CAPE 2007 U1/P2/#66a) Describe with suitable and well labeled diagrams, TWO benefits of folded and faultedlandscapes to mankind [10 marks]b) Government can respond to risk of hazards by adopting measures that avoid and reducerisk.Write an essay outlining THREE measures that avoid and TWO that can reduce the riskposed by hazards. [20 marks] a) Two benefits of folded and faulted landscapes are source of minerals and energy. Firstly, one benefit of faulted landscapes is being a source of minerals. Cordilleran foldswhere magma consolidates as batholiths from which molten material arises are the sources ofmany minerals of economic importance. The mining is concentrated where the batholiths areeither uncovered by erosion or lie on the surface. For example, there is a major zone ofmineralization in the Rockies where copper is found. The Andean region produces tin, copperand silver. Sulphur deposits from volcanoes are mined in Chile. Faulted landscape in Devon andCornwall reveal veins containing metal ores. Folding and faulting have also revealed beds ofcoals in the Appalachians. In addition, a second benefit of folded landscapes is energy. Hydroelectric power hasseveral advantages over fossil fuels. There is no pollution, it is renewable and is relatively cheap.It is best developed in areas of high relief-fold mountains or uplifted faulted blocks. Forexample, Norway as developed its hydroelectric resources and bauxite companies to be smeltedin Norway. Along belts of shattered rock, water circulating deep within the earth has a fast routeto the surface. The temperature remains high enough to provide geothermal power. For example,Iceland and New Zealand have developed their geothermal power resources. In the USA, it isassociated with Basin and range topography and in Kenya, with the Rift Valley. b) A hazard is a threat of a naturally occurring event that will have a negative impact on thepeople or the environment. Three measures that can avoid the risk posed by hazards are; land useregulations, financial incentives and natural resource management. Two measures that canreduce the risk posed by hazards are building standards and retrofitting. Firstly, land use regulations can be used to avoid the risk posed by hazards. Certain partsof a city/country are unsuitable for certain types of land use. In other cases, there are dangersinvolved in having land uses in close proximity to residential and noxious chemicals. Forexample, obvious risks can be avoided by specifying areas where residential, commercial andindustrial functions are allowed zoning. Zoning regulations are not only useful in specifyingfunctions. Within residential areas they could specify where land is unsuitable for building
CAPE 2007 U1/P2/#6purposes which may include, too steep and subject to erosion, too close to water courses whereresidential uses and wastes could put fresh water supplies at risk. Land use regulations couldspecify the density, height, dimensions, alignment of buildings, the width of roads, and the needfor access roads, all in the interest of safety.In agricultural areas, land classification systemscould protect food supplies by specifying land subject to flooding and unsuitable for agriculturalpurposes. Where necessary, land use regulations can be backed up by compulsory purchase andland acquisition. Secondly, financial incentives can avoid the risk posed by hazards. These are useful inguiding development. These could take the form of tax exemptions, favourable land prices andthe provision of infrastructure/utilities. In this way, commercial/industrial ventures could beguided to areas where they could do least harm to people and the environment. When financialincentives fail, there can be harsh penalties for unacceptable uses. In most countries, laws are inplace but they are not strictly enforced. Thirdly, natural resource managementcan be used to avoid the risk posed by hazards.Hazards can be avoided if governments exert strict control over the management of naturalresources. Many landslides are caused by the removal of forests from hill slopes where theystabilize the soil and conserve water supplies. Beaches are being eroded because of the type ofstructures on coastlands and sometimes by attempts to protect the beaches. Wetlands should beprotected because they serve for fish and protect coastal areas. Rivers are being mined to providesand for building purposes.