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Cerebrovascular Accident


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PowerPoint Presentation on Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) or Stroke.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Cerebrovascular Accident

  1. 1. Presented by Maria G. Nelson and Imelda de los Santos
  2. 2. CVA or Stroke <ul><li>An interruption of blood supply to a vital center in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “brain attack”, cerebral infarction, cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke or stroke </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Human Brain
  4. 4. Stroke 101 <ul><li>Third leading cause of death in America, behind heart disease and cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Kills 160,000 people each year </li></ul><ul><li>Leading cause of adult disability </li></ul><ul><li>About 750,000 strokes will occur this year, 500,000 of those strokes could be prevented </li></ul><ul><li>Costs the nation $62.7 billion in direct and indirect costs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brain Attack
  6. 6. Direct Causes of Stroke <ul><li>Cerebral thrombosis – a blood clot or plaque blocks an artery that supplies a vital brain center </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral hemorrhage or aneurysm – an artery in the brain bursts, weakens the aneurysm wall; severe rise in BP causing hemorrhage and ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral embolism – a blood clot breaks off from a thrombus elsewhere in the body, lodges in a blood vessel in the brain and shuts off blood supply to that part of the brain </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Stroke <ul><li>Ischemic stroke - when arteries are blocked by blood clots or by gradual build up of plaque and other fatty deposits. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost 85% of strokes are ischemic. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemorrhagic stroke – when a blood vessel in the brain breaks leaking blood into the brain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 15% of all strokes but responsible for 30% of stroke deaths </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stroke
  9. 9. Points to Consider <ul><li>2,000,000 brain cells die every minute during stroke, increasing risk of permanent brain damage, disability or death. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing symptoms and acting fast to get medical attention can save life and limit disabilities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Stages of CVA <ul><li>Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – sudden and short-lived attack </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible ischemic neurologic deficit (RIND) similar to TIA, but symptoms can last up to a week </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke in evolution (SIE) - gradual worsening of symptoms of brain ischemia </li></ul><ul><li>Completed stroke (CS) – symptoms of stroke stable over a period and rehab can begin </li></ul>
  11. 11. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>In embolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually occurs without warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client often with history of cardiovascular disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In thrombosis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dizzy spells or sudden memory loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No pain, and client may ignore symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In cerebral hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have warning like dizziness and ringing in the ears (tinnitus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violent headache, with nausea and vomiting </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Sudden-onset CVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually most severe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face becomes red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing is noisy and strained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulse is slow but full and bounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elevated BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be in a deep coma </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Time is Critical! <ul><li>The longer the time period that the person remains unresponsive, the less likely it is that the person will recover. </li></ul><ul><li>The first few days after onset is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>The responsive person may: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show signs of memory loss or inconsistent behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be easily fatigued, lose bowel and bladder control, or have poor balance. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Common Stroke Symptoms <ul><li>Weakness or paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness, tingling, decreased sensation </li></ul><ul><li>Vision changes </li></ul><ul><li>Speech problems </li></ul><ul><li>Swallowing difficulties or drooling </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of memory </li></ul><ul><li>Vertigo (spinning sensation) </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of balance and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Personality changes </li></ul><ul><li>Mood changes (depression, apathy) </li></ul><ul><li>Drowsiness, lethargy, or loss of consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrollable eye movements or eyelid drooping </li></ul>
  15. 15. Act F.A.S.T . <ul><li>F = Face Ask the person to smile. Does one side of the face droop? </li></ul><ul><li>A = Arms Ask the person to raise both arms. Does one arm drift downward? </li></ul><ul><li>S = Speech Ask the person to repeat a simple sentence. Does the speech sound slurred or strange? </li></ul><ul><li>T = Time Call 911 immediately! </li></ul>
  16. 16. Risk Factors <ul><li>Being over age 55 </li></ul><ul><li>Being an African-American </li></ul><ul><li>Having diabetes </li></ul><ul><li>Having a family history of stroke </li></ul>
  17. 17. Medical Stroke Risks <ul><li>Previous stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Previous episode of transient ischemic attack (TIA) or mini-stroke </li></ul><ul><li>High cholesterol </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul><ul><li>Atrial fibrillation and carotid </li></ul><ul><li>artery disease </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lifestyle Stroke Risks <ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>Being overweight </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking too much alcohol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can control lifestyle risks by quitting smoking, exercising regularly, watching what and how much you eat and limiting alcohol consumption. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Major Effects of Stroke <ul><li>Hemiplegia - most common result of CVA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paralysis of one side of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May affect other functions, such as hearing, general sensation and circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of impairment depends on the part of the brain affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flaccid – numbness and weakness of affected side </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spastic – muscles contracted and tense, movement hard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery – therapy and rehab methods successful </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Aphasia and Dysphasia </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Damage – extent of brain damage determines chances of recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Hemianopsia – blindness in half of the visual field of one or both eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Pain – usually very little; injection of local anesthetic provides temporary relief </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Disturbances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Such as perspiration or “goose flesh” above the level of paralysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have dilated pupils, high or low BP or headache </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treated with atropine-like drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personality Changes – either functional or organic </li></ul>
  21. 21. Diagnostic Procedures <ul><li>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) imaging, computed axial tomography (CAT) scan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to identify edema, ischemia and necrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or cerebral angiography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To identify presence of cerebral hemorrhage, abnormal vessel structures, vessel ruptures, and regional perfusion of blood flow in the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lumbar puncture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to assess presence of blood in the CSF </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carotid endarterectomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed to open the artery by removing atherosclerotic plaque </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interventional radiology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performed to treat cerebral aneurysm </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Assessments <ul><li>Monitor for signs and symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms will vary based on the area of the brain that is not adequately supplied with oxygenated blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The left cerebral hemisphere is responsible for language, mathematic skills and analytic thinking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The right cerebral hemisphere is responsible for visual and spatial awareness and proprioception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Assess/Monitor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Airway patency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallowing ability/aspiration risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neurological status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor, sensory and cognitive functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glasgow Coma Scale score </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Nursing Diagnoses <ul><li>Ineffective tissue perfusion (cerebral) </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbed sensory perception </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired physical mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Risk for injury </li></ul><ul><li>Self-care deficit </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired verbal communication </li></ul><ul><li>Impaired swallowing </li></ul>
  24. 24. Nursing Considerations <ul><li>Maintain patent airway. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor for changes in the client’s level of consciousness (increased intracranial pressure sign). </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the client’s head to reduce ICP and to promote venous drainage. Avoid extreme flexion or extension, maintain the head in a midline neutral position and elevate the head of bed to 30 degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>Institute seizure precautions. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Maintain a non-stimulating environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with communication skills if the client’s speech is impaired. </li></ul><ul><li>Assist with safe feeding. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assess swallowing reflexes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thicken liquid to avoid aspiration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat in an upright position and swallow with the head and neck flexed slightly forward. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place food in the back of the mouth on the unaffected side. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suction on standby. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Maintain skin integrity. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage PROM every 2 hr to the affected extremities and AROM every 2 hr to the unaffected extremities. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the affected extremities to promote venous return and to reduce swelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain a safe environment to reduce the risks of falls. </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning technique (turning head from side to side) when eating and ambulating to compensate for hemianopsia. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Provide care to prevent deep-vein thrombosis (sequential compression stockings, frequent position changes, mobilization). </li></ul><ul><li>Administer medications as prescribed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systemic or catheter directed thrombolytic therapy restores cerebral blood flow. It must be administered within hours of the onset of symptoms. It is contraindicated for treatment of hemorrhagic stroke and for clients with an increased risk of bleeding. Rule out hemorrhagic stroke with an MRI prior to initiation of thrombolytic therapy. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Thrombolytic Therapy <ul><li>Anticoagulants: Sodium heparin, warfarin (Coumadin) </li></ul><ul><li>Antiplatelets: Ticlopidine (Ticlid), clopidogrel (Plavix) </li></ul><ul><li>Antiepileptic medications: Phenytoin (Dilantin), gabapentin (Neurontin) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Stroke Prevention <ul><li>Get screened for high BP. </li></ul><ul><li>Have your cholesterol level checked. LDL should be lower than 70 mg/dL. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow a low-fat diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Quit smoking! </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise! </li></ul><ul><li>Limit alcohol intake! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Stroke Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Thanks Batch 17 and Ms. Shiela for being a great audience!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Margi & Imeeh </li></ul>