Plannin gss


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  • depicts a simplified Gantt chart for book production developed by a manager in a publishing company. Time is expressed in months across the top of the chart. The major work activities are listed down the left side. Where a box sits within a time frame reflects its planned sequence. The shading represents actual progress. The chart also serves as a control tool because the manager can see deviations from the plan. In this example, both the design of the cover and the printing of first pages are running behind schedule. Cover design is about three weeks behind, and printing first pages is about two weeks behind schedule. Given this information, the manager might need to take some action to either make up for the two lost weeks or to ensure that no further delays will occur. At this point, the manager can expect that the book will be published at least two weeks later than planned if no action is taken.
  • shows a load chart for six production editors at the same publishing company. Each editor supervises the production and design of several books. By reviewing a load chart, the executive editor, who supervises the six production editors, can see who is free to take on a new book. If everyone is fully scheduled, the executive editor might decide not to accept any new projects, to accept new projects and delay others, to have the editors work overtime, or to employ more production editors. In this exhibit, only Antonio and Maurice are completely scheduled for the next six months. The other editors have some unassigned time and might be able to accept new projects or be available to help other editors who get behind.
  • Plannin gss

    1. 1. PLANNING Prepared by: Submitted to: Ganesh Lama Mr. Sanjeev Pradhan Ishwor Subedi Faculty of Management Roshan Acharya Sumit Chaudhary
    2. 2. PLANNINGo Primary function of managemento Deciding in advance; what to do, when to do it, and who to do ito Bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to goo Setting goals, identifying activities to be done, choosing various alternatives etc
    3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS OF PLANNINGo Focus on goalo Primary functiono Pervasive activityo Future orientedo Continuous processo Intellectual worko Flexibleo Efficiency and economyo Actionable
    4. 4. LEVELS OF PLANNING Strategic plan Tactical plan Operational plan
    5. 5. STRATEGIC PLAN Prepared by top level management Related with plan, policies of organization Should have to do SWOT analysis For long term horizon
    6. 6. TACTICAL PLAN Prepared by middle level management Sub division of corporate plan Planed on the basis of priority of work Play bridge role between strategic and operational plan Time period 2-3 years
    7. 7. OPERATIONAL PLAN Prepared by first line management Consistent with tactical plan Directed to the day to day work Concentrated in best utilization of resources Short term plan( less then one year)
    8. 8. INDIVIDUAL PLAN Non managerial plan Prepared by workers Time period ( daily, weekly, monthly)
    9. 9. STEPS IN PLANNING 1.Analyse environment 2.Set objectives 3.Developing planning premises4.Determining alternative courses 5.Selection of best alternatives 6.Formulation of derivative plan 7.Converting plans into budget 8.Implementation 9.Review of the planning
    10. 10. 1.ANALYSE ENVIRONMENTo Pre stage of planningo Consider SWOT of the organization 2.Set objectiveso must be specific, clear and practicalo Should be in SMARTER formo Should consider organization resources and capabilities
    11. 11. 3.DEVELOPING PLANNING PREMISES Future assumptions Should collect reliable information and its correct study
    12. 12. 4.DETERMINING ALTERNATIVE COURSESA problem has multiple solutions Have to search and identify the various alternatives using internal and external sources Evaluate SWOT of each alternative
    13. 13. 5.SELECTION OF BEST ALTERNATIVES Criticaltask for a planner Select on the basis of weighted of the alternatives
    14. 14. 6.FORMULATION OF DERIVATIVE PLAN Supportive plan should be prepared should prepared rules, regulations, working procedure, schedules
    15. 15. 7.CONVERTING PLANS INTO BUDGET Yearly programs is clearly mentioned in monetary form Budget of each plan should be prepared separately and adequately Helps to do comparative study after implementing
    16. 16. 8.IMPLEMENTATION Operational part of planning procedure Should give the instruction to the employee Should arrange the resources and budget
    17. 17. 9.REVIEW OF THE PLANNING Last step of the planning Getting feedback or response from implementation If response is positive, plan is success if not corrective measure should be applied
    18. 18. PITFALLS OF PLANNING Limitation Of Planning
    19. 19. Too Centralized And Top-DownFailure To Question AssumptionFailure To ImplementFailure To Anticipate RivalsAction
    20. 20. Having Unrealistic And Too 1 Many Goals6 Failure To Develop Focusing On Short Range Plans Only Current Strategic 2 And Tactical Plans Other Pitfalls5 Utilizing Ignoring Planning Standardize Plan 3 In Everyday Life For Everyone Failure To Encourage Creativity 4 In Planning
    21. 21. Major Pitfalls1. Too Centralized and Top-Downo Only goal Orientedo Little knowledge about marketo No direct role of Middle and Lower Level manager2. Failure to Question Assumptiono Wrong predictiono Sudden change in premises3. Failure to Implemento Not put into actiono Negligence
    22. 22. 4. Failure to Anticipate Rivals Actiono Competitor actiono Unable to predict rivals plan Other Pitfalls5. Having Unrealistic And Too Many Goalso Based on Assumptionso High Expectationo Too Many Goals6. Failure To Develop Current Strategic And Tactical Planso Ignoring the current environmento Being one sided
    23. 23. 7.Ignoring Planning In Everyday Life Being limited in theory Avoiding the plan8. Failure To Encourage Creativity In Planning Other Efforts Reference of past plan9.Utilizing Standard Plan For Everyone Same plan for all level Create confusion for lower level
    24. 24. 10.Focusing On Short Range Plans Only Ignoring long run plan Aim to earn more profit at less time
    25. 25. TOOLS OF PLANNING Techniques Of Planning
    26. 26. 1.Environment Scanningo Collecting environmental informational through evaluating environmental trendso Identifying internal and external elements that might affect the organizationo Global scanningo Make decision and taking action
    27. 27. 2.Forecastingo Predicting future eventso Developing assumptiono Recognizing future problems and opportunities and implementing plan into action Techniques of Forecasting Quantitative Techniqueso Applying a set of mathematical rules to a series of hard data to predict outcomes (e.g., units to be produced)
    28. 28. Quantitative oTime series analysis oRegression models oEconometric models oEconomic indicators oSubstitution effect  Qualitative Techniqueso Using expert judgments and opinions to predict less than precise outcomes (e.g., direction of the economy)
    29. 29.  Qualitative Techniques Qualitative oJury of opinion oSales force composition oCustomer evaluation
    30. 30. Benchmarkingsearch for the best practices amongcompetitorsAnalyzing and coping the method The Benchmarking Processes•Form a benchmarking team•Collect internal and external data•Analyze data to identify performancegap•implement action to meet the standardof others
    31. 31. Steps Of Benchmarking Form a benchmarking planning team.Prepare and implement BEST Gather internal and action plan. PRACTICES external data. Analyze data to identify performance gaps.
    32. 32. 3.Simulation Exerciseo Model to solve real life problemo Related variable and their inter- relationship are put into system to find out outcomeo Computer programming is usedo Useful in complex situation
    33. 33.  Stepso Define the system to simulateo Formulate the model to be usedo Test the modelo Identify and collect the required datao Run the simulationo Analyze the resulto Rerun the simulationo Validate it
    34. 34. 4.Linear Programmingo To solve resource allocation problemso Useful to maximize profit and minimize costo Helpful to determine the value of variables affecting outcome Assumptiono Resource are limitedo Outcome optimum is the goalo Alternative method exist for combining resourceso A linear relationship exist between variables
    35. 35. 5.Break-Even analysisoNo loss and no gain conditionoUsed to determine the unit of good to besoldoShows relationship among revenue, cost andprofiti. Formula to calculate break-even point is:BEP=TFC/P-VC where, TFC=Total Factor Cost P=Unit Price of Product VC=Variable Cost per Unit
    36. 36. Total Profit Revenue Area70 00060 00050 000 Loss Area40 000 Variable Costs Total Breakeven30 000 Costs Point20 000 Fixed Costs10 000 100 200 300 400 500 600 Output (in thousands)
    37. 37. 6.PERT(Program Evaluation and Review Technique) And CPM(Critical Path Method)oTo schedule complex projectoUses flow chart diagramoInclude cost and time associated withactivity D 4 I 3 6 5 1 J K 10 6 14 3 5 5 Start A B C E G H 3 3 5 F Critical Path: A - B - C - D - G - H - J - K
    38. 38. Process of PERT1. Identify every significant activity that must be achieved for a project to be completed.2. Determine the order in which these events must be completed.3. Diagram the flow of activities from start to finish, identifying each activity and its relationship to all other activities.
    39. 39. 5. Compute a time estimate for completing each activity.6. Using the network diagram that contains time estimates for each activity, determine a schedule for the start and finish dates of each activity and for the entire project.
    40. 40. 7. Gantt Charts and Load ChartsGantt ChartsoShows when task are supposed to bedoneoMeasures actual and planed outputover period of timeoTime on horizontal axis and task onvertical axis
    41. 41. A Gantt ChartActivity Month 1 2 3 4Copy-edit manuscriptDesign sample pagesDraw artworkPrint first pagesPrint final pagesDesign cover Actual progress Reporting Date Goals
    42. 42. A Load ChartEditors Month 1 2 3 4 5 6LingAntonioKimMauriceDaveRashid Work scheduled
    43. 43. 8. BudgetingoNumerical plans for allocating resources(e.g., revenues, expenses, and capitalexpenditures)oUsed to improve time, space, and use ofmaterial resourcesoAre the most commonly used and mostwidely applicableplanning technique fororganizations
    44. 44. Types Of Budgets Revenue Budget Projects future sales Cash Budget Expense BudgetForecasts cash on hand Lists primary activities and how much will and allocates dollar be needed amount to each Variable Budget Fixed Budget Takes into account OR Assumes fixed the costs that vary level of sales with volume or production Profit Budget Combines revenue and expense budgets of various units to determine each unit ’s profit contribution ’
    45. 45. 9.Flow Charto Identify the task component and wok simplificationo Arranging event according to occurrenceo Avoids unnecessary events Advantageso Encourage analytical thinkingo Motivate to eliminate waste steps Drawbackso Doesn’t include time required for work completiono Not suitable in complex situation
    46. 46. 10.Contemporary Planning TechniquesScenario oA consistent view of what the future is likely to beScenario Planning oAn attempt not to try to predict the future but to reduce uncertaintyContingency Planning o Developing scenarios that allow managers to determine in advance what their actions should be when event actually occur
    48. 48. External premiseso Exist outside the organizationo Can be in form of PESTo Beyond the control of organization Internal premiseso Exist within the organizationo Can be form in goal, program, resources, policieso Can be controlled in some extend
    49. 49. Controllable premises Can be easily controlled Can be changed by management Uncontrollable premiseso Cannot be controlledo Cannot be changed by management
    50. 50. Tangible premises Measured in quantitative terms Involves capital investment, unit of production, unit sold, cost per unit, time available Intangible premiseso Qualitative in measureo Involves motivation, decision making, leadership, goodwill, managerial attitude etc
    51. 51. IMPROVING PLANNING 1.Decentralised planning 2.Role playing 3.Innovation and creativities 4.Expert opinion 5.Link to goal; tie to budget 6.Comprehensive7.Prepare both long range and short range plans8.Prepare contingencies planning and crisis management
    52. 52. 1.DECENTRALISED PLANNING Should take suggestions from every level of the organization 2.ROLE PLAYING Groups of organization play role as competitor to other State how they would counter the plans of the organization
    53. 53. 3.INNOVATION AND CREATIVITIES Should be creative and innovative New plans with creative idea often regards as good technique 4.EXPERT OPINION  should take suggestions, guidance from consultants and experts
    54. 54. 5.LINK TO GOAL; TIE TO BUDGETo Should have specific and understandable objectiveso Operating budget should be allocated separately 6.COMPREHENSIVEo Should cover each and every aspect of business
    55. 55. 7.PREPARE BOTH LONG RANGE AND SHORT RANGE PLANS Should have to prepare both long and short term plan Short run plans should be made to support long term plan 8.PREPARE CONTIGENCIES PLANNING AND CRISIS MANAGEMENTo should made to handle various crisis and situation
    56. 56. DECISION MAKING Problem Solving
    57. 57. DECISION MAKING Subsidiary function of planning Art of Problem Solving Process of choosing a best alternative among several alternatives Continuous process to achieve the pre- determined goal Essential to solve problems and remove weakness
    58. 58. TYPES OF DECISION MAKING Programmed and Non-programmedDecisions Routine and Basic Decisions Organizational and Personal Decisions Individual and Group Decisions Policy and Operational Decisions
    59. 59. DECISION MAKING PROCESS 1.Identification of problem 2.Analysis of problem 3.Development of alternatives4.Selection of best alternatives5.Implementation of alternatives 6.Review of Implementation
    60. 60. DECISION MAKING CONDITIONS 1.Certainity 2.Risk 3.Uncertainity
    61. 61. AnyQueries?? Please!!!!