Penguins

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  • As opposed to Archaeornithes and Enantiornithes birds which have teeth neognath – fused metacarpals and modern jawbones There are other species under different subfamilies
  • emperor - largest
  • Blackfooted penguin larger species are in cold places
  • - Free from land predators
  • - Krill – shrimp-like crustacean - For example, Adelie eat small krills only. Most of the time smaller penguins eat krill and squid, larger ones eat fishes.
  • For building up fat layer for reserves Length of fasting depends on sex, species and type of fasting
  • - emperor, fairy penguin
  • - Avoidance of predators and catching of prey’ Dark blends with ocean depth when viewed from above light blends with the light surface of the sea when viewed from below
  • - Not a penguin, but just to show the supraorbital gland
  • Overlapping feathers – waterproofing from cold water Trapping of air – provide thermal insulation Tips feet – to lessen contact with ice
  • Contact – to search for members Display – between partners Threat – defending and warning against enemies
  • Breeding season – varies from species to species Why winter? So that the conditions for the growing chick would be favorable
  • Ecstatic – for males, used to defend its nest, attracts females, and warn other males; outstretched flippers and squawk Mutual – done in unison Bowing – strengthen recognition among partners
  • - Able to recognize their chick through the distinctive call
  • Penguins

    1. 1. PenguinsAbegaill Villacruz
    2. 2. Definition of Terms• Penguins – aquatic, flightless birds• Waddle/rookies – group of penguins (land)• Raft – group of penguins (sea/ocean)• Chick – young penguin• Colony – group of young penguin• Breeding – producing offspring• Breeding cycle – from courtship to producing the chick
    3. 3. Taxonomic Classification• Kingdom: Animalia• Phylum: Chordata• Class: Aves• Subclass: Neornithes (modern birds)• Superorder: Neognathae• Order: Sphenisciformes• Family: Spheniscidae• Genus: 6 genera• Species: ranges from 17 to 20 living species
    4. 4. Examples• Aptenodytes – great penguins Aptenodytes forsteri Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor Penguins King Penguins
    5. 5. Examples•Pygoscelis – Brush-tailed penguins Pygoscelis antarcticus Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis adeliaeAdélie Penguin Pygoscelis papua Gentoo penguin
    6. 6. Examples•Eudyptula – Little penguins Eudyptula minor Eudyptula minor albosignata Little Blue Penguin White-flippered Penguin
    7. 7. Examples•Spheniscus – Banded penguinsSpheniscus magellanicusMagellanic Penguin Spheniscus demersus African Penguin Spheniscus humboldti Spheniscus mendiculusGalapagos Penguin Humboldt Penguin
    8. 8. Examples•Megadyptes Megadyptes antipodes Megadyptes waitaha Megadyptes antipodes Waitaha Penguin
    9. 9. Examples•Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Eudyptes robustus Eudyptes sclateriFiordland Crested Snares Penguin Erect-crested Penguin Penguin
    10. 10. Examples •Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes chrysocome Eudyptes chrysocome filholi Eudyptes c. moseleyi Southern Eastern Rockhopper NorthernRockhopper Penguin Penguin Rockhopper Penguin
    11. 11. Examples•Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes schlegeli Eudyptes chrysolophus Royal Penguins Macaroni Penguin
    12. 12. Distribution and Habitat• Southern hemisphere• Temperate zone• Near the equator – Bergmann’s rule
    13. 13. Distribution and Habitat• Islands and remote continental areas• Nutrient-rich, cold-water currents• Spend half of their lives on land, and half in the oceans
    14. 14. Distribution and Habitat
    15. 15. Predation• Predators: – Adult: sharks, orcas, giant petrels, sea lions, sea leopards – Chick: giant petrels, gulls, skua – Egg: gulls, skua, sheathbill – Humans• Prey – Krill, squid, fish • But not all species eat these
    16. 16. Predation
    17. 17. Feeding Ways• Depend on vision – Relies on bioluminescence of crustaceans, squids and fishes• Catch with their bills, and swallow it whole
    18. 18. Feeding Ways• Undergo fasting – Breeding seasons – Courtship, nesting, incubation periods – Molting periods
    19. 19. Physical Characteristics• Size – Height: from 1.1 m. (3.7 ft.) to 41 cm. (16 in.) – Weight: from 41 kg. (90 lb.) to 1 kg. (2.2 lb.)
    20. 20. Physical Characteristics• Coloration – Countershading (dark backs, light undersides) – Distinct markings with each species – Chicks, juveniles and immature penguins have different markings
    21. 21. Senses• Hearing – Average hearing used by parents and chicks for locating each other – Mate recognition
    22. 22. Senses• Eyesight – Adapted for seeing in land and in water – Color vision sensitive to violet, blue, and green wavelengths
    23. 23. Senses• Smell – Not sure if they can smell – Studies on Humboldt penguins showed that this particular specie can smell
    24. 24. Adaptations• Swimming – Streamlined shape body • Hunches its head to the shoulders, and keeps feet pressed close to the body against the tail – Paddle-like flippers • Flattened and broadened bones • Covered with short, scale-like feathers – Solid, dense bones to overcome buoyancy – Coming to surface • Porpoising – leap in and out of the water
    25. 25. Adaptations• Diving* – Reduced heart rate – Reduced blood flow* Generally not exhibited by penguins
    26. 26. Adaptations• Respiration – Have lungs for inhaling and exhaling • Inhales and exhales rapidly at the surface – Have multiple air sacs
    27. 27. Adaptations• Salt secretion – Supraorbital glands – Help rid excess salt – Salts are shaken off on the bill
    28. 28. Adaptations• Thermoregulation – Dark plumage on dorsal side – Overlapping feathers – Tucks in flippers, and shiver to conserve heat – Fat layer – Tips up their feet – Huddle together
    29. 29. Adaptations• Thermoregulation – For temperate and tropical penguins • Panting • Ruffle their feathers • Hold its flippers away from the body • Lack feathers on legs and have bare patches on face
    30. 30. Communication• Vocalization – Individually identifiable for mating and mother- chick recognition – 3 kinds • Contact call • Display call • Threat call
    31. 31. Reproduction• Breeding – Sexual maturity: 3 to 8 years – Breeding season: mostly from spring to summer • King penguin – (longest breeding cycle) 14 to 16 months • Emperor penguins – during winter • Fairy penguin – (shortest breeding cycle) 50 days
    32. 32. Reproduction• Courtship – Males display first to establish a nest and attract a mate – 3 distinct types of display • Ecstatic or trumpeting • Mutual • Bowing
    33. 33. Reproduction• Courtship – Mostly monogamous – Females selects the same male for the next breeding season • If not, it is because they arrived at different times or the male failed to return to the nesting area
    34. 34. Reproduction• Nesting – Males arrive first to the nesting area – Females follow 1 to 5 days after – They nest on the place where they hatched – Nesting areas vary: • Some near beaches, or steep areas, or burrowed deposits
    35. 35. Care of the Chicks• Both parents feed the chick – Regurgitated food• Cover the chick with brood patch• Male penguin cares for the chick when the female leaves for food
    36. 36. Ecological Role• Serve as food for other species – Without them, those species will have to catch other prey, which might disrupt the food chain – Ex. leopard seals would shift to krill diet which would decrease the survival of other species eating the same thing
    37. 37. References• http://www.pinguins.info/Engels/taxonomie_eng.html• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penguin• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bird• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neognathae• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neornithes• www.pinguins.info• http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/penguin.htm• http://www.penguinscience.com/education/ask_answers_4.php• http://www.penguinworld.com/map/map.php• http://www.penguinworld.com/profpenguin/faq.html• http://www.kidzone.ws/animals/penguins/facts3.htm• http://laaquariumvolunteers.org/index.php?topic=animal&id=104• http://www.buzzle.com/articles/penguin-facts.html• www.arkive.org
    38. 38. Thank you

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