Chapter 14  Air, Water, and Solar Energy By: Yunus Borja
Longitude & Latitude <ul><li>Longitude is the  Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west from the pri...
Arctic Circle <ul><li>The parallel of latitude approximately 66.55° north of the Equator, or 23.5° from the North Pole. Th...
Antarctic Circle <ul><li>An imaginary line that delimits the northern boundary of Antarctica. It is a distinctive parallel...
Tropic of Cancer <ul><li>The parallel of latitude about 23.45° north of the Equator. The importance of this line lies in t...
Tropic of Capricorn <ul><li>The parallel of latitude approximately 23.45°south of the Equator. It was named for the conste...
Polar, Temperate, & Tropical Zones <ul><li>Polar zone is the regions of Earth’s surface above the Arctic Circle 66.5 °N or...
Coriolis effect <ul><li>An apparent force ultimately due to the rotation of the Earth. It is the Coriolis effect that make...
Prevailing westerlies <ul><li>Winds blowing from west to east in the temperate zones of Earth. </li></ul>
Jet stream <ul><li>Jet stream is a ribbon of extremely rapidly moving air near the top of the troposphere, caused by conta...
Ocean currents… <ul><li>Surface Currents caused by winds start a process that creates giant rivers in the seas, some of th...
<ul><li>In Deep Currents  ocean water Ocean water below a depth of 100 m is not directly affected by winds, however slow-m...
Gyres <ul><li>Gyres are circular ocean currents that flow clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and counterclockwise in th...
Upwelling <ul><li>Upwelling is the process in which cool water flows up from deep in the ocean to replace surface water dr...
El Niño <ul><li>El Niño  is a warming of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America that occurs every 4 to 1...
Air mass <ul><li>Air mass is a large portion of air that is nearly uniform in temperature, humidity, pressure and moisture...
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Air, Water, And Solar Energy

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Air, Water, And Solar Energy

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Air, Water, and Solar Energy By: Yunus Borja
  2. 2. Longitude & Latitude <ul><li>Longitude is the Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured east or west from the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, to the meridian passing through a position, expressed in degrees or hours, minutes, and seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>Latitude is the Angular distance on the earth's surface, measured north or south from the prime meridian at Greenwich, England, to the meridian passing through a position, expressed in degrees or hours, minutes, and seconds. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Arctic Circle <ul><li>The parallel of latitude approximately 66.55° north of the Equator, or 23.5° from the North Pole. The Arctic Circle has the same angular distance from the Equator as the inclination of the Earth's axis from the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the Earth in its orbit is at the Northern Hemisphere summer solstice, June 21, and the North Pole is tilted 23.5° toward the Sun, the Sun's rays extend beyond the pole 23.5° to the Arctic Circle, giving that parallel 24 h of sunlight. On this same date the Sun's rays at noon will just reach the horizon at the Antarctic Circle, 66.5° south. The highest altitude of the noon Sun at the Arctic Circle is on June 21, when it is 47° above the horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>At the Arctic Circle the Sun remains above the horizon continuously only 24 h at the longest period. However, with twilight considered, it remains daylight or twilight continuously for about 5 months. Twilight can be considered to last until the Sun drops 18° below the horizon. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Antarctic Circle <ul><li>An imaginary line that delimits the northern boundary of Antarctica. It is a distinctive parallel of latitude at approximately 66°30' south. Thus it is located about 4590 mi (7345 km) south of the Equator and about 1630 mi (2620 km) north of the south geographic pole. </li></ul><ul><li>All of Earth's, surface south of the Antarctic Circle experiences one or more days when the Sun remains above the horizon for at least 24 h. The Sun is at its most southerly position on or about December 21 (slightly variable from year to year). This date is known as the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere and as the winter solstice in the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, because Earth is tilted on its axis, the circle of illumination reaches 23.50° to the far side of the South Pole and stops short 23.50° to the near side of the North Pole. </li></ul><ul><li>The longest period of continuous sunshine at the Antarctic Circle is 24 h, and the highest altitude of the noon Sun is 47° above the horizon at the time of the summer solstice. The long days preceding and following the solstice allow a season of about 5 months of almost continuous daylight. </li></ul><ul><li>Six months after the summer solstice, the winter solstice (Southern Hemisphere terminology) occurs on or about June 21 (slightly variable from year to year). On this date the Sun remains below the horizon for 24 h everywhere south of the Antarctic Circle; thus the circle of illumination reaches 23.50° to the far side of the North Pole and stops short 23.50° to the near side of the South Pole. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tropic of Cancer <ul><li>The parallel of latitude about 23.45° north of the Equator. The importance of this line lies in the fact that its degree of angle from the Equator is the same as the inclination of the Earth's axis from the vertical to the plane of the ecliptic. Because of this inclination of the axis and the revolution of the Earth in its orbit, the vertical overhead rays of the Sun may progress as far north as 23.5°. At no place north of the Tropic of Cancer will the Sun, at noon, be 90° overhead. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 21, the summer solstice (Northern Hemisphere), the Sun is vertical above the Tropic of Cancer. On this same day the Sun is 47° above the horizon at noon at the Arctic Circle, and at the Tropic of Capricorn, only 43° above the horizon. The Tropic of Cancer is the northern boundary of the equatorial zone called the tropics, which lies between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tropic of Capricorn <ul><li>The parallel of latitude approximately 23.45°south of the Equator. It was named for the constellation Capricornus (the goat), for astronomical reasons which no longer prevail. </li></ul><ul><li>Because the Earth, in its revolution around the Sun, has its axis inclined 23.5° from the vertical to the plane of the ecliptic, the Tropic of Capricorn marks the southern limit of the zenithal position of the Sun. Thus, on December 22 (Southern Hemisphere summer, but northern winter solstice) the Sun, at noon, is 90° above the horizon. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tropic of Capricorn is the southern boundary of the equatorial zone referred to as the tropics, which lies between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Tropic of Cancer. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Polar, Temperate, & Tropical Zones <ul><li>Polar zone is the regions of Earth’s surface above the Arctic Circle 66.5 °N or the Antarctic Circle 66.5°S. </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate zone is the regions of Earth’s surface from 23.5°N to 66.5°N latitude, and from 23.5°S to 66.5°S latitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical zone is the region of Earth’s surface between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn 23.5°N to 23.5°S. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Coriolis effect <ul><li>An apparent force ultimately due to the rotation of the Earth. It is the Coriolis effect that makes the air in storms rotate counter clockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prevailing westerlies <ul><li>Winds blowing from west to east in the temperate zones of Earth. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Jet stream <ul><li>Jet stream is a ribbon of extremely rapidly moving air near the top of the troposphere, caused by contact between warm and cold air masses; jet streams are found at the boundaries between the polar and temperate zones and between the temperate and tropical zones; wind speeds in a jet stream vary from 100 to 300 km/h. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ocean currents… <ul><li>Surface Currents caused by winds start a process that creates giant rivers in the seas, some of them carry warm waters from close to the equator all the way to the arctic sea. Other ocean currents carry the cool arctic or Antarctic waters toward the equator. The large specific heat capacity of water allows it to absorb large amounts of solar energy. The ocean currents distribute this energy around the world. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>In Deep Currents ocean water Ocean water below a depth of 100 m is not directly affected by winds, however slow-moving currents exist in the deep ocean water, ocean water also moves vertically. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gyres <ul><li>Gyres are circular ocean currents that flow clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Upwelling <ul><li>Upwelling is the process in which cool water flows up from deep in the ocean to replace surface water driven on by the wind, this provides a rich supply of nutrients from the bottom of the ocean. </li></ul>
  15. 15. El Niño <ul><li>El Niño is a warming of the ocean surface off the western coast of South America that occurs every 4 to 12 years when up welling of cold, nutrient-rich water does not occur. It causes die-offs of plankton and fish and affects Pacific jet stream winds, altering storm tracks and creating unusual weather patterns in various parts of the world. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Air mass <ul><li>Air mass is a large portion of air that is nearly uniform in temperature, humidity, pressure and moisture. </li></ul>

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