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Lfa approach on project planning


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training on proposal writing and resource mobilization by fida karim

Lfa approach on project planning

  2. 2. WHAT IS A LOGICAL FRAMEWORK ? The Logical Framework Matrix provides a summary of : • Why a project is carried out • What the project is expected to achieve • How the project is going to achieve it • Which external factors are crucial for its success • Where to find the information required to assess the success of the project • Which means are required • How much the project will cost 2
  4. 4. THE LOGFRAME AND THE PROJECT CYCLE 4 * NGO’s mandate * NGO thematic/geo. orientations * outcome : Programme strategy * pre-feasibility project studies * outcome : decision YES/NO * all significant aspects of the idea are studied * outcome : logical framework * fundraising strategy * proposal writing for donors * outcome : financing contract(s) * the agreed resources are used to achieve the project purpose * reports / contract amendments * outcome : decision to continue as planned or re-orient the project * relevance and and fulfilment of objectives * outcome : how to use results in future programming
  5. 5. ORGANISATIONS USING THE LOGFRAME • USAID, USA • GTZ, Germany • DfID, Great-Britain • NORAD, Norway • DANIDA, Denmark • AUSAID, Australia • Intercooperation, Switzerland • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, France • DGCD, Belgium • European Commission 5 • DGCS - Min. of For. Aff., Italy • ICAX - Min. of Industry, Spain • SIDA, Sweden • UNIDO, Vienna • FINNIDA - Min. of For. Aff., Finland • HELLASCO, Greece • WWF • Int. Federation of Red Cross • UNDP • FAO
  6. 6. AVANTAGES OF THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK  Problems are analysed systematically  The objectives are clearly formulated, logical and measurable  The risks and conditions for success of a project are taken into account  There is an objective basis for monitoring and evaluation 6 Your project proposal will be coherent
  7. 7. 7 4. The log-frame
  8. 8. LEVELS OF OBJECTIVES 8 The broader impact(s) to which your project will contribute to, but will not enable to reach entirely The outcome of your project, what should be achieved at the enf of the project. Specific outputs which will contribute to the realisation of your project purpose Concrete activities that will be undertaken during the project Project Purpose Expected Results Activities Overall Objective(s) 4. The log-frame
  9. 9. HIERARCHY OF OBJECTIVES/PROJECT STRUCTURE Impact Outcome Outputs Activities Inputs High level impact/longer term change to which the project contributes The project’s central objective/ its specific and immediate outcome. What do you wish to achieve? What is produced or delivered by the project Specific tasks/activities executed by the project to produce the outputs. Physical and non-physical resources necessary to undertake activities. Plan Dow n Implement up
  10. 10. EXAMPLE OF IMPROVING SUPPLY OF POTABLE WATER AND SANITATION FACILITIES Impact Improved health and sanitary conditions in targeted communities. Outcome Improved access to sustainable water and sanitation services for target communities. Output Improved and renovated water systems Activity Designing, constructing new water and sanitation facilities. Input Human resources, training, expert, funding etc. 10
  11. 11. 4. THE LOG-FRAME  Define objectively verifiable indicators (OVI):  !!! Do not make the confusion between « criteria » and « indicators » !!!  A criteria is for instance: « number of… », « increase in… »  Whereas an indicator is « 150 persons per month », « 34% of increase in … » 11
  12. 12. EXAMPLE OF A GOOD INDICATOR Objective: The irrigation system is working The indicator should be « SMART »:  Specific = The irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area  Measurable = 50 of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area  Acceptable = Is the indicator accepted by all the partners involved in the implementation of the project ?  Relevant = Are the irrigation pumps the main problem?  Time-bound = 100% of the irrigation pumps are functioning properly in the project area at the end of the project 12 4. The log-frame
  13. 13. 4. THE LOG-FRAME  Consider the various risks and assumptions on your project: = external factors that may affect the projects’ implementation and long-term sustainability = synergetic activities made by other actors  Do not define assumptions that are endogenous to the project and the scheduled activities !!  Only mention relevant hypothesis… 13
  14. 14. 14 Is the RISK important to your project? Yes No What is its probability? Ignore Almost certainUnlikely Fairly Unlikely Can the project strategy be modified to eliminate the risk? YesNo Modify strategy, add activitiesSTOP the project Formulate an assumption Risks/Assumptions 4. The log-frame
  15. 15. INTERVENTION LOGIC OF PROJECT + ASSUMPTIONS 15 IN OUT Overall objective Project Purpose Results Activities + + + Assumptions Assumptions Assumptions Pre-conditionsIf the activities are carried out, and if assumptions are valid, then ... 4. The log-frame
  16. 16. 10 FREQUENTLY MADE ERRORS IN LOG-FRAME: MAKE SURE TO… 1. Have only one specific objective. 2. Have a coherence in the hierarchy between objectives and results. 3. Formulate objectives and results as they were already achieved. 4. Define “SMART indicators” (no activity, no vague indicator like criteria). 5. Do not transpose the activities as indicators of the results. 6. Do not define indicators next to the general objectives (they are irrelevant in most cases). 7. Do not define sources of verification that are too expensive or impossible to get. In any case, if an expensive source of verification is mentioned, be sure to integrate it in the activities and within the budget. 8. Do not define hypothesis endogenous to the activities you should implement. 9. Next to activities, mention the means (HR and material) and the costs. 10. Do not forget pre-conditions 16