City and cliamte change


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City and cliamte change

  1. 1. PERMANENT gases in the atmosphere by percent are: – – Nitrogen 78.1% Oxygen 20.9% (Note that these two permanent gases together comprise 99% of the atmosphere) Other permanent gases: – – – – – Argon Neon Helium Krypton Hydrogen 0.9% 0.002% 0.0005% 0.0001% 0.00005%
  2. 2. VARIABLE gases in the atmosphere and typical percentage values are: – – – – Water vapor Carbon Dioxide Methane Ozone 0 to 4% 0.035% 0.0002% 0.000004%
  3. 3. 1. Cities and towns are heavily vulnerable to climate change. 2. Mostly urban areas across the world will be affected by rising sea levels, increased precipitation, inland floods, more frequent and stronger cyclones and storms. 3. Negatively impact infrastructure and worsen access to basic urban services and quality of life in cities. 4. Cities are also major contributors to climate change, producing more than 60% of all carbon dioxide, greenhouse gas emissions, mainly through energy generation, vehicles, industry and biomass use.
  4. 4. 1. Many major costal cities with populations of more than 10 million people are under threat: Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Los Angeles, New York, Lagos, Cairo, Karachi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Dhaka, Shanghai, Osaka-Kobe and Tokyo. 2. By 2030, when three-quarters of the world's population is expected to be urban, the biggest cities will be found in the developing world. 3. It is the medium-sized cities in these regions -- such as Esmeraldas, Ecuador; Maputo, Mozambique and Sorsogon, Philippines – that face the largest population growth and increasing vulnerability to climate change-related impacts over the coming decades.
  5. 5. 1. In these cities the most affected populations are the urban poor – i.e. slum dwellers in developing countries – a) along beaches vulnerable to flooding, b) by railways, c) on slopes prone to landfalls, d) near polluted grounds, e) on desertified land and f) in shaky structures vulnerable to earthquakes. 2. The risk of mass fatalities is greater given modern land use policies and rapid urbanisation.
  6. 6. 1. However, cities are also places of innovation and efficiency when properly planned, capacitated and managed through the appropriate governance structures. 2. Together with their local authorities they have the potential to diminish the causes of climate change (mitigation) and effectively protect themselves from its impacts 3. Our country is a developing nation with a large population, complex climate conditions and a weak environment (situation).
  7. 7. 1. Climate change is already a serious threat to food, water, ecological and energy security, and to people's lives and property. 2. The mission to deal with climate change is very arduous, but knowledge in society and ability to do this are weak across the board. 3. China is seeing more droughts in its northern region, with typhoons arriving earlier, wetlands drying up and sea levels rising, said the document, published in coordination with several ministries, including the Agriculture Ministry.
  8. 8. • In the future the rising trend of temperatures will become even more obvious. • There will be even more unfavourable impacts (from climate change), and if effective measures are not taken the losses from disasters caused by extreme weather will be even more serious.