Flow
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Transcript

  • 1. FlowMeasurement
  • 2. Basic Flow Measurement Many methods of flow measurement Bernoulli’s Equation – A statement of energy conservation 1 2 p + ρv + ρgy = constant 2
  • 3. Flow Pattern
  • 4. Orifice Plate Orifice Plate Flow Sharp Edge Bevel High Pressure Low Pressure Sensing Line Sensing Line
  • 5. Typical Orifice Plates
  • 6. Beveled Edge on Orifice
  • 7. Typical Transmitter Installation
  • 8. Flange Taps
  • 9. Vena Contracta Taps
  • 10. Pro’s and Con’s High delta P High pressure loss Lots of data Erosion Low cost Easy replacement
  • 11. Venturi Tube
  • 12. Flow Nozzle
  • 13. Elbow Taps
  • 14. Pitot Tube
  • 15. Annubar
  • 16. Annubar
  • 17. Annubar
  • 18. Annubar
  • 19. Annubar
  • 20. Output of the Transmitter ∆P
  • 21. Square Root Extractor
  • 22. Flow Loop with Square RootExtractor
  • 23. Extractor at Low Inputs
  • 24. Cutoff Relay
  • 25. Effect of Process Conditions Flow measurements are inferential – Measure a pressure drop and infer a flow Affect by density of the fluid – Temperature – Pressure – Increasing density increases the indicated flow rate
  • 26. Density Compensating Flow High Pressure Sensing Line RTD Low Pressure Sensing Line DP Cell Pressure Cell Logic 4-20 mA Output
  • 27. Flow Measurement Errors Erosion Over ranging the D/P cell Vapour formation in the throat Clogging Plugged or leaking impulse lines
  • 28. For you to do Read pp. 18-32 Answer Questions pp. 82-85, #6-14