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  1. 1. PenguinsAbegaill Villacruz
  2. 2. Definition of Terms• Penguins – aquatic, flightless birds• Waddle/rookies – group of penguins (land)• Raft – group of penguins (sea/ocean)• Chick – young penguin• Colony – group of young penguin• Breeding – producing offspring• Breeding cycle – from courtship to producing the chick
  3. 3. Taxonomic Classification• Kingdom: Animalia• Phylum: Chordata• Class: Aves• Subclass: Neornithes (modern birds)• Superorder: Neognathae• Order: Sphenisciformes• Family: Spheniscidae• Genus: 6 genera• Species: ranges from 17 to 20 living species
  4. 4. Examples• Aptenodytes – great penguins Aptenodytes forsteri Aptenodytes patagonicus Emperor Penguins King Penguins
  5. 5. Examples•Pygoscelis – Brush-tailed penguins Pygoscelis antarcticus Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis adeliaeAdélie Penguin Pygoscelis papua Gentoo penguin
  6. 6. Examples•Eudyptula – Little penguins Eudyptula minor Eudyptula minor albosignata Little Blue Penguin White-flippered Penguin
  7. 7. Examples•Spheniscus – Banded penguinsSpheniscus magellanicusMagellanic Penguin Spheniscus demersus African Penguin Spheniscus humboldti Spheniscus mendiculusGalapagos Penguin Humboldt Penguin
  8. 8. Examples•Megadyptes Megadyptes antipodes Megadyptes waitaha Megadyptes antipodes Waitaha Penguin
  9. 9. Examples•Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Eudyptes robustus Eudyptes sclateriFiordland Crested Snares Penguin Erect-crested Penguin Penguin
  10. 10. Examples •Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes chrysocome Eudyptes chrysocome filholi Eudyptes c. moseleyi Southern Eastern Rockhopper NorthernRockhopper Penguin Penguin Rockhopper Penguin
  11. 11. Examples•Eudyptes – Crested penguins Eudyptes schlegeli Eudyptes chrysolophus Royal Penguins Macaroni Penguin
  12. 12. Distribution and Habitat• Southern hemisphere• Temperate zone• Near the equator – Bergmann’s rule
  13. 13. Distribution and Habitat• Islands and remote continental areas• Nutrient-rich, cold-water currents• Spend half of their lives on land, and half in the oceans
  14. 14. Distribution and Habitat
  15. 15. Predation• Predators: – Adult: sharks, orcas, giant petrels, sea lions, sea leopards – Chick: giant petrels, gulls, skua – Egg: gulls, skua, sheathbill – Humans• Prey – Krill, squid, fish • But not all species eat these
  16. 16. Predation
  17. 17. Feeding Ways• Depend on vision – Relies on bioluminescence of crustaceans, squids and fishes• Catch with their bills, and swallow it whole
  18. 18. Feeding Ways• Undergo fasting – Breeding seasons – Courtship, nesting, incubation periods – Molting periods
  19. 19. Physical Characteristics• Size – Height: from 1.1 m. (3.7 ft.) to 41 cm. (16 in.) – Weight: from 41 kg. (90 lb.) to 1 kg. (2.2 lb.)
  20. 20. Physical Characteristics• Coloration – Countershading (dark backs, light undersides) – Distinct markings with each species – Chicks, juveniles and immature penguins have different markings
  21. 21. Senses• Hearing – Average hearing used by parents and chicks for locating each other – Mate recognition
  22. 22. Senses• Eyesight – Adapted for seeing in land and in water – Color vision sensitive to violet, blue, and green wavelengths
  23. 23. Senses• Smell – Not sure if they can smell – Studies on Humboldt penguins showed that this particular specie can smell
  24. 24. Adaptations• Swimming – Streamlined shape body • Hunches its head to the shoulders, and keeps feet pressed close to the body against the tail – Paddle-like flippers • Flattened and broadened bones • Covered with short, scale-like feathers – Solid, dense bones to overcome buoyancy – Coming to surface • Porpoising – leap in and out of the water
  25. 25. Adaptations• Diving* – Reduced heart rate – Reduced blood flow* Generally not exhibited by penguins
  26. 26. Adaptations• Respiration – Have lungs for inhaling and exhaling • Inhales and exhales rapidly at the surface – Have multiple air sacs
  27. 27. Adaptations• Salt secretion – Supraorbital glands – Help rid excess salt – Salts are shaken off on the bill
  28. 28. Adaptations• Thermoregulation – Dark plumage on dorsal side – Overlapping feathers – Tucks in flippers, and shiver to conserve heat – Fat layer – Tips up their feet – Huddle together
  29. 29. Adaptations• Thermoregulation – For temperate and tropical penguins • Panting • Ruffle their feathers • Hold its flippers away from the body • Lack feathers on legs and have bare patches on face
  30. 30. Communication• Vocalization – Individually identifiable for mating and mother- chick recognition – 3 kinds • Contact call • Display call • Threat call
  31. 31. Reproduction• Breeding – Sexual maturity: 3 to 8 years – Breeding season: mostly from spring to summer • King penguin – (longest breeding cycle) 14 to 16 months • Emperor penguins – during winter • Fairy penguin – (shortest breeding cycle) 50 days
  32. 32. Reproduction• Courtship – Males display first to establish a nest and attract a mate – 3 distinct types of display • Ecstatic or trumpeting • Mutual • Bowing
  33. 33. Reproduction• Courtship – Mostly monogamous – Females selects the same male for the next breeding season • If not, it is because they arrived at different times or the male failed to return to the nesting area
  34. 34. Reproduction• Nesting – Males arrive first to the nesting area – Females follow 1 to 5 days after – They nest on the place where they hatched – Nesting areas vary: • Some near beaches, or steep areas, or burrowed deposits
  35. 35. Care of the Chicks• Both parents feed the chick – Regurgitated food• Cover the chick with brood patch• Male penguin cares for the chick when the female leaves for food
  36. 36. Ecological Role• Serve as food for other species – Without them, those species will have to catch other prey, which might disrupt the food chain – Ex. leopard seals would shift to krill diet which would decrease the survival of other species eating the same thing
  37. 37. References••••••••••••••
  38. 38. Thank you