Environmental Problems and Issues with Emphasis on Ecology

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Environmental Issues in the Philippines

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Environmental Problems and Issues with Emphasis on Ecology

  1. 1. "Environmental Problems and Issues with Emphasis on Ecology"<br />
  2. 2. Module I: State of the World<br /> Human Population<br /> Earth Capital – Natural Resources<br /> Renewable – Solar, Wind<br /> Non-renewable – Coal, Oil<br /> Potentially Renewable – water, soil<br /> Ecosystem Services – Processes<br /> Biogeochemical Cycles<br /> Redundancy & Biodiversity<br /> Environmental Degradation<br /> Society and Fossil Fuels<br />
  3. 3. Source: Dr. BabatundeOsotimehin, UNFPA Executive Director, July 112, 2011<br /><ul><li> This year, on October 31st, world population reaches 7 billion. This milestone represents a challenge, an opportunity and a call to action
  4. 4. 215 million women in developing countries who want to plan and space their births but do not have access to modern contraception. Together we can prevent the deaths of 1,000 women every day from complications of pregnancy and childbirth</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> We have an opportunity and responsibility to invest in the world’s 1.8 billion adolescents and youth aged 10 to 24. They constitute more than a quarter of the world's population and almost 90 per cent live in developing countries. Every young person deserves education, including sexuality education, and access to comprehensive health services. With the right policies, investments and social support, young people can enjoy healthier lives free of poverty and enhance prospects for peace and stability.
  5. 5. As the most interconnected population, young people are already transforming society, politics and culture. By more actively engaging women and young people, we can build a better future for all generations.</li></li></ul><li>Most Populous Countries 2010<br />Country Population (millions)<br /><ul><li> China 1,338
  6. 6. India 1,189
  7. 7. United States 310
  8. 8. Indonesia 235
  9. 9. Brazil 193
  10. 10. Pakistan 185
  11. 11. Bangladesh 164
  12. 12. Nigeria 158
  13. 13. Russia 142
  14. 14. Japan 127</li></li></ul><li>Most Populous Countries 2050<br />Country Population (millions)<br /><ul><li> India 1,748
  15. 15. China 1,437
  16. 16. United States 423
  17. 17. Pakistan 335
  18. 18. Nigeria 326
  19. 19. Indonesia 309
  20. 20. Bangladesh 222
  21. 21. Brazil 215
  22. 22. Ethiopia 174
  23. 23. Congo, Dem. Rep. 166</li></li></ul><li>Countries With the Youngest populations, 2010<br />YOUNGEST % ages <15<br />Niger 50.1<br />Uganda 48.7<br />Burkina Faso 46.4<br />Congo, Dem. Rep. 46.4<br />Zambia 46.2<br />Malawi 45.9<br />Afghanistan 45.9<br />Chad 45.6<br />Somalia 44.9<br />Tanzania 44.7<br />
  24. 24. Countries With the Oldest Populations, 2010<br />OL DEST % AGES 65+<br />Japan 22.6<br />Germany 20.5<br />Italy 20.4<br />Sweden 18.3<br />Greece 18.3<br />Portugal 17.9<br />Bulgaria 17.6<br />Austria 17.6<br />Latvia 17.4<br />Belgium 17.4<br />
  25. 25. Today, Global Population Adds Another Billion at Record Rates.<br />Source: Population Reference Bureau estimates and projections; and UN Population Division, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision (2009).<br />
  26. 26. Earth Capital – Natural Resources<br /> Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystem.<br /> Natural resources are derived from the environment. Many of them are essential for our survival while others are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways.<br />
  27. 27. Earth Capital – Natural Resources<br />Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands is an example of an undisturbed natural resource<br />
  28. 28. Earth Capital – Natural Resources<br />The Upsala Glacier in the Santa Cruz Province of Argentina is an example of a natural resource.<br />
  29. 29. Classification<br />On the basis of origin, resources may be divided into:<br />Biotic – Biotic resources are obtained from the biosphere, such as forests and their products, animals, birds and their products, fish and other marine organisms. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum are also included in this category because they are formed from decayed organic matter.<br />Abiotic – Abiotic resources include non-living things. Examples include land, water, air and minerals including ores such as gold, iron, copper, silver etc.<br />
  30. 30. Considering their stage of development, natural resources may be referred to in the following ways:<br />Potential Resources– Potential resources are those that exist in a region and may be used in the future. For example, petroleum may exist in many parts of India, having sedimentary rocks but until the time it is actually drilled out and put into use, it remains a potential resource.<br />Actual Resources– Actual resources are those that have been surveyed, their quantity and quality determined and are being used in present times. The development of an actual resource, such as wood processing depends upon the technology available and the cost involved.<br />Reserve Resources– The part of an actual resource which can be developed profitably in the future is called a reserve resource.<br />Stock Resources– Stock resources are those that have been surveyed but cannot be used by organisms due to lack of technology. For example. hydrogen<br />
  31. 31. With respect to renewability, natural resources can be categorized as follows:<br />Renewable resourcesare ones that can be replenished or reproduced easily. Some of them, like sunlight, air, wind, etc., are continuously available and their quantity is not affected by human consumption. Many renewable resources can be depleted by human use, but may also be replenished, thus maintaining a flow. Some of these, like agricultural crops, take a short time for renewal; others, like water, take a comparatively longer time, while still others, like forests, take even longer.<br />Non-renewable resourcesare formed over very long geological periods. Minerals and fossil fuels are included in this category. Since their rate of formation is extremely slow, they cannot be replenished once they get depleted. Of these, the metallic minerals can be re-used by recycling them. But coal and petroleum cannot be recycled<br />
  32. 32. On the basis of availability, natural resources can be categorized as follows:<br />Inexhaustible natural resources- Those resources which are present in unlimited quantity in nature and are not likely to be exhausted easily by human activity are inexhaustible natural resources (sunlight, air etc.)<br />Exhaustible natural resources- The amount of these resources are limited. They can be exhausted by human activity in the long run (coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.)<br />
  33. 33. On the basis of distribution, natural resources can be classified as follows:<br />Ubiquitous resources- Resources that are found everywhere are called ubiquitous resources. For example land, air<br />Localized resources- Resources that are found only at certain places are called localized resources. For example minerals, fossil fuels<br />
  34. 34. Some examples of natural resources include the following: air, wind and atmosphere<br />
  35. 35. Bangui Windmills<br /> Bangui Windmills are located in Bangui, Ilocos Norte, Philippines. It is also known as the NorthWind Bangui Bay Project, a project by the NorthWind Development Corporation as a practice renewable energy sources and to help reduce the greenhouse gases that cause global warming. The project is the first “Wind Farm” in the Philippines consisting of wind turbines on-shore facing the South China Sea and considered to be the biggest in Southeast Asia. The project sells electricity to the Ilocos Norte Electric Cooperative (INEC) and provides 40% of the power requirements of Ilocos Norte via Transco Laoag<br />
  36. 36. Some examples of natural resources include the following: Animals<br />Eagle<br />Reptile<br />Sea animal<br />
  37. 37. Some examples of natural resources include the following: coal, fossil, rock and mineral<br />resources<br />Definition: Coal is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. Coal is a readily combustible black or brownish-black rock. It is a sedimentary rock, but the harder forms, such as anthracite coal, can be regarded as metamorphic rocks because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure.<br /> It is composed primarily of carbon along with assorted other elements, including sulfur. It is the largest single source of fuel for the generation of electricity world-wide, as well as one of the largest sources of carbon dioxide emissions, which is considered the primary cause of global warming. Coal is extracted from the ground by coal mining, either underground mining or open pit mining (surface mining).<br />coal<br />
  38. 38. Some examples of natural resources include the following: fossil fuel<br />Fossil fuels are created from organic material that was created millions of years ago. Petroleum, a fossil fuel gets its name from two words, "petra" meaning rock and "oleum" which means oil. Petroleum is drilled in order to search for oil. Also to determine the size of a reserve, as well as to produce oil and gas at a controlled rate.<br />On March 11, 2002 we learned the difference between gasoline engines and diesel engines. Gasoline engines give low power, low efficiency, are quiet, have an easy cold start, cause less pollution, controlled emissions, and easily converted. Diesel engines give high power, high efficiency, are noisy, difficult cold start, more pollution, and it is more difficult to control emissions. <br />
  39. 39. <ul><li> There are severe environmental impacts from fossil fuel use. These impacts are found in all stages, recovery, transportation, refining, storage, and end use. During recovery of coal, the earth suffers destruction of topsoil as well as acidic run off creating orange creeks and land subsidence. Petroleum production causes on land and off shore drilling as well as gushers and accidents.
  40. 40. During transportation accidents can occur and are pretty much routine. This causes massive pollution of the seas. Preparation or refining creates refuse and sludge from coal cleaning plants. With petroleum air and water pollution are caused. In storage, gasoline leaks in underground tanks at gas stations are a threat. During end use, pollutants from combustion occur. Also, the release of sulfur and nitrogen oxides pose a threat. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li> On March 18,2002 we learned of measures to reduce the environmental pollution from fossil fuel use. Amendments passed in 1990 placed limits on hydrocarbon emissions. Also, mandatory emission testing was placed on vehicles. in 1992 during the Earth Summet in Rio one hundred and six countries participated. An international treaty was raised to reduce CO2 emissions to 1990 levels and stabalize concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere.
  41. 41. In 1997, kyotoProtocal was created to reduce emissions in developed countries. US congress refused to approve it. Some major challenges we face now are the reduction of fossil fuel use, increasing population, and industrialization of developing nations</li></ul>http://excessfossilfuels.blogspot.com/2010/11/fossil-fuels.html<br />
  42. 42. Some examples of natural resources include the following: mineral resources<br />
  43. 43. Some examples of natural resources include the following: Forestry<br />
  44. 44. Some examples of natural resources: ranges and pastures<br />
  45. 45. Ecology and Ecological problems<br />
  46. 46. Some examples of natural resources include the following: soils, oceans, lakes, groundwater and rivers<br />Taal Lake<br />Underground river - Palawan<br />
  47. 47. Some examples of natural resources include the following<br />: solar power<br />Life is better for the recipients of solar panels structured beside the low-cost houses in the island barangay of Pangapuyan in the east of Zamboanga City. They were installed by USAID’s Alliance for Mindanao Off-Grid Renewable Energy program which received some $73 million new funding to support the Philippine’s environment and energy programs and bring development to the poorest provinces in Mindanao.<br />http://fotoreportage.wordpress.com/2009/04/09/philippines-receives-us73-million-for-energy-projects/<br />
  48. 48. Environmental effects<br />In the United States, more than 90% of greenhouse gas emissions come from the combustion of fossil fuels.18 Combustion of fossil fuels also produces other air pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and heavy metals.<br />According to Environment Canada:<br />"The electricity sector is unique among industrial sectors in its very large contribution to emissions associated with nearly all air issues. Electricity generation produces a large share of Canadian nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide emissions, which contribute to smog and acid rain and the formation of fine particulate matter. It is the largest uncontrolled industrial source of mercury emissions in Canada. Fossil fuel-fired electric power plants also emit carbon dioxide, which may contribute to climate change. In addition, the sector has significant impacts on water and habitat and species. In particular, hydro dams and transmission lines have significant effects on water and biodiversity<br />
  49. 49. World Climate Change Is Altering Many Well-Known Tourist Hot Spots<br />World climate change is threatening the very existence of so many beautiful and legendary places. <br />From the Arctic circle to Madagascar, rising temperatures, ocean levels, and shifting weather patterns may mean the end of many natural landmarks and points of interest as we have long known them<br />A Glacier Melting In Montana<br />

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