INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHClimate and Planning Professional Practice Omkar Parishwad 2010MURP007
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK Climate and its relation to Planning Micro: Buildings and Climate Macro: Climatic data interpretation for CDP Climatic changes: Vulnerability and Adaptation Case Study: Climate vs. Master Plan (Adaptability) of Surat
CLIMATE RELATED PLANNING ORGANIZATIONS Min. of Environment and Forests (MoEF) Min. of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) Min. of Power (MoP) Min. of Urban Development (MoUD) Department of Science and Technology (DST) Central Statistical Office (CSO) Technology Information, Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC) Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe) Gov. funded Urban Projects: JNNURM, National Urban Sanitation Policy, Service level Benchmarking.. International: United Nations Development Program, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC or FCCC), etc.
CLIMATIC DATA INTERPRETATION IN CDP Sustainable Planning Inclusive Growth This preparation includes risk assessments, prioritization of projects, funding and allocation of both financial and human resources, solution development and implementation, and rapid deployment of information sharing and decision support tools as part of climate risk management and disaster preparedness. This should be mainstreamed into development plans like City Development Plans and Master plans.
TYPES AND LEVELS OF CLIMATIC CHANGES..Change in Climate Impact on Urban areasTemperature Increased Energy Demands (heating/cooling) Air quality/ urban heat islands..Precipitation Increased Risk of Flooding, Landslides, distress migration..Sea level Rise Coastal Flooding, agriculture & tourism affected, salinization..Extreme Rainfall/ More intense flooding, landslides, disruption toCyclones livelihoods, damage to city economies..Drought Water shortage, high food price, disruption of hydro- electricity, migration from rural areas..Heat/Cold waves Increase in energy demands (heating/cooling)Abrupt/Extreme Population movements, significant impacts from sea-climate Changes level rise, temperature change, Biological changes.. Source: Compiled from various sources
SURAT MASTERPLAN: FLOOD PRONE AREASThe city is vulnerable to extreme weather events (cyclones, flooding and drought), sealevel rise and salinity, and increased temperature. Direct Climatic Impact: Economic, social, and environmental costs to city, in part because of the physical exposure of populations, natural resources, and infrastructure. Indirect Climatic Impact: Urban Poor, Disaster response and recovery, Backup systems such as energy, water and sanitation, food reserves, medical supplies, weak enforcement of policies on land use, building codes, environmental regulations..
Factors that affect investment in Hazira and adaptation strategies at various levelsRelated Source: Clark MJ (1977). The relationship between coastal zone management and offshoreeconomic development. Maritime policy and management, 4:436, p 431-449.
ADAPTATION RESPONSE.. Urban flood management – Clearing of channels; improved solid waste and drainage management; structural controls (e.g., dikes, flood barriers); flood adapted design and relocation into lower risk areas (with careful consideration of the political, social, and cultural sensitivities of relocation); and post-disaster reconstruction planning. Water supply – Improved access to water for the informal sector, policies to address cost inequities, and access to emergency supplies; demand-side management; protection of private and public groundwater supplies. Public services – Increased awareness and assistance redundant/emergency energy and water services, transportation, and communications.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT.. Incorporate Disaster Management Plan as part of the Master Plan. Build stronger database for the city to increase Preparedness. Frame higher safety standards for contractors and Builders. Flood control initiatives No Encroachment /Construction in risk area Protective hard embankment River trenching Emergency response centre Emergency plan – Place & training
VULNERABILITY VS PLANNING.. Vulnerable Vulnerability Indicators Adaptation Sectors Land and Low elevation Population Pressure 1. Develop flood control measures for islands. Beach 2. Protect house reef to maintain natural defence of islands. Human 1. Housing designs, structures and 1. Strengthen land-use planning as a tool forSettlements materials are not adapted to protection of human settlements. flooding. 2. Improve building designs to increase 2. The flooring of houses does not resilience. have adequate elevation from the ground. Critical 1. The infrastructure of the two 1. Installation of system of protective barriersInfrastructure international airports is within (called tetra pods). 1.Airport 50m of the coastline 2. Diversify the tourist Impacts and 2. In the islands, 80% of the Vulnerabilities product to reduce over- 2.Power powerhouses are located dependency on marine environment. Houses within 100m of coastline Tourism 1. Most of the beaches are the 1. Mainstreaming adaptation in the design of hotspots of the tourism industry. the tourism related structures like, elevating 2. The resorts catering to the the structures and use of flood resistant tourists are at very low materials elevation from the mean sea level. Water 1. The freshwater aquifer lying Promote healthy islands and healthy buildings. resources beneath the islands is shallow, 1 to 1.5m below the surface.
Thank You…“Communities around the world need better weapons — new tools, techniques, andstrategies — if they hope to tame the three-headed hydra of climate risk, poverty, andprecipitous urbanization (...) Since it may be too late to stop the global warming that’salready occurred, we must figure out how to survive it…we must know how to adapt toit…. - Judith Rodin, President, The Rockefeller Foundation