surgical field is bloody, and longer time consumption for placing angled endoscopes in frontal recess before surgical dissection takes place. • This procedure allows a large part of dissection in frontal sinus with 0 degree telescope.
  55. 55. Surgical technique • Making a incision 8mm above axilla of middle turbinate and bring this 8mm forward, turned down vertically up to axilla, turned back under axilla on to the roof of middle turbinate.
  56. 56. • Full thickness flap elevated with freer elevater.
  57. 57. • A Hajek koeffler punch is used to remove ant wall of agger nasi cell. • Agger nasi cell enterd and probe is passed in frontal drainage pathway and all obstructing cells are removed and flap reposited back.
  58. 58. • Mucosal flap is carefully kept to prevent scarring • And completely covering the osteum back.
  59. 59. Osteoplastic Flap with Frontal Sinus Obliteration Today , about 5 % of all frontal sinus operations are external. Osteoplastic frontal sinus approach is regarded as a preferred approach particularly if problem frontal sinus occurs. Described by Tato and Bergaglio in 1949 as removal of diseased mucosa and obliteration with abdominal fat. INDICATIONS- • Failure of correctly performed type III drainage. • Type III drainage technically not possible ( AP diameter < 8 mm ) • Laterally located mucopyocoele. • Major destruction of posterior wall • Inflammatory complications after trauma (alloplastic material ) • Major benign tumours with and without obliteration( osteoma) • Problem frontal sinus sometimes in combination with complete endonasal ethmoidectomy
  60. 60. OSTEOPLASTIC FLAP SURGERY • Preoperative HRCT and X-ray occipito-frontal view should be done. • From image a contours of frontal sinus are cut out as a template. • A bitemporal coronal incision is preferred ( invisible scar ) • Scalp flap elevation done up to bilateral supraorbital ridges and over root of nose, carefully to avoid damage to supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve damage. Supratrochle ar nerve Supra orbital nerve Supra orbital artery
  61. 61. A Template from X-ray is placed on root of nose for marking the borders of frontal sinus on periosteum
  62. 62. • Periosteum is incised 1.5 cm outside the bony markings. • Osteotomy is made in the bone , few mm inside the marked line, for this 30 degree oscillating saw is used. • Frontal intersinus septum is broken with angled chisel. • The fracture and elevation of bony lid is undertaken with a wide osteotome. • Supraorbital ridge is preserved.
  63. 63. Formation of a bone flap with a saw corresponding to the limits of frontal sinus. Periosteum is elevated from the area of bone incision
  64. 64. An oblique incision through the bone enlarges the area of replacement of bony flap 1. Elevated galea periostium 2. Pathologically altered mucosa of frontal sinus
  65. 65. Then the anterior wall of frontal sinus is elevated with two broad chisels. This ends in a fracture of floor just posterior of supraorbital ridges. 3. Drill holes
  66. 66. Appearance after down fracturing of anterior wall of frontal sinus 4. Bony flaps hinged on periosteum , anterior wall of frontal sinus.
  67. 67. The mucosa is completely removed and using the operation microscope the internal table drilled with burr.
  68. 68. After blockage of the osteum, frontal sinus drainage by inverting mucosa, covering cartilage with preserved fascia or galea- periosteum and fixing with fibrin glue, frontal sinus is filled with pieces of fat
  69. 69. Situation at the end of operation after bony flap is replaced and closure done - • 5. preserved fascia • 6. cartilage • 7. transplanted fat with fibrin glue • 8.fibrin glue • 9. resorbable sponge • 10. rubber finger pack
  70. 70. Frontal sinus unobliteration procedure – Done in cases secondary to trauma or osteom having a healthy frontal sinus mucosa. In such cases , decision has to be taken whether the mucosa around the infundibulum is sufficiently healthy to preserve the frontal sinus or whether obliteration should be done. Where sinus is preserved , a type III median drainage is performed from above and is called as Frontal sinus unobliteration procedure .
  71. 71. Results of osteoplastic flap procedure • This procedure is very useful in patients in whom the frontal sinus can not be treated with endo-nasal approach. • Most important intra-operative complication is exposure of orbital fat and unintentional fracture of anterior wall, incorrect placement of anterior wall ,frontal contour change ( depression, embossment ). • Postoperative MRI is valuable in detecting recurrent mucocele and differentiating vital adipose tissue from fat necrosis in the form of oil cysts.
  72. 72. CRANIALIZATION OF FRONTAL SINUS Performed by Donald and Bernstein in 1982. Indications – 1. Comminuted fracture of frontal sinus 2. Incomplete removal of frontal sinus mucosa 3. Severe post traumatic oedema of frontal lobe 4. Intracranial foreign body 5. Destruction of posterior frontal sinus wall.
  73. 73. Surgical steps – The initial part of the procedure is same as osteoplastic frontal sinus procedure. Remnant of posterior wall are completely removed. Mucosa of the floor of frontal sinus is completely removed or inverted into the nose. Depending on A-P diameter of frontal sinus , If small – the connection to the nose is obliterated with conchal cartilage or galeal periosteal flaps. Large dead space b/w ant wall and dura – obliterated with abdominal fat , cancelous bone from iliac crest , hydroxyapatite. Anterior wall reconstructed with an additional bone graft from temporal area if required.
  74. 74. RHINOFRONTAL SINUS SEPTOSTOMY • A COMBINED INTRA-EXTRA NASAL APPROACH • Similar to combined external and internal technique of Lothrop but includes immediate re-epithelisation of frontal sinus area drainage with free mucosa grafts. • This procedure is useful to manage difficult frontal sinus disease which has recurred even after repeated surgeries. This procedure was first developed by Stenert.
  75. 75. Surgical technique 1. The external approach. 2. Resection of frontal sinus disease. 3. Total resection of frontal intersinus septum 4. Partial endonasal resection of nasal septum. 5. Bilateral subtotal resection of free dependant part of middle turbinate. 6. Bilateral endoscopic ethmoidectomy. 7. Maximal enlargement of the isthmus area between both frontal sinuses and nasal cavities, including the anterior ethmoids. 8. Complete epithelization of the neo-communication with free mucosal graft and closure of Jansen-Ritter approach
  76. 76. Results: • Widely patent epithelized nasofrontal communication post operatively • Complete symptomatic relief. • No requirement of revision surgery • Only complication encountered :CSF leak
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