Science for water management in Mediterranean


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Science for water management in Mediterranean

  1. 1. SCIENCE FOR WATER MANAGEMENT  IN THE MEDITERRANEAN VERSeau Développement é l Agropolis International 14 March, 2012
  2. 2. Association VERSeau ssociation Seau Développement Pierre CHEVALLIER, President Interfacing and  f g facilitation throughcollaboration between VERSeau’s objective is to research, industry and  create synergies regarding public authorities the institutional, technical and legal aspects of water  resources management
  3. 3. Activities of VERSeau Développement Coordination of the Quality Charter  Hosting the Executive Office of for Sanitation Networks in Languedoc‐ Networks in Languedoc International Water Resources  Roussillon Association Quality Charter IWRA Development of and  participation to  Missions Coordination and  international projects promotion of scientific  projects Expertise CIRCLE MED  European Project Support to local and national public  and CIRCLE 2 CLIMPARKS  policy Cooperation programmes with th   C ti   ith the  Conseil Général de l’Hérault Support to Global Competitiviness Cluster for Water
  4. 4. Latest publication Synthesis of  CIRCLE MED project CIRCLE‐MED project results and recommendations to decision makers to decision‐makers on different aspects of water management  issues in Mediterranean coastal Available online: areas under climate change‐ conditions. 
  5. 5. Association VERSeau Développement Domaine de Lavalette  859, rue Jean‐François Breton 34093 Montpellier Cedex 5 France p +33 (0)4 67 61 04 00 verseau@verseaudeveloppement com
  6. 6. Agropolis InternationalWorld centre for agriculture, food and environmental sciences Paul LUU, Director l i
  7. 7. A springboard for inter‐institutional exchange 5 •Montpellier 1,2 and 3,  universities Nîmes and Perpignan 10 •Montpellier SupAgro,  p p g , CIHEAM/IAM.M,  higher  AgroParisTech/ENGREF,  educational  ENSC.M, ESCAIA, ICRA, ISTOM,  28 higher  institutes  Sup de Co  EMA  CODIGE Sup de Co, EMA, CODIGE d i education  •National: BRGM, CEA, Irstea (ex  , , ( and research  13 research  CEMAGREF), CIRAD, CNRS,  IFREMER, INRA, INSERM, IRD institutes are  institutes •International: Bioversity members of  International, CSIRO, EMBRAPA,  International  CSIRO  EMBRAPA   USDA Agropolis International
  8. 8. Pooled resources and expertise  3 g 3 agricultural  centres,  • Specialised research  5 university  hubs: remote sensing,  ubs: e ote se s g, campuses and  water sciences, human  sciences 3 research sites • Technology platforms:  gy p Ecotron, MEDIMEER,  Station aquacole de Palavas,  genotyping‐sequencing‐ cloning, phenotyping, l i g  h t i g bioinformatics, 80 research  Common high‐ polyphenols, fractionation units, mainly  performance  of plant material,  p , inter‐ environmental  infrastructures technology…organizational • Collections,  databases…
  9. 9. Comprehensive training opportunities156 degree courses, professional and academicTechnicians, engineers, B.Sc., M.Sc., Ph.D.6 graduate schoolsOver 600 Ph.D. studentsContinuing education packagesShort or long‐term (standard or customized)Training engineering
  10. 10. The highest concentration in Europe g p for research and training in Agriculture,  Food, Biodiversity, Environment • 2 300 researchers and  2,300 researchers and  teachers •O   Over 5,000 students and    d   d  trainees 10,000 people overall
  11. 11. An international platform open to Mediterranean and tropical regions French institutions specialized in international cooperation:  Cirad, IRD, Montpellier SupAgro/IRC International institutions: CIHEAM‐IAMM, ICRA, Bioversity International Foreign laboratories (Australia, Brazil, USA) and  international program representatives (CPWF) p g p ( ) Network integration: CGIAR, AgriNATURA, CILBA… New headquarters of the CGIAR Consortium
  12. 12. Open to stakeholders of economic and  agricultural developmentMembers of Agropolis I tM b   f A li International ti l Transfer and interface bodies: Transferts LR, ACTA, ACTIA Company representatives: LRIA, CRCI, VERSeau Company representatives: LRIA  CRCI  VERSeau Développement Consultancy and company offices: BRL, IBMA, ITK, Cade…Collaboration with several competitiveness clustersIntegration of competitiveness clusters and technology  g f p gyparks in international networks
  13. 13. Roles, missions and venturesCoordination and organization of  g fthe regional scientific communityPromotion of expertise worldwideGlobal support for regional innovation stakeholders isibilit visibilityManagement of partnerships  forum f facilitationand collective projects d  ll ti   j t added value subsidiarity
  14. 14. Expertise of the regional scientific community in the field of waterThierry RIEU, Director of AgroParisTech center of Montpellier y , g p
  15. 15. Expertise of the regional scientific community in the field of water 18 research units involved Gathering 800 scientists G th i g 800  i ti t Interacting with 10  international cooperation or  valorisation structures Offering 43 educational p g programmes dealing g with water
  16. 16. Main research themes in the field of water The resource: identification, Conservation and  Management of water  functioning, mobilisation restoration of water quality resource and usesUMR ART DevUMR ART‐Dev XUMR EMMAH X XUMR ESPACE‐DEV X XUMR G‐EAU UMR G EAU  X X XUMR GM  XUMR GRED  XUMR HSM  X X XUMR IEM  XUMR ITAP  X X XUMR LAMETA  XUMR LISAH  X X XUMR TETIS  X X XUMS OREME  XUPR GREEN  XUPR EAU/NRE  X XUPR LBE  XUPR LGEI  X X XUS Analysis  X
  17. 17. International cooperationInternational research centers or programs (CGIAR, CPWF, FRIEND UNESCO Program…)National and international scientificand professional associations (IAHS, IWRA, ICID/AFEID, VERSeau Développement) pp )Researchers from CIRAD and IRD posted overseas able to strengthen cooperation
  18. 18. Three research and education chairsMembrane sciences applied to the environmentOn water treatment by membrane processes (approved by UNESCO)( )Water for AllOffering capacity building programmes for utility managers in the developing and emerging countries (in partnership with Suez‐Environnement)Risks analyses of emerging contaminants in aquatic environmentsFocused on organic contaminants in water (in partnership with Veolia)
  19. 19. An innovative research dedicated to  solutions for water management l ti  f   t   tCreation in 2010 of the “Water” competitiveness cluster C ti  i     f th  “W t ”  titi   l t  including the Languedoc‐Roussillon, Midi‐Pyrénées and Provence‐Alpes‐Côte‐d’Azur regionsP Al Côt d’A giThe  Water  cluster seeks to create value through innovative The “Water” cluster seeks to create value through innovative projects in the field of water use and management4 strategic axes:  Identification and use of water resources Concerted management and uses in contexts with high pressure on water resources C d   d   i     i h hi h        Reuse of water from all sources  Institutional and societal approaches in terms of stakeholders and decisions
  20. 20. Examples of Innovative projectsARENA projectIntegrated approach to analyze the vulnerability and adaptation capacities to global changes of the « groundwater economy » in North Africa Approved by the Water Competitiveness Cluster Funded by ANRECODREDGE – MED projectEco‐technologiesEco technologies for extraction and valorization of sediment in ports  Approved by the Water Competitiveness Cluster Funded by FUIHYDROGUARD projectAutonomous equipment and technologies for the optimized management of the means of prevention of floods, pollutions and marine submersion in LR the means of prevention of floods  pollutions and marine submersion in LR and PACA Approved by the Risk Competitiveness Cluster Funded by FUI
  21. 21. Facing global changes in the Mediterranean region: What will tomorrow’s water resources be like? Wh t  ill t ’  t    b  lik ? RESCUE‐Med team Denis RUELLAND CNRS H d S i CNRS‐ HydroSciences M t lli Montpellier Marianne MILANO – Ph‐D student Plan Bleu – UM2 – HydroSciences Montpellier
  22. 22. Context                             Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects The Mediterranean region: hot‐spot of climate change region: hot spot of climate Rainfall evolution – 2100 horizon Runoff evolution – 2100 horizon IPCC, 2007 IPCC, 2007 Différences (mm) between 2080‐2099 and 1980‐1999 – dots: over 80% of existing models agree on climate evolution Will future water needs be satisfied in  the Mediterranean region? RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  23. 23. Context    Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects The Mediterranean basin 22 countries 1.5 millions km² 73 groups of  catchments Only 21  catchments  exceeding 10000  km² in area km  in area Heterogeneous  region RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  24. 24. Context    Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects Hydro climatic Hydro‐climatic conditions Mediterranean climateEté 250 – 900 mm  250 900 100 – 250 mm  100 – 250 mm  0 – 100 mm  0 100 50 – 150 mm  0 – 50 mm  RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  25. 25. Context    Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects Hydro climatic conditions Hydro‐climatic conditions Mediterranean climateEté 250 – 900 mm  250 900 100 – 250 mm  annual fresh water availability (1971–1990) Mean 100 – 250 mm  0 – 100 mm  0 100 50 – 150 mm  0 – 50 mm  As simulated by the Water Balance Model (Milano et al., 2011) RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  26. 26. Context    Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects Hydro climatic Hydro‐climatic conditions Mediterranean climateEté 250 – 900 mm  250 900 100 – 250 mm  annual fresh water availability (1971–1990) Mean 100 – 250 mm  0 – 100 mm  0 100 50 – 150 mm  0 – 50 mm  Water resources availability per capita (2005) As simulated by the Water Balance Model (Milano et al., 2011) Plan Bleu, 2009 RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  27. 27. Context    Study area                             Method      Results      Conclusion & Prospects Towards significant climate and anthropic changes Population growth (UNPD, 2008) Percent share of irrigated areas in 1995 (FAO, 2000) of inhabitantsMillions o (%) Blinda & Thivet, 2009 (Sécheresse) Temperature variation ( C) (°C) Precipitation variation Milano et al 2011 al., (IAHS Publ. 347) Milano et al., subm. (Global Env. Change) (mm) RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  28. 28. Context    Study area                             Method   Results      Conclusion & Prospects A regional modelling method g g H H Milano et al., 2011 (IAHS Publ. 347) Retrospective period: 1971–1990 ∑Water Withdrawals Ruelland et al., 2012 (J. Hydrol. 424-425) Prospective period:    2041 2060 Prospective period: 2041–2060 Milano et al. subm. (Hydrol. Sci. J.) WSI = Water Availability RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  29. 29. Context    Study area                             Method  Results   Conclusion & Prospects Trends in precipitation for 4 GCM by 2050 p p f 4 y 5 Milano et al. subm. (Hydrol. Sci. J.) RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  30. 30. Context    Study area                             Method  Results   Conclusion & Prospects Trends in water availability and demand by 2050 Milano et al. subm. (Hydrol. Sci. J.) RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  31. 31. Context    Study area                             Method  Results   Conclusion & Prospects Evolution of the Water Stress by 2050 f y 5 Milano et al subm al. subm. (Hydrol. Sci. J.) RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  32. 32. Context    Study area                             Method  Results Conclusion & Prospects Conclusion & prospects Assessment of the water resources vulnerability in  the Mediterranean region Support to focus on the most vulnerable areas  within the Mediterranean basin Methodological challenges: seasonnal dynamics (dam operations, crop water  y ( p , p demand, tourism…) Studies at a sub‐regional scale in  g collaboration with local stakeholders Ebro (Spain) Hérault (France) Hé l (F ) Ceyhan (Turkey) … RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  33. 33. Thank you for listening. h k f li i Contacts: i il @ f Some references: Ruelland, D., Ardoin Bardin, S., Collet, L. & Roucou, P. (2012). Simulating future trends in hydrological regime  Ruelland, D., Ardoin‐Bardin, S., Collet, L. & Roucou, P. (2012). Simulating future trends in hydrological regime  of a large Sudano‐Sahelian catchment under climate change. J. Hydrol., 424–425, 207–216. Milano, M., Ruelland, D., Fernandez, S., Dezetter, A., Ardoin‐Bardin, S., Fabre, J., Thivet, G. & Servat, E. (2011).   Assessing the impacts of global changes on the water resources of the Mediterranean basin. In: Risk in  Water Resources M g W t  R Management. IAHS Publ., 347, 165–172. t  IAHS P bl  3  16 1 2 Milano, M., Ruelland, D., Fernandez, S., Dezetter, A., Fabre, J. Servat, E., Fritsch, J.‐M., Ardoin‐Bardin, S. &  Thivet, G.  Current state of Mediterranean water resources and future trends under global changes.  Hydrol. Sci. J., subm.RESCUE Team ‐ HydroSciences Montpellier ‐ 2012
  34. 34. Global changes in the Mediterranean:  what will tomorrow’s water resources be like? h   ill  ’     b  lik ? Field approach : example of the Merguellil catchment in central Tunisia Christian LEDUC & Sylvain MASSUEL  y IRD, UMR G‐EAU, Montpellier (France)
  35. 35. Scientific and social context of the  Merguellil catchment A region of central Tunisia typical of the Mediterranean environment physical (semi‐arid  highly variable) (semi arid, highly social (poor, rural, submitted to rapid changes in agriculture) with clear contrasts between upst ea a d do st ea upstream and downstream TunisMerguellil
  36. 36. Scientific and social context of the  Merguellil catchmentA region of central Tunisia typical of the Mediterranean environment physical ( h l (semi‐arid, highly variable) h hl bl ) social (poor, rural, submitted to rapid changes in agriculture) with many previous research yp projects (bilateral, European,  international) and academic works ((MoS, PhD) )
  37. 37. A long series of major water issuesChanges in availability of water resources climate variability, and change (temperature, rainfall??) ( ) land use, land cover large and small conservation works (dams, terraces,etc.)Changes in water demand and water uses abandonment of traditional technics, and social rules new distribution of population export of drinking water to the coast rapid increase in irrigated areas limited f li i d enforcement of laws fl
  38. 38. Changes in surface runoff 1. Increase of Soil+Water conservation works 2. Increase in pumping from the upstreamaquifers for drinking water 1+2 = significant decrease in the river discharge upstream
  39. 39. Changes in groundwater rechargeThe construction of the El Haouareb big dam in 1989 completelychanged the groundwater recharge in the Kairouan plain  • in processes (location, time) • in fluxes (evaporation loss in the dam)  Before 1989 After 1989
  40. 40. Changes in water demand for  agricultureExpansion of irrigated areas in public and private domains Changes in irrigation techniques fromtraditional techniques to drip irrigation, supposed to save water Changes in crops from cereals and olive trees to tomato, melon, etc., more water demanding with more benefit g f
  41. 41. Direct impact on groundwater resources in the Kairouan plain About 10,000 wells in  the Kairouan plain  (x10 since 1990)  5 15/5/68 10 15/6/68The water table decrease (0.5 to 1  15 Profondeur (m)m/yr) shows a not sustainable 20groundwater overexploitation overexploitation. 25 26/3/0 1 15/3 /02 Stepanoff (1935)There is no enforcement of  30 E / E Bis (2.57 Km) P1 Bir Zaddam (2.71 Km) Puit à sec 18/4/06 Forage P1 Bir Zaddam 14/12/06the law. 35 5/18/27 1/24/41 10/3/54 6/11/68 2/18/82 10/28/95 7/6/09 Date
  42. 42. Which future for agriculture?Solutions must come from agriculture, that represents the most f g , pimportant water consumptionBut adaptation, interests and investments depend on many criteria:  the size of farms,  the status ( (owners, renters),  ) the crops (trees vs annual, speculative) th  li iti g f t the limiting factors ( il   t   k ) (soil, water, work power)The scientific tools (technics, economy, ...) grasp only a limited part of the multiple interacting processes. e.g. drip irrigation did not save water
  43. 43. Which water management?A new water management should consider manyconstraints: Technical solutions are not sufficient Equilibrium between social equity and economic efficiencyThis should lead to the definition of a new water governanceg Shared responsibility for the use of a common good (especially in a large region) Clearer role of authorities (Min. of Agriculture) Acceptance of new rules
  44. 44. Towards a rationalised management of  Mediterranean anthropo‐ecosystems M dit th tA collaborative international research project:  SICMED Marc VOLTZ Christian LEDUC,  Jean Claude MENAUT,  Maxime THIBON 
  45. 45. Societal issuesContinuous population growth • 454 Mhab in 2005 and  520 Mhab predicted in 2020 • Growth essentially in south Mediterranean countriesStrong urbanization and population growth on the coasts • 64% en 2008 et 68% en 2020Rural areas remain with large population densities • But decrease in north Mediterranean and growth in south mediterranean ut dec ease ot ed te a ea a d g o t sout ed te a eaScarcity in available water resources • Mediterranean zone has more than 50% of world population poor in water fli f • Many conflicts of water use Soil ressources largely exploitedDeficit in agricultural production (mostly in south Mediterranean):  f g p ( y ) • Ex: 22% of cerals imported by 7% of world populationStrongSt g pressures on urban and rural areas which l d t       b d  l    hi h lead to main conflicts about the use of natural ressources
  46. 46. Environmental IssuesHot spot of climate change ( T°,  Rainfall)Rarefaction of water ressources already limitedSoil degradationerosion, salinisation, artificialization, compaction, losserosion  salinisation  artificialization  compaction  loss in carbon contentSoil and water contamination(nitrates, xenobiotics, trace metals,..)DeforestationLoss in biodiversity and landscape diversity
  47. 47. Management issues of Mediterranean eco‐anthropo‐systemsAgriculture Ensuring food security Improving water productivity and drought tolerance in cropping systems Improving irrigation technology and methodsWater ressources Improving water harvesting techniques Sharing ressources between usersTerritorial Maintaining rural settlement and limiting migration towards urban areas Preserving typical Mediterranean landscapes (tourism and life space)Environmental Preserving biodiversity Restoring or maintaining quality of soil and water ressources Regulating biogeochemical cycles (carbone especially)
  48. 48. Ambitions for Sicmed To develop systemic approaches of Mediterraneananthropo ecosystemsanthropo‐ecosystems linking biophysics and socio‐economics integrating simultaneous interactions  g g of multiple drivers To promote multi‐lateral collaboration  T   t lti l t l ll b ti   between researchers in Mediterranean countries and beyond To define innovative solutions  f helping to the Mediterranean sustainable development
  49. 49. Scientific objectives Studying Mediterranean anthropo‐ecosystem behaviour and evolution b h i d  l i under climatic and human constraints Hydrological and biogeochemical fluxesBiotechnic  biophysical socio‐economic and  drivers processes territorial dynamics Seeking innovative  Developping tools and management strategies for  methodologies for managing  Mediterranean eco Mediterranean eco‐ natural ressources and  anthropo‐systems landscapes
  50. 50. No unique Mediterranean anthropo ecosystem, but many anthropo‐ecosystem  but many Scrubland Example in South of France mountains Forests Leptosol Hills and calcareous Plateaus Hills over  ill sedimentary material Calcisol Fruit trees River Alluvia Market gardening Coastal plains  Camargue Luvisol Vineyards and deltas FluvisolWebsite « sols et paysages du Languedoc Roussillon » Solontchaks http://www.umr‐
  51. 51. A crossed analysis l Scientific domains • Functioning + managt of  g g plant canopies • Hydrological cycle and  water resources managt • Bi Biogeochemical cycles + soil h i l l     il and water quality • Resources assessment at regional scale g • Farming systems • Socio‐economical processes Representative socio‐environmental systems and territorial approaches • I t g t d modelling of  Integrated d lli g f Rainfed agriculture Irrigated agriculture  ecosystemsGrazing land Peri‐urban areasDesert transition areas Coastal areasForests and nat ral ecos stems and natural ecosystemsSingular environments (e.g. mines)
  52. 52. A collaborative program drawing on ‐ 5 major study sites and    j   t d it   d  ‐ 6 specific thematic networks p f in 9 Mediterranean countries Major sitesT with integrated Herault interdisciplinary studies T Crau Thematic t k networks •Groundwater recharge Lebna •Soil‐vegetation‐ T atmosphere fluxes Merguelil Tensift •Coastal aquifers •Soil erosion •Forest écology •Mining activities
  53. 53. A collaborative program built in  cooperation with Partners from all sides of the Mediterranean (Algeria, France,  Italy, Lebanon, Morocco, Spain, Tunisia…) The support of  French research institutes : CNRS ‐Insu, INRA, IRD  and IRSTEA In close relation with the German Tereno‐MED initiativeSICMED is part of the MISTRALS decennial programme
  54. 54. More / www.sicmed.netInfo@sicmed net / www sicmed net
  55. 55. MERCI / THANK YOU