PERMANENT gases in the atmosphere by percent are:
(Note that these two permanent gases together comprise
99% of the atmosphere)
Other permanent gases:
VARIABLE gases in the atmosphere and typical
percentage values are:
0 to 4%
Cities and towns are heavily vulnerable to climate change.
Mostly urban areas across the world will be affected by rising sea
levels, increased precipitation, inland floods, more frequent and
stronger cyclones and storms.
Negatively impact infrastructure and worsen access to basic urban
services and quality of life in cities.
Cities are also major contributors to climate change, producing
more than 60% of all carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions,
mainly through energy generation, vehicles, industry and biomass
Many major costal cities with populations of more than 10 million
people are under threat: Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Los
Angeles, New York, Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Dhaka,
Shanghai, Osaka-Kobe and Tokyo.
By 2030, when three-quarters of the world's population is
expected to be urban, the biggest cities will be found in the
It is the medium-sized cities in these regions -- such as
Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Maputo, Mozambique and Sorsogon,
Philippines – that face the largest population growth and
increasing vulnerability to climate change-related impacts over
the coming decades.
1. In these cities the most affected populations are the
urban poor – i.e. slum dwellers in developing countries –
a) along beaches vulnerable to flooding,
b) by railways,
c) on slopes prone to landfalls,
d) near polluted grounds,
e) on desertified land and
f) in shaky structures vulnerable to earthquakes.
2. The risk of mass fatalities is greater given modern land
use policies and rapid urbanisation.
1. However, cities are also places of innovation and efficiency
when properly planned, capacitated and managed through
the appropriate governance structures.
2. Together with their local authorities they have the potential
to diminish the causes of climate change (mitigation) and
effectively protect themselves from its impacts
3. Our country is a developing nation with a large population,
complex climate conditions and a weak environment
1. Climate change is already a serious threat to food,
water, ecological and energy security, and to people's
lives and property.
2. The mission to deal with climate change is very
arduous, but knowledge in society and ability to do
this are weak across the board.
3. China is seeing more droughts in its northern region,
with typhoons arriving earlier, wetlands drying up and
sea levels rising, said the document, published in
coordination with several ministries, including the
• In the future the rising trend of temperatures will become
even more obvious.
• There will be even more unfavourable impacts (from climate
change), and if effective measures are not taken the losses
from disasters caused by extreme weather will be even more