Quantifying our understanding of energy use itu may 2013
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Quantifying our understanding of energy use itu may 2013

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In this talk we report on our recent studies of energy use and cooking in the home. Using a pioneering method combining fine grained accounts from embedded sensing combined with qualitative interview ...

In this talk we report on our recent studies of energy use and cooking in the home. Using a pioneering method combining fine grained accounts from embedded sensing combined with qualitative interview data we uncover how everyday life intersects with energy demand and GhG externality. Our work enables us to shed light on where eco-feedback interventions could be aimed and raises questions about existing approaches based on 'smart grid' enabled energy portals and in home energy displays. In the second half of the talk we suggest how the detailed study of cooking reveals new opportunities for HCI and Ubicomp design.

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    Quantifying our understanding of energy use itu may 2013 Quantifying our understanding of energy use itu may 2013 Presentation Transcript

    • QUANTIFYING OURUNDERSTANDING OFENERGY USE AND GHGEXTERNALITY INEVERYDAY LIFEAdrian Friday, Mike Hazas,Adrian Clear, Janine Morley andOliver Bateshttp://wp.lancs.ac.uk/energychoices/Thursday, 30 May 13
    • OUTLINE• Report on our current work studying energy use in shared studentaccommodation (specifically energy, cooking)• Quantified dual of empirical ‘sensing’ and qualitative methods• Aim to convince you that• eco-feedback interventions (e.g. in home displays/IHD) are notenough• interventions must focus on reconfiguring energy intensive‘services’ supporting everyday life, example of ‘cooking’Thursday, 30 May 13
    • VERY BIG PICTURE(Anderson & Bows. 2008 PhilosophicalTransactions A of theRoyal Society. 366. pp. 3863-3882)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • VERY BIG PICTURE(Anderson & Bows. 2008 PhilosophicalTransactions A of theRoyal Society. 366. pp. 3863-3882)Year2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802015 peakThursday, 30 May 13
    • VERY BIG PICTURE(Anderson & Bows. 2008 PhilosophicalTransactions A of theRoyal Society. 366. pp. 3863-3882)Year2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802015 peakYear2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802020 peakThursday, 30 May 13
    • VERY BIG PICTURE(Anderson & Bows. 2008 PhilosophicalTransactions A of theRoyal Society. 366. pp. 3863-3882)Year2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802015 peakYear2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802020 peakYear2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100Emissionsofgreenhousegases(GtCO2e)0204060802025 peakThursday, 30 May 13
    • SMART METERS & ECO-FEEDBACKCurrentCost, DIY Kyoto, Enistic, e.g. http://www.diykyoto.com/Thursday, 30 May 13
    • REWARDING BEHAVIOUR“The Ambient Canvas”, Bartram, 2010Thursday, 30 May 13
    • periods. The “Compare” tab displays a bar graph that Water Portal, and what usage patterns did they exhibit?Figure 1. The Water Portal.677Dubuque energy portalENERGY USE AS IGNORANCE?e.g. Dubuque portal, (Erickson, 2013)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • DOES ECO-FEEDBACK WORK?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • 5-15% SAVINGS POSSIBLE, BUT SHORTLIVED.WHY IS IT (IN)EFFECTIVE?Hazas, Mike and Friday,Adrian and Scott, James (2011)doi:10.1109/MPRV.2010.89Thursday, 30 May 13
    • WHY DOESN’T ECO-FEEDBACK WORK?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “grounded in a basicassumption that home dwellerslack information” (Pierce, 2010),[...] required if they areunderstood as “micro-resourcemanagers” (Strengers, 2011)disconnect between the typesand methods of feedback, and“the realities of everyday life”?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • OUR FOCUSHow energy connects to everyday lifeThursday, 30 May 13
    • LIFE RATHERTHANCONSUMPTION OF ENERGY• Shift focus towards the broader functions energy supports(e.g. making hot drinks, having clean clothes, entertainingoneself)• => qualitative + quantitative understanding (Firth, 2008)• Goal: to help explain the significant variation in energyconsumption across similar homes (Hackett & Lutzenhiser,1991, Gram-Hanssen, 2010)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • 4 FLATS X 8 INDIVIDUAL STUDY BEDROOMS, 2SHOWERS, 2TOILETS, KITCHEN + CORRIDORThursday, 30 May 13
    • RETROFIT SENSING4 x OWL Single-point sensing +RFXCOM129 x Socket-level sensing (Plugwise)42 x Motion/light, 38 x temperature/humidity“Hobcam” (motion triggered camera)Experience sampling + interviewsThursday, 30 May 13
    • 20 DAYSall common areas (kitchens, bathroom, corridor)22 participants opted in to in-bedroom monitoring11 face to face follow up interviewsa few near-time ‘mini-accounts’ (questions posed by text/email)3 8 5 6Thursday, 30 May 13
    • 00:00 03:00 06:00 09:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 00:0000.511.522.53Time of dayPower(kW)YellowBlueRedGreenAGGREGATE USE10 minutes median binsThursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
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    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • Not discussed further hereThursday, 30 May 13
    • 06:00 12:00 18:00 00:0010002000300040005000TimestampElectricpower(Watts)LightingRefrigerationEntertainment & ITOther cooking appliancesOvenThursday, 30 May 13
    • WHERETO FOCUS?06:00 12:00 18:00 00:0010002000300040005000TimestampElectricpower(Watts)LightingRefrigerationEntertainment & ITOther cooking appliancesOvenThursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • ALERTThursday, 30 May 13
    • ALERTIHDs focus on instantaneous load (Strengers, 2011), need ‘areaunder the curve’, (c.f. Costanza, 2012)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • LIGHTING• 16-29% of the energy in each flat• bedrooms are comparable (~10 kWh)• but communal areas more varied (46-85 kWh)• A mix of conventions, expectations, meanings and actionsaround the lighting in the flatsThursday, 30 May 13
    • NOT SIMPLY UTILITARIAN• Communal lights often lefton (no surprise...)• But, corridor switch-offs in“Green” (“otherwisetheyre just on for noreason”)• Navigation (“well I reallydont like the dark.When Icome out of my room itsdark and Im like arrrr”)• Meanings around comfortand securityThursday, 30 May 13
    • ENTERTAINMENT AND IT• Big variation: 3.5% to 34% of the energy• room inventories• most had laptops; three PCs• 9/12 male participants had extra audio, video, or gamingdevices• A room’s energy attribution corresponded roughly to itsinventoryThursday, 30 May 13
    • COMPUTING• discrete periods of use, vs. consistently on• laptops vs. other: order of magnitude less• Blue: two server PCs; four with AV/gaming• differing conventions for power management(Chetty, Brush et al. 2009)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • IT: ONE SERVICETO RULETHEM ALL?• multi-purpose: looking up lecture notes, doing coursework,music, reading the news, keeping in touch with friends• low energy way to ‘do entertainment’• significant overlap of these activities• challenges in attributing which practices a service supportsbeyond disaggregation by appliance, (c.f. Gupta, 2010)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • ‘CONSTELLATIONS’ OFDEVICES• multiple devices clustered together• e.g.“computer” a bunch of devices served by two sockets• supporting a service like gaming or watchingTV• often makes sense to bundle the energy of these devices, andattribute to a single service, like entertainment (“I’ve got myhard drives, my router, my two monitors, my stereo and mydesktop, that’s all hooked together.”)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • ENTERTAINMENT• socialising: casual andplanned group activities(“We spend a lot of time ineach others rooms justtalking and watching telly”)• access to digital mediainfrastructures• boredom and filling time hasresource implications (“firstyear I used to play lots ofgames”)• ‘connoisseurs ofentertainment’Thursday, 30 May 13
    • SENSING + INTERVIEWSThursday, 30 May 13
    • SENSING + INTERVIEWS1. exposes service-reliance across areas of practice (personal andgroup entertainment, paid work, education, staying in touch, pre-boiling water for pasta...)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • SENSING + INTERVIEWS1. exposes service-reliance across areas of practice (personal andgroup entertainment, paid work, education, staying in touch, pre-boiling water for pasta...)2. identifies systems of devices and constellations of services (beyondappliance disaggregation), we might tackle togetherThursday, 30 May 13
    • SENSING + INTERVIEWS1. exposes service-reliance across areas of practice (personal andgroup entertainment, paid work, education, staying in touch, pre-boiling water for pasta...)2. identifies systems of devices and constellations of services (beyondappliance disaggregation), we might tackle together3. resource measurements can be actioned more effectively, taken incontext (not motion triggered lights, but nightlights...?)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • SENSING + INTERVIEWS1. exposes service-reliance across areas of practice (personal andgroup entertainment, paid work, education, staying in touch, pre-boiling water for pasta...)2. identifies systems of devices and constellations of services (beyondappliance disaggregation), we might tackle together3. resource measurements can be actioned more effectively, taken incontext (not motion triggered lights, but nightlights...?)4. facilitates higher-level reconsideration of how service might bereconfigured for sustainabilityThursday, 30 May 13
    • A STEPTOWARD REFOCUSEDINTERVENTIONSCentred on the impact of food & cooking practicesThursday, 30 May 13
    • THE “HOBCAM”BedroomBedroomBedroomBedroomKitchen BedroomThursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • READY?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONOne cook, single portionThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONComponents usedBack-rightBack-leftThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONFoods observedJarred saucePastaThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATION... and quantities(160g)(100g)Foods observedJarred saucePastaThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONCooking methodBoilingHeatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONCooking methodHeatingBoiling(no lid)(no lid)Use of lid?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING SESSIONANNOTATIONChanges in controlpositionThursday, 30 May 13
    • COOKING: QUANTIFIEDThursday, 30 May 13
    • RELATIVE IMPACTSCooking Energy Emissions (22%)Indirect Emissions (78%)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • Other foodRELATIVE IMPACTSCooking Energy Emissions (22%)WasteOtherdevicesIndirect Emissions (78%)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • DESIGN AREASDiet ChangeTechnique & MethodThursday, 30 May 13
    • TECHNIQUE ANDMETHODPhoto: reutC (via Flickr)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • FRYINGVS. GRILLING33m 30s170g9m 50s113g0.118 kWh 0.965 kWhAverage 1.2 kWh/kg Average 6.7 kWh/kgThursday, 30 May 13
    • PASTAVS. PASTA41 mins16 mins7 minsThursday, 30 May 13
    • PIZZAVS. PIZZA27 minutes...53minutesbeforecookingOven switched on85 minutes36 minutes later......oven switched offPizza ready55 minutesThursday, 30 May 13
    • Thursday, 30 May 13
    • • Which calls into question technique, and cooking skills inplay (Short, 2003)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • • Which calls into question technique, and cooking skills inplay (Short, 2003)• But, also how food often takes a back seat to otheractivitiesThursday, 30 May 13
    • • Which calls into question technique, and cooking skills inplay (Short, 2003)• But, also how food often takes a back seat to otheractivities• More efficient methods & techniques (reduce timing“errors” / “forgetfulness”), 10-20% cooking energy; 2-4%overall GHGThursday, 30 May 13
    • DIETPastasauceThursday, 30 May 13
    • DIETHigh ImpactLow ImpactPastasauceThursday, 30 May 13
    • A CONVENIENT DIET“typical studentfood”“all those kind ofreally easy things”020406080jarredsaucechickenpastavegetablessausageschipspizzabreadbakedbeansricepotatoestortellinibaconfrozenveg.tinnedtomatoeseggnoodlesmincebeefsteakreadymealfishsoup6170878841432192173381540228 29271098 107EmbodiedGhgemissions(kgCO2e)0102030405060708090jarredsaucechickenpastavegetablessausageschipspizzabreadbakedbeansricepotatoestortellinibaconfrozenveg.tinnedtomatoeseggnoodlesmincebeefsteakreadymealfish6169876641432088173281541218 29271098 10EmbodiedGhGemissions(kgCO2e)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • A CONVENIENT DIET“typical studentfood”“all those kind ofreally easy things”020406080jarredsaucechickenpastavegetablessausageschipspizzabreadbakedbeansricepotatoestortellinibaconfrozenveg.tinnedtomatoeseggnoodlesmincebeefsteakreadymealfishsoup6170878841432192173381540228 29271098 107EmbodiedGhgemissions(kgCO2e)0102030405060708090jarredsaucechickenpastavegetablessausageschipspizzabreadbakedbeansricepotatoestortellinibaconfrozenveg.tinnedtomatoeseggnoodlesmincebeefsteakreadymealfish6169876641432088173281541218 29271098 10EmbodiedGhGemissions(kgCO2e)• Repeated moderate- to high-impact foodsThursday, 30 May 13
    • MEALSPastasauceThursday, 30 May 13
    • MEALSPastasauceThursday, 30 May 13
    • CHICKEN, PASTA,AND SAUCE00.51.01.52.0Region 1Total: 3.57 Kg CO2eThursday, 30 May 13
    • GRILLED POTATOES00.10.30.40.5Potatoes CookerTotal: 0.62 Kg CO2eThursday, 30 May 13
    • •Make indirect emissions more explicit to “cooks”,help keep infrequent high-impact foods“special” (Grimes, 2008), 20-30% indirectemissions; 17-24% overall GHGThursday, 30 May 13
    • ORGANIZATIONCooking &EatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • ORGANIZATIONCooking &EatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • ORGANIZATIONCooking &EatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • ORGANIZATIONCooking &EatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • ORGANIZATIONCooking &EatingThursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)• Single cooker component (69%)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)• Single cooker component (69%)• Few “ingredients”Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)• Single cooker component (69%)• Few “ingredients”• RepetitiveThursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)• Single cooker component (69%)• Few “ingredients”• Repetitive• Single portionThursday, 30 May 13
    • “SIMPLE” & “EASY” =• Short cooking time (< 20mins) (~70%)• Single cooker component (69%)• Few “ingredients”• Repetitive• Single portion• Cooking for oneself (90%)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • SOCIAL COOKING“we keep saying we’regoing to cook togetherbut something alwaysgets in the way”“one person would goout or one personwould not want whatwe wanted”Thursday, 30 May 13
    • “WHATEVER’S INTHECUPBOARD”“I like vegetables andsalads and stuff like thatbut when I buy it it just allgoes off...”“um, risottos, stuff, pasta andsauce whatever, umshepherds pie ...whateveringredients we have”Thursday, 30 May 13
    • •Encourage more shared cooking, help overcomebarriers or discover opportunities for sharing(impact?)LOWER IMPACT COOKING?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • WE’VE LOOKED AT INDIRECT FOODEMISSIONS AND COOKING ENERGYEMISSIONSboth be addressed to some extent through cooking and theway it’s organised in everyday life, but...Thursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyDiet ChangeTechniqueIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyDiet ChangeTechniqueIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyDiet ChangeTechniqueSharingIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyDiet ChangeTechniqueSharingIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyDiet ChangeTechniqueSharingIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESThursday, 30 May 13
    • INTERDEPENDENCIESCooking EnergyA Different DietTechnique & MethodSharingIndirect EmissionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • DISCUSSIONThursday, 30 May 13
    • RESOURCE MANAGERS?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • RESOURCE MANAGERS?• negotiable: feedback can expose things already seen as wasteful• ...resulting changes tend to result in savings of about 10%(Darby, 2006)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • RESOURCE MANAGERS?• negotiable: feedback can expose things already seen as wasteful• ...resulting changes tend to result in savings of about 10%(Darby, 2006)• non-negotiable: external factors dictate the possible range ofactions, and which of them are affordable/rewarding/valued(Strengers, 2011)Thursday, 30 May 13
    • A BROADERVIEW• sustainability research needs to take the broader view that itneeds• quantifying the impacts of everyday life• and understanding how it connects and supports servicesand practices in the home• due to the nature of variation, formative studies are alwaysneeded, and we advocate a qualitative/quantitative approachThursday, 30 May 13
    • BUSY LIVES AND SOCIALEXPECTATIONS• social expectations dictate things like how we need to look orsmell, which has big implications for daily practice (Shove 2003)• powerful institutions (like employment)• contribute to these expectations,• tend to organise time in certain ways,• ... making other ways of doing things more difficultThursday, 30 May 13
    • BEYONDTHE OBVIOUSThursday, 30 May 13
    • BEYONDTHE OBVIOUS• Eco-feedback interventions need to respect barriers to changein the context of everyday lifeThursday, 30 May 13
    • BEYONDTHE OBVIOUS• Eco-feedback interventions need to respect barriers to changein the context of everyday life• We posit: there are non-trivial impact reductions throughfocused interventionsThursday, 30 May 13
    • BEYONDTHE OBVIOUS• Eco-feedback interventions need to respect barriers to changein the context of everyday life• We posit: there are non-trivial impact reductions throughfocused interventions• but, there is no one size fits all, we must understand eachservice, and we argue for a quantitative + qualitative approachThursday, 30 May 13
    • BEYONDTHE OBVIOUS• Eco-feedback interventions need to respect barriers to changein the context of everyday life• We posit: there are non-trivial impact reductions throughfocused interventions• but, there is no one size fits all, we must understand eachservice, and we argue for a quantitative + qualitative approach• Challenge: to design these focused interventions (in the widestsense), and reshape norms & expectations (Dourish, 2010) -can we go beyond 5-15%?Thursday, 30 May 13
    • QUESTIONS?a.friday@lancaster.ac.ukhttp://wp.lancs.ac.uk/energychoicesThis work was funded by the UK Research Councils (EPSRC grants EP/G008523/1 and EP/I00033X/1), and the Facilities Division and Faculty ofScience andTechnology at Lancaster University. Thanks to: Darren Axe at Green Lancaster, and the student residences officer at LancasterUniversity for their cooperation.Thursday, 30 May 13