CVA (Cerebro Vascular Accident)
&
TIA (Trans Ischemic Attack)
BY:
BCoN faculty
CVA
o Definition.
• Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (stroke) is the
disruption of the blood supply to the brain, resultin...
Cerebrovascular Accident
Pathophysiology
 Atherosclerosis: major cause of CVA
Thrombus formation & emboli development
A...
Cerebrovascular Accident
Classifications
Ischemic Stroke
Thrombotic
Embolic

Hemorrhagic Stroke
Intracerebral Hemorrh...
 Ischemic Stroke—inadequate blood flow to the brain from partial or
complete occlusions of an artery--85% of all strokes
...
CVA Recognition
Ischemic – Thrombotic Stroke
Lumen of the blood vessels narrow – then
becomes occluded – infarction
Associated with HTN ...
Common Sites of Atherosclerosis
Ischemic – Embolic Stroke
Embolus lodges in and occludes a cerebral artery
Results in infarction & cerebral edema of the...
Embolic Stroke
Causes of Cerebral Vascular Accidents
(1) Thrombosis--blood clot within a blood vessel in the
brain or neck.
(2) Cerebral ...
. Risk Factors Associated with Cerebral
Vascular Accidents.
(1) Hypertension.
(2) Previous transient ischemic attacks.
(3)...
Signs and Symptoms
(1) Highly dependent upon size and site of lesion.
(2) Motor loss--hemiplegia (paralysis on one side of...
Cont..
(7) Impairment of mental activity.
(8) In most instances onset of symptoms is very sudden.
(a) Level of consciousne...
Cerebrovascular Accident
Clinical Manifestations
Right Brain – Left Brain Damage
Rehabilitation of the patient with CVA
• Process of setting goals for rehabilitation must include
the patient. This increa...
Cont…..
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

4) Specific teaching, encouragement, and support are needed.
(5) Individualized exercise program in...
TIA (Transient ischemic attack)
•

•
•
•
•
•

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when blood flow to a part of the brain
...
Pathophysiology
• A blood clot in an artery of the brain
• A blood clot that travels to the brain from
somewhere else in t...
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
• A TIA is different than a stroke. After a TIA, the blockage breaks up
quickly and di...
Symptoms
• Symptoms begin suddenly, last only a short time (from a
few minutes to 1 - 2 hours), and go away completely. Th...
Cont….
• Almost always, the symptoms and signs of a TIA will have
gone away by the time you get to the hospital. A TIA dia...
Cont…
• Your doctor may do other tests to check high
blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, high
cholesterol, and other ...
Treatment
• The goal is to prevent a stroke.
• If you have had a TIA within the last 48 hours, you will
likely be admitted...
Nursing Diagnoses
 Ineffective tissue perfusion r/t decreased
cerebrovascular blood flow
 Ineffective airway clearance
...
Nursing Goals
 Maintain stable or improved LOC
 Attain maximum physical functioning
 Attain maximum self-care activitie...
Medical and Nursing Management
during the Acute Phase of CVA
• (1) Objectives of care during the acute phase:
• (a) Keep t...
Cont….
• (e) Patient's vital signs--BP, pulse, respirations, and
temperature.
• (f) Be aware of changes in any of the abov...
Cont…
• (5) Maintain proper positioning/body alignment.
• (a) Prevent complications of bed rest.
• (b) Apply foot board, s...
Cont….
• 6) Ensure adequate fluid and electrocyte balance.
• (a) Fluids may be restricted in an attempt to reduce
intracra...
Cont….
• (8) Maintain adequate elimination.
• (a) A Foley catheter is usually inserted during the acute
phase; bladder ret...
Epilepsy and Seizures
Epilepsy Scientific Background
• When the brain functions normally, millions of
fluctuating, simultaneous, tiny electrical...
• Nerve cells normally transmit electrochemical
signals and maintain a balance of excitatory and
inhibitory neurotransmitt...
Epilepsy vs. Seizures
• Do you know the difference between seizures and
epilepsy?
• A seizure is defined by release of exc...
Seizures
• Seizures can cause different symptoms based on the
location of the source of and where the abnormal
electrical ...
• Epilepsy is an abnormal electrical disturbance in one or more
areas of the brain. An estimated 2 to 4 million persons in...
Facts About Epilepsy
• There are over 2.5 million people diagnosed with
epilepsy in the United States.
• Epilepsy affects ...
Factors that may predispose a patient
to epilepsy/seizures
•
•
•
•

(a) Trauma to the head/brain.
(b) Brain tumor.
(c) Cir...
Classification of Seizures
• Seizures are classified into partial and
generalized
• Partial seizures are divided into
– Si...
Different Types of Seizures
• Generalized seizures - Can be convulsive
or non-convulsive
• Absence seizures - Typical vs. ...
• Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal) - Generalized
convulsion occurring in the tonic phase and the
clonic phase. Often this...
Tonic and Clonic
(Most often, these alternate)
Cont…
• Photosensitive seizures - These are very
rare, even for people with epilepsy (<5%).
A light related stimulus may t...
Status Epilepticus
• Status Epilepticus - A state of recurring
seizures when consciousness does not
return between seizure...
How do Seizures/Epilepsy
Affect You?
• Seizures may restrict driving, working, and social
opportunities and also affect se...
Take Control of Managing Seizures
• Understand your epilepsy, including your seizure
type
• Make sure to talk to your Neur...
Cont…
• Bring your epilepsy medications or a detailed
printed list to each Neuro-Oncology visit Take
your medication regul...
Nursing Management Epilepsy

• (1) Objectives of care:
• (a) Determine and treat underlying cause of seizures if
possible....
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

(5) Place a padded tongue blade and oral airway at the patient's
bedside. Tape them to the headboard ...
Cont…
• (9) Essential steps necessary to ensure safety of the
patient following a seizure.
• (a) Keep bed flat and patient...
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
Cva (cerebro vascular accident)
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Cva (cerebro vascular accident)

  1. 1. CVA (Cerebro Vascular Accident) & TIA (Trans Ischemic Attack) BY: BCoN faculty
  2. 2. CVA o Definition. • Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) (stroke) is the disruption of the blood supply to the brain, resulting in neurological dysfunction. • Results from ischemia to a part of the brain or hemorrhage into the brain that results in death of brain cells
  3. 3. Cerebrovascular Accident Pathophysiology  Atherosclerosis: major cause of CVA Thrombus formation & emboli development Abnormal filtration of lipids in the intimal layer of the arterial wall Plaque develops & locations of increased insecurity of blood division Increased turbulence of blood or a indirect area Calcified plaques rupture or fissure Platelets & fibrin stick to the plaque Narrowing or blockage of an artery by thrombus or emboli Cerebral Infarction: blocked artery with blood supply cut off beyond the blockage
  4. 4. Cerebrovascular Accident Classifications Ischemic Stroke Thrombotic Embolic Hemorrhagic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
  5. 5.  Ischemic Stroke—inadequate blood flow to the brain from partial or complete occlusions of an artery--85% of all strokes – Extent of a stroke depends on: • Rapidity of onset • Size of the lesion • Presence of collateral circulation – Symptoms may progress in the first 72 hours as infarction & cerebral edema increase  Types of Ischemic Stroke: Thrombotic Stroke Embolic Stroke
  6. 6. CVA Recognition
  7. 7. Ischemic – Thrombotic Stroke Lumen of the blood vessels narrow – then becomes occluded – infarction Associated with HTN and Diabetes Mellitus >60% of strokes 50% are preceded by TIA
  8. 8. Common Sites of Atherosclerosis
  9. 9. Ischemic – Embolic Stroke Embolus lodges in and occludes a cerebral artery Results in infarction & cerebral edema of the area supplied by the vessel Second most common cause of stroke – 24% Emboli originate in endocardial layer of the heart – at, MI, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease Rapid occurrence with severe symptoms – body does not have time to develop guarantee circulation Any age group Recurrence common if underlying cause not treated
  10. 10. Embolic Stroke
  11. 11. Causes of Cerebral Vascular Accidents (1) Thrombosis--blood clot within a blood vessel in the brain or neck. (2) Cerebral embolism. (3) Stenosis of an artery supplying the brain. (4) Cerebral hemorrhage--rupture of a cerebral blood vessel with bleeding/pressure into brain tissue.
  12. 12. . Risk Factors Associated with Cerebral Vascular Accidents. (1) Hypertension. (2) Previous transient ischemic attacks. (3) Cardiac disease (atherosclerosis, arrhythmias, valvular heart disease). (4) Advanced age. (5) Diabetes.
  13. 13. Signs and Symptoms (1) Highly dependent upon size and site of lesion. (2) Motor loss--hemiplegia (paralysis on one side of the side) or hemiparesis (motor weakness on one side of the body). (3) Communication loss. (a) Receptive aphasia (inability to understand the spoken word). (b) Expressive aphasia (inability to speak). (4) Vision loss. (5) Sensory loss. (6) Bladder impairment.
  14. 14. Cont.. (7) Impairment of mental activity. (8) In most instances onset of symptoms is very sudden. (a) Level of consciousness may vary from lethargy, to mental confusion, to deep coma. (b) Blood pressure may be severely elevated due to increased intracranial pressure. (c) Patient may experience sudden, severe, headache with nausea and vomiting. (d) Patient may remain comatose for hours, days, or even weeks, and then recover. (e) Generally, the longer the coma, the poorer the prognosis. (9) ICP is a frequent complication resulting from hemorrhage or ischemia and subsequent cerebral edema.
  15. 15. Cerebrovascular Accident Clinical Manifestations Right Brain – Left Brain Damage
  16. 16. Rehabilitation of the patient with CVA • Process of setting goals for rehabilitation must include the patient. This increases the likelihood of the goals being met. • General rehabilitative tasks faced by the patient include: • Learning to use strength and abilities that are intact to compensate for impaired functions. • Learning to become independent in activities of daily living (bathing, dressing, eating). • Developing behavior patterns that are likely to prevent the recurrence of symptoms. • Taking prescribed medications. • Stopping smoking. • Reducing day-to-day stress. • Modifying diet.
  17. 17. Cont….. • • • • • • • 4) Specific teaching, encouragement, and support are needed. (5) Individualized exercise program involving both affected and unaffected extremities is required. (6) Speech therapy, as indicated by patient's condition, may be necessary. (7) Continuous revaluation of goals and patient's ability to meet the goals is required to maintain a realistic plan of care. (8) Counseling and support to family is an integral part of the rehabilitation process. (a) Both family and patient need direction and support in coping with intellectual and personality impairment. (b) Instruct family to expect some emotional lability such as inappropriate crying, laughing, or outbursts of temper.
  18. 18. TIA (Transient ischemic attack) • • • • • • A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief period of time. A person will have stroke-like symptoms for up to 1-2 hours. A TIA is felt to be a warning sign that a true stroke may happen in the future if something is not done to prevent it. A signal for major stroke in future Clinical features may be hemiparesis, aphasia, sensory disturbances etc. Brain imaging is strongly recommended to rule out small hemorrhage. distinguish time for implementation of secondary preventive measures
  19. 19. Pathophysiology • A blood clot in an artery of the brain • A blood clot that travels to the brain from somewhere else in the body (for example, from the heart) • An injury to blood vessels • Narrowing of a blood vessel in the brain or leading to the brain
  20. 20. Causes, incidence, and risk factors • A TIA is different than a stroke. After a TIA, the blockage breaks up quickly and dissolves. Unlike a stroke, a TIA does not cause brain tissue to die. • The loss of blood flow to an area of the brain • High blood pressure is the number one risk for TIAs and stroke. The other major risk factors are: • Diabetes • Family history of stroke • High cholesterol • Increasing age, especially after age 55 • People who have heart disease or poor blood flow in their legs caused by narrowed arteries are also more likely to have a TIA or stroke.
  21. 21. Symptoms • Symptoms begin suddenly, last only a short time (from a few minutes to 1 - 2 hours), and go away completely. They may occur again at a later time. • The symptoms of TIA are the same as the symptoms of a stroke and include sudden: • Abnormal feeling of movement (vertigo) or dizziness • Change in alertness (sleepiness, less responsive, unconscious, or in a coma) • Changes in feeling, including touch, pain, temperature, pressure, hearing, and taste • Confusion or loss of memory • Difficulty swallowing
  22. 22. Cont…. • Almost always, the symptoms and signs of a TIA will have gone away by the time you get to the hospital. A TIA diagnosis may be made based on your medical history alone. • The health care provider will do a complete physical exam to check for heart and blood vessel problems, as well as for problems with nerves and muscles. • Your blood pressure may be high. The doctor will use a stethoscope to listen to your heart and arteries. An abnormal sound called a bruit may be heard when listening to the carotid artery in the neck or other artery. A bruit is caused by irregular blood flow
  23. 23. Cont… • Your doctor may do other tests to check high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, and other causes of and risk factors for TIAs or stroke.
  24. 24. Treatment • The goal is to prevent a stroke. • If you have had a TIA within the last 48 hours, you will likely be admitted to the hospital so that doctors can search for the cause and observe you. • High blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and blood disorders should be treated as needed. • You may receive blood thinners, such as aspirin, to reduce blood clotting. Other options include dipyridamole, clopidogrel, Aggrenox or heparin, Coumadin, or similar medications. You may be treated for a long period of time.
  25. 25. Nursing Diagnoses  Ineffective tissue perfusion r/t decreased cerebrovascular blood flow  Ineffective airway clearance  Impaired physical mobility  Impaired verbal communication  Impaired swallowing  Unilateral neglect r/t visual field cut & sensory loss  Impaired urinary elimination  Situational low self-esteem r/t actual or perceived loss of function
  26. 26. Nursing Goals  Maintain stable or improved LOC  Attain maximum physical functioning  Attain maximum self-care activities & skills  Maintain stable body functions  Maximize communication abilities  Maintain adequate nutrition  Avoid complications of stroke  Maintain effective personal & family coping
  27. 27. Medical and Nursing Management during the Acute Phase of CVA • (1) Objectives of care during the acute phase: • (a) Keep the patient alive. • (b) Minimize cerebral damage by providing adequately oxygenated blood to the brain. • (2) Support airway, breathing, and circulation. • (3) Maintain neurological flow sheet with frequent observations of the following: • (a) Level of consciousness. • (b) Pupil size and reaction to light. • (c) Patient's response to commands. • (d) Movement and strength.
  28. 28. Cont…. • (e) Patient's vital signs--BP, pulse, respirations, and temperature. • (f) Be aware of changes in any of the above. Deterioration could indicate progression of the CVA. • 4) Continually reorient patient to person, place, and time (day, month) even if patient remains in a coma. Confusion may be a result of simply regaining consciousness, or may be due to a neurological deficit.
  29. 29. Cont… • (5) Maintain proper positioning/body alignment. • (a) Prevent complications of bed rest. • (b) Apply foot board, sand bags, trochanter rolls, and splints as necessary. • (c) Keep head of bed elevated 30º, or as ordered, to reduce increased intracranial pressure. • (d) Place air mattress or alternating pressure mattress on bed and turn patient every two hours to maintain skin integrity.
  30. 30. Cont…. • 6) Ensure adequate fluid and electrocyte balance. • (a) Fluids may be restricted in an attempt to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP). • (b) Intravenous fluids are maintained until patient's condition stabilizes, then nasogastric tube feedings or oral feedings are begun depending upon patient's abilities. • (7) Administer medications, as ordered. • (a) Anti hypertensives. • (b) Antibiotics, if necessary. • (c) Seizure control medications. • (d) Anticoagulants. • (e) Sedatives and tranquilizers are not given because they depress the respiratory center and obscure neurological observations.
  31. 31. Cont…. • (8) Maintain adequate elimination. • (a) A Foley catheter is usually inserted during the acute phase; bladder retraining is begun during rehabilitation. • (b) Provide stool softeners to prevent constipation. Straining at stool will increase intracranial pressure. • (9) Include patient's family and significant others in plan of care to the maximum extent possible. • (a) Allow them to assist with care when feasible. • (b) Keep them informed and help them to understand the patient's condition.
  32. 32. Epilepsy and Seizures
  33. 33. Epilepsy Scientific Background • When the brain functions normally, millions of fluctuating, simultaneous, tiny electrical charges go from the nerve cells to all parts of the body. • People who have seizures / epilepsy have these normal electrical “patterns” interrupted by sudden and relatively intense bursts of electrical energy that may affect consciousness, body movements, and sensation.
  34. 34. • Nerve cells normally transmit electrochemical signals and maintain a balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters as well as sodium, potassium, and other factors critical to energy stability. • When this balance is changed, a seizure may result
  35. 35. Epilepsy vs. Seizures • Do you know the difference between seizures and epilepsy? • A seizure is defined by release of excessive and uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. Seizures themselves are not a disease, they are an event. • Epilepsy (seizure disorder) is a neurological condition, that in different times produce brief disturbances in the electrical functions of the brain. Seizures are a symptom of epilepsy.
  36. 36. Seizures • Seizures can cause different symptoms based on the location of the source of and where the abnormal electrical activity spreads. • Seizures can range from tingling in a finger to grand mal (generalized) seizures, during which people lose consciousness, become stiff, and jerk. • Not everything that looks like a seizure is a seizure. And not every seizure is an epileptic seizure. Fainting, collapsing, and confusion can also result from other disorders or even from emotional stress. Withdrawal from alcohol or addicting drugs can also cause seizures.
  37. 37. • Epilepsy is an abnormal electrical disturbance in one or more areas of the brain. An estimated 2 to 4 million persons in the United States are afflicted with epilepsy and more that half of those are under 20 years of age. • (1) The basic problem is thought to be an electrical disturbance in the nerve cells in one section of the brain, causing them to give off abnormal, recurrent, uncontrolled electrical discharges that produce a seizure or convulsion. • (2) The underlying disorder may be structural, chemical, physiological, or a combination of all three.
  38. 38. Facts About Epilepsy • There are over 2.5 million people diagnosed with epilepsy in the United States. • Epilepsy affects more people than other serious conditions such as cerebral palsy, cancer, tuberculosis, muscular dystrophy, and multiple sclerosis combined. • The leading cause of epilepsy in adults is automobile accidents • All other things even, people who have epilepsy have the same abilities and intelligence as everyone else • The leading cause in children is birth trauma • The leading cause for the elderly (people over 65) is strokes
  39. 39. Factors that may predispose a patient to epilepsy/seizures • • • • (a) Trauma to the head/brain. (b) Brain tumor. (c) Circulatory disorder, stroke. (d) Metabolic disorder (such as hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, or cerebral anoxia). • (e) Drug/alcohol toxicity. • (f) Infection (meningitis/brain abscess).
  40. 40. Classification of Seizures • Seizures are classified into partial and generalized • Partial seizures are divided into – Simple partial - Consciousness is not impaired – Complex partial - Consciousness is impaired – About 2/3 of people with epilepsy have complex partial seizures
  41. 41. Different Types of Seizures • Generalized seizures - Can be convulsive or non-convulsive • Absence seizures - Typical vs. Atypical – Typical absence seizures - Non-convulsive with muscle tone preserved. The seizure usually lasts less than 10 seconds. – Atypical absence seizures - Convulsive, longer in duration, loss in muscle tone, and tonic/clonic movements are observed.
  42. 42. • Tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal) - Generalized convulsion occurring in the tonic phase and the clonic phase. Often this is preceded by an aura. • Tonic phase - Muscles stiffen up, person loses consciousness, body grows rigid. • Clonic phase- Body extremities jerk and twitch. • Secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures begins locally with partial seizures
  43. 43. Tonic and Clonic (Most often, these alternate)
  44. 44. Cont… • Photosensitive seizures - These are very rare, even for people with epilepsy (<5%). A light related stimulus may trigger this seizure, hence the warning labels on electronic devices, theme park rides, and even video games. • Atonic seizures - Sudden lack of muscle tone, causing the inability to sit and stand. They are also called akinetic seizures. These are very rare in adults.
  45. 45. Status Epilepticus • Status Epilepticus - A state of recurring seizures when consciousness does not return between seizure events. – Can be very serious and at times fatal. This is a seizure that lasts for about 20 minutes, and can cause serious brain damage, if not aborted. – Benzodiazepines like diazepam or lorazepam may be given to patients in the hospital for treatment.
  46. 46. How do Seizures/Epilepsy Affect You? • Seizures may restrict driving, working, and social opportunities and also affect self-esteem. But remember, you can influence how epilepsy will affect you. • Most people’s epileptic seizures can be controlled. Some people end their seizures with the first medication they try. Others will need to partner with their NeuroOncologist or epileptologist to find the right dosage and combination of medications, especially as brain tumors can change geometry and location.
  47. 47. Take Control of Managing Seizures • Understand your epilepsy, including your seizure type • Make sure to talk to your Neuro-Oncologist or epileptologist about all available treatment options • Fill out a medical history and seizure calendar, so you can become involved in your medical care • Learn how to communicate well with your neurologist and his or her staff
  48. 48. Cont… • Bring your epilepsy medications or a detailed printed list to each Neuro-Oncology visit Take your medication regularly. • Linking this to a routine may be helpful (when you brush your teeth, prepare for bed, etc.). • There are also devices that can help like a watch that beeps when your dose is due or special blister packaging that is pre-dosed Get enough sleep- lack of it can bring on epileptic seizures
  49. 49. Nursing Management Epilepsy • (1) Objectives of care: • (a) Determine and treat underlying cause of seizures if possible. • (b) Prevent recurrence of seizures and therefore allow patient to live a normal life. • (2) Institute and reinforce the importance of anticonvulsant drug therapy: • (a) Drug therapy is a means of controlling the condition; it is not a cure. • (b) Initially, dosage will have to be monitored and altered to provide maximum control with minimum side effects. • 3) Instruct patient to keep record of events surrounding his/her seizures (number, duration, time, sleep/eating patterns). • (4) Use of multidisciplinary approach to cope with social, emotional, and vocational pressures of the person with epilepsy.
  50. 50. • • • • • • • • • • (5) Place a padded tongue blade and oral airway at the patient's bedside. Tape them to the headboard or wall above the bed. This provides easy emergency access. (6) Take the seizure prone patient's temperature with a rectal thermometer; prevents possibility of patient biting an oral thermometer if a seizure should occur. 7) Set up suction equipment at the patient's bedside. (a) Check the equipment daily to be sure it is working properly. (b) Use during or after a seizure to clear the patient's airway. (8) Essential steps necessary to protect the patient during a seizure. (a) Turn patient on his side to provide for drainage of oral secretions. (b) Do not forcibly restrain patient during seizure. (c) Remove objects that may obstruct breathing or cause injury to patient. (d) Protect patient's head from injury with pillow, blanket, etc.
  51. 51. Cont… • (9) Essential steps necessary to ensure safety of the patient following a seizure. • (a) Keep bed flat and patient turned on his side until he is alert. • (b) Room lighting should be dim and noise kept to a minimum. • (c) Loosen restrictive clothing (if not done during seizure). • (d) Check vital signs immediately following seizure and every 30 minutes (or as ordered) until patient is alert. • (e) Check lips, tongue, and inside of mouth for injuries. • (f) If patient is incontinent, change clothing and bedding with as little disturbance as possible.
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