When earth shook, Impact & Cause of Earth quake.


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Causes & impact of Earthquakes. How to escape and prevent yourself. Impact of 26 January Earthquake in Bhuj Dist. Gujarat

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When earth shook, Impact & Cause of Earth quake.

  1. 1. When The Earth Shook. EVS Grade - 5 Duration :- 35 min By:- Avdhesh Kumar Lawania, PRT, KVAGCR
  2. 2. Natural Disaster / Calamity • A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of, or effecting, the Earth; ex. floods, severe weather, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and other geologic processes. • A natural disaster can cause loss of life or property damage, and typically leaves some economic damage in its wake, the severity of which depends on the affected population's flexibility, or ability to recover.
  3. 3. Examples of natural hazards • Earthquakes • Volcanoes • Landslides • Floods and Droughts • Wildfires • Tsunamis • Hurricanes • Thunderstorms • Tornadoes • Winter storms • Heat Waves • Special Marine • “Space Weather”
  4. 4. Earthquake? Earthquake is a violent tremor in the earth’s crust, sending out a series of shock waves in all directions from its place of origin or epicenter. For instance, if you throw stone in a pond of still water, series of concentric waves are produced on the surface of water, these waves spread out in all directions from the point where the stone strikes the water similarly, any sudden disturbances in the earth’s crust may produce vibrations in the crust which travel in all directions from point of disturbances.
  5. 5. Causes of Earthquake Earthquakes are caused by sudden release of energy in rocks. Plates in the form of rocks are moving very slowly and earthquake occur when moving plates grind and scrape against each other. The point at which an earthquake originates is the focus or hypocenter and the point on the earth’s surface; directly above this is epicenter. The study of earthquake is called seismology.
  6. 6. CAUSES : • Some time faults develop in the plates of the Earth move, shake and rub against each other causing earthquakes in those areas. • Earth’s crust. And the dislocated parts of the earth’s surface moves up and down or to the sides. Due to the friction the earth surface vibrate. • During volcanic activity, due to the internal movements the earths surface receives tremors.
  7. 7. Overview of Tectonic plates
  8. 8. Earthquake prone areas in India
  9. 9. Date Place m Scale Set.2 , 1993 Latur (maharashtra) 6.3 Large areas of Maharashtra rocked. 10,000 people lost lives May 22, 1997 Jabalpur (Maharashtra) 6.0 40 person killed and over 100 injured March 29, 1999 Nandprayag 6.8 widespread destruction in chamoli , rudraprayag and other areas. Massive loss of human life Jan. 26 2001 Bhuj (gujrat) 7.8 Tremors left by India and its neighboring countries. Over 1 lakh people killed. Huge loss to property and infrastructure Oct. 8, 2005 Muzzaffarabad in Pakistan occupied Kashmir 7.4 Heavy damage to life and property. Death toll about one lakh in Pakistan and nearly 2000 in India List of Major Earthquakes in India
  10. 10. Picture of search and rescue operation of Latur Earthquake 1993
  11. 11. Helpless man being trapped under rubbish
  12. 12. Post – disaster picture from Kashmir earthquake 2005
  13. 13. Hazardous Effects of Earthquake - Loss of life and property - Damage to infrastructure - Topographical changes - Damage to transport system i.e. roads, railways, highways, airports, marine. - Chances of fire short-circuit. - Chances of Floods – Dams and Embankments can develop cracks - Chances of outburst of epidemic - Water pipes, sewers are disrupted - Communications such as telephone wires are damaged. - Economic activities like agriculture, industry, trade and transport are severely affected.
  14. 14. Earthquake Prediction - Unusual animal behavior - Changes in water level - Temperature change - Large scale fluctuations of oil flow from oil wells - Foreshocks or minor shocks before major earthquake - Changes in seismic wave velocity.
  15. 15. Earthquake safety rules If you are in a house • don’t use lift for getting down from building • be prepared to move with your family If you are in shop, school, office or theater • Don’t run for an exit. Stampede could prove fatal • take cover under a desk/table • move to corner or side walls • move away from window glass • Do not go near electric points and cable. Keep away from weak portion of the building and false ceiling
  16. 16. If you are in high rise building - Take protection under a desk/table - Don’t rush for exits - Stay in the building until the shaking stops - Don’t use elevator If you are outside - Avoid high buildings, walls, power lines and other objects that could fall and create block - Don’t run through streets - If possible, move on to an open area away from hazard including trees. If you are in vehicle - Stop in a safe and open place - Remain inside vehicle - Close windows, doors and vents
  17. 17. After an Earthquake • Keep calm, switch on the transistor radio and obey instructions • Keep away from beaches and low banks of river. A huge wave may sweep in • Expect aftershocks • Turn off the water, gas and electricity • Do not smoke, light match or use a cigarette lighter • Do not turn on switches there may be gas leak or short circuit • Use a torch • If there is any fire, try to put it out or call fire brigade • Immediately clean up any inflammable products that may spilled
  18. 18. Contd. • If you aware of people have been buried, tell the rescue team. Do not rush and try not to worsen the situation. • Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not come in contact with any metal object • Do not drink water from open containers without having examined it. • Eat something. You will better and more capable of helping other • Do not re enter badly damaged buildings and do not go near damage structures • Do not walk around the streets to see what is happening. Keep the streets clear so rescue vehicles can access the roads easily.
  19. 19. Bhuj Earthquake 26th January 2001 1. Video of Survivor of Bhuj earthquake Victim. 2. Video Of Bhuj Disaster. 3. Video of Volunteer service in Bhuj. A special thanks to Sh. Anuj Ajmeri for these Videos.
  20. 20. Bhuj Earthquake 26th January 2001 On the morning of January 26, 2001, the Nation’s 52nd Republic Day, a devastating earthquake occurred in the Kutch district of the state of Gujarat. The earthquake was felt as far away as Delhi in the north, Kolkata in the east and Chennai in the south. Bhuj town and the village Bhachau, 60 km east of Bhuj, were the worst affected and many other areas of Gujarat including its state headquarters Ahmedabad, were badly affected
  21. 21. Damage assessment • There were more than 20,000 deaths and 167,000 people injured • Four districts of Gujarat lay in ruin and altogether, 21 districts were affected • Around 300,000 families and at least 3 million children aged 14 and under were affected. • Around 600,000 people were left homeless. • In the city of Bhuj, more than 3,000 inhabitants of the city lost their lives; the main hospital was crushed and close to 90% of the buildings was destroyed. • There was significant damage to infrastructure with facilities such as hospitals, schools, electric power and water systems, bridges and roads damaged or destroyed.
  22. 22. A homeless family waits for a ride amid ruined houses and a funeral pyre in the village near Bhuj.
  23. 23. 5 year old girl recovers at a hospital in Bhuj on Monday after Friday's massive earthquake
  24. 24. Role of Local Community • The response within India was immediate. The national and state governments quickly provided assistance in many forms including cash, medical supplies, communications teams, shelters, food, clothing, transport and relief workers. • There were more than 185 non-government organizations (NGOs), mostly Indian charities, which undertook earthquake-related activities
  25. 25. International Help in Rescue Mission Search and Rescue teams soon arrived from Switzerland, United Kingdom, Russia and Turkey to find and rescue survivors buried under debris. Relief teams and supplies soon followed from 38 countries as well as United Nations agencies and many international NGOs such as the Red Cross.
  26. 26. Thank you!!!