VRA 2013 Documenting the Art of Africa, Klein


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Presented by Debra Klein at the Annual Conference of the Visual Resources Association, April 3rd - April 6th, 2013, in Providence, Rhode Island.

Session #09: Documenting the Art of Africa: Creating New Vocabularies
ORGANIZER: Karen Kessel, Sonoma State University
MODERATOR: Carole Pawloski, Eastern Michigan University
Debra Klein, Bard College
Jennifer Larson, Department of the Arts of Africa, Oceania and the Americas, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Carole Pawloski, Eastern Michigan University
Endorsed by the Education Committee

Over 100 years ago, artists like Picasso and Gauguin found novel inspiration for their art in the creative works of art from exotic places like Africa and the South Pacific. Digital technology has created the ability to more widely share the resources that we manage yet our vocabulary in describing them is limited. Most Western cultures still view traditional arts of the African continent with a Western aesthetic. People are more interested in how the work is formally viewed than its original function or how and why it was created and how it is displayed. There is often much lacking with record descriptions, cataloging and display that would both enhance the work and give viewers a more accurate understanding of each object. More complete records would enhance the usefulness of object records for multiple disciplines. The influence of African art on the work of Western artists could be documented in the object records. This session will strive to provide these missing elements and further cultural understanding by presenting some of the concerns about the documentation of objects being addressed by current scholars in African art history and related fields. It will touch on the evolving standards and codification of traditional African art, the multiplicity of functionality within objects, and how to better convey meaning through the documentation and contextual display of objects. At the same time, we need to be aware that these cultures may express a need to limit the sharing of information about works that have special significance to their own cultural communities or ethnic groups.
Thursday April 4, 2013 1:35pm - 2:55pm

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  • NOTE: My talk was about cataloging copywork so all of my images were copyrighted. Unfortunately, the images were a big part of the talk. However, I have cited them all in full, if you are interested. There is also a bibliography for the talk at the end, and I have added suggestions for further reading as well as some links. Please email me if you have any questions or would just like to talk cataloging: klein@bard.edu.Talk begins here:At the Visual Resources Center at Bard College, I catalog African art for the African Studies department as well as for several art history courses on African and African diaspora art and culture. I am going to talk about how you can put African art in context through your cataloging.
  •  I catalog in IRIS, a relational database developed at Brown University. The cataloging examples I will be showing are based on VRA-Core and CCO We use authority files primarily from the Getty Research Institute and the Library of Congress.
  • The key to cataloging African art is to place it in its cultural context. I am going to talk about ways to do that through: Creating new vocabularies and using narrow and broad terms.I will also discuss how to catalog ephemeral events.I will talk about why individual examples of African art should be considered as fragments of a whole. This is a 1970 photograph by Anita Glaze. These Senufo ancestor figures are guarding an elder’s body during mourning rituals.
  • My first example is a Bamana hunter’s shirt from Mali. What kind of shirt is this? Who made this? What are those things hanging on the shirt?  Our cataloging record needs to supply the context that would make this image comprehensible.At the most basic level, this is a shirt, but it is not about fashion, it's a ceremonial shirt. In my record for this shirt, I use the narrow terms as well as the broad terms. The Bamana are a Mande people. This narrow culture term is a clue about the shirt’s past life. An interested student can search the term Bamana to learn about the people who made this shirt.My title tells us more about the object:Hunter’s Shirt with basi, or secret things.This title suggests the deeper life of the object. But What are the secret things? Adding a short description allows us to further understand what we are looking at.I add a detailed list of materials. The creation location locates the culture geographically. The subjects are primarily search terms. But they can also point the way to further research. When we train students at Bard to search for images, we tell them to look at the subjects to find terms to use for additional searching.  Using broad terms cast a wider net for searches. I like the thought of serendipity. When one search can motivate a second, or deeper search. We sometimes use the subject fields to refer to related records.For instance, you’ll note that I’ve included the title of another work in our collection, a photograph by Henrietta Cosentino, of a hunter wearing his shirt.
  • Shown here. This image has a different description that complements the description in the cataloging record of the previous image. I try not to repeat descriptions. African concepts are too complicated, and translations too imprecise, to compress the whole of cultural belief into a couple of sentences.  Attaching different descriptions to related work records allows our understanding to accumulate as we look at successive records. I have cited the source for the description. Since the source book information is displayed in full in the record, I use the abbreviated form, and simply reference the author and the page number.
  • My next example is a NgadyMwaash mask. I’ll just quickly run through this record and then I will talk about vocabularies. By the way, this is not the complete record, I’ve left out general information like dates. Dates are usually over a broad range as these cultures don’t tend to keep records. Kuba is a narrow term, a Central African culture group. The generic English title aids quick comprehension. However, the African title is the specific name for this type of mask. Most of these traditional forms will look very similar no matter who was the craftsman. They are meant to be the same, generation after generation. It is about tradition and continuity, rather than creativity. However, each type of mask is different from the other and each perform a very specific function. To speak only of a female mask is meaningless.  Back to our cataloging.  Note the discovery location. When available, noting the specific place where the object was created makes the mask that much less impersonal. I used the term discovery location rather than creation location because I don't know for sure that the mask was made in the same place where it was it was collected. Many of these names have different spellings from book to book or website. You can put the second title in your alternative title field, if you have one. You can add it after the first in parentheses. Or you can work into your description. In this description, I have not added an alternative term but a more narrow one. I have used the more narrow culture term Bushoong. It’s not in AAT but I did run across it in connection with these masks on several reputable online sources In this case, I got this description from an online source, which I noted here. We do paraphrase for brevity’s sake.  We rely on online sources to supplement our knowledge and for verification. We try to only use scholarly sources. Now I want to talk more about expanding your vocabulary and using narrow terms. Subjects are not only search terms, but can also provide clues to the object’s meaning and use.  We use the Getty and Library Congress vocabularies. If a term is important, and we can find reputable sources, we will add work types and subjects to our authority tables. We routinely add names, but we try to be more selective when adding other authorities.
  • For instance, here is an example of a subject record I made for the term ancestor figures. This term is not in AAT, but is a useful term, as they occurs in many cultures across the world. I created a work type term, using two reputable online sources. Note that I did not try to write a description. I used the descriptions from two online examples to establish a precedent.
  • I have found that the Getty vocabularies are a very good resource for African terms. I used the narrow term face mask for the mask I just showed you. Here is a section of the terms the Getty AAT defines under mask. You see it includes terms that are very specific to certain cultures.   As inanimate objects these are masks, which are technically a form of costume. Of course, these masks transcend the usual Western definition of costume. When they are danced, these masks cease to be a costume worn by a dancer and become the living presence of the spirit.  This is one reason it is always good to show an image of the mask in action.
  • Here is NgadyMwaash animated.  This introduces my next topic. How to catalog an ephemeral, time- based event. I am going to introduce a new mask for this next record.
  •  This an Egungun mask in the Fowler Museum. It is beautiful thing.
  • But you can see how it comes to life when danced. How do we catalog this?
  •  Keep in mind that the fields in a cataloging record should consistently refer to the same object. If you try to catalog this image as a mask, both you and the record quickly get confused. The only date I have is the one when the photo was made. Where do I put that? This image is not just about the mask. It is also about the crowds watching, the movement, the location outside. In short it is about the whole cultural context. You could catalog it as an event, or preferably the more narrow term, masquerade. But that still doesn't cover the photographer. Remember that CCO says that we should ask the question “What is it?”  The most specific answer is that this is a photograph created to document an aspect of African culture.
  • This is a documentary photograph of an Egungun dance, taken in 1994 by Henning Christoph. The photographer is important because often the documentation of these events has been done by a well known scholar of African art. This can be another research clue.For instance, Henning Christoph is a photojournalist who authored a book called Soul of Africa Magical Rites and Traditions.  The creation location and date of the photograph also tell us when and where the event was taking place. You use the title, and the description and the subject fields to elaborate on the cultural context, which is the subject of the photograph.  You have seen how these masks are always part of a greater cultural ritual. They are not made to be displayed.  
  • When masks and other objects are treated as isolated art objects they become separated from the purpose for which they were created.  This head is a beautiful sculpture. But it was not made to stand alone like this. It has a very serious purpose. It represents the spirit of a deceased oba, or king, as a deity. Together with the other objects on this shrine, it represents direct contact with the spiritual world.  These shrines answer the supplications of the living, control powerful forces, and maintain the power of the community. In the past, humans were sacrificed to these king shrines. This pristine head is completely divorced from the complex and powerful cultural practice represented by this shrine image.  If you are only cataloging an object such as this head, if you can, take the time to add a line or two in the description field that suggests its cultural context.  By the way, I cataloged this shrine as a photograph, since the shrine exists in time as well as space. These shrines are ephemeral. They change over time as they are used.
  • To review I’ll use a photograph by Susan Vogel of a Goli Glen masquerade.
  • Use specific, narrow terms along with general, broad terms. Place the object in context, both culturally and geographically. If there is more than one example of a particular type of object, vary the descriptions in each record so that they complement each other and add to the understanding of the object.  When cataloging an isolated object, such as a mask in a museum, use the description field to place it in the context of the whole. When cataloging a photograph of an event or other ephemeral object, catalog it as a photograph and use the description and subject fields to elaborate. With this record, the source book gave me a lot of very specific information. I was able to include the specific place and date. I could also include the name of the musician, Here, Kalou Yao, who is playing the tre, a horn. It is explained here in the description field. To conclude.Background information deepens our understanding of any artwork, but especially so when we are looking at art produced by an unfamiliar culture. When cataloging African art it is important to remember that these objects are a fragment of a greater cultural context. Use narrow and broad terms, use the African terms in the record fields when you can; and try to include a sentence or two in the description field that places the object in context.
  • VRA 2013 Documenting the Art of Africa, Klein

    1. 1. Session 09:Documenting the Art ofAfrica: Creating NewVocabulariesThursday, April 4, 2013Cataloging African Artfor Clarity and ContextDebbie KleinYoké Mask, Baga, GuineaPhotograph by Michael HuetHuet, Michel. The dance, art, and ritual of Africa. Pantheon,c1978., pl. 24
    2. 2. IRIShttps://sites.google.com/site/fmpirisdatabase/VRACorehttp://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore4/Cataloging Cultural Objects: A Guide to DescribingCultural Works and Their Imageshttp://cco.vrafoundation.org/Getty Vocabularieshttp://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/index.htmlLibrary of Congress Authoritieshttp://authorities.loc.gov/
    3. 3. • Creating new vocabularies• Using narrow and broad termsfor subject and worktypes• Cataloging ephemeral events• Fragment vs. wholeFemale and male Pórópya figures overlooking the log shelter, kpaala, in the central square at the funeral of an elderPhotograph by Anita Glaze, 1970Lamp, Frederick John, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinking African art at the Baltimore Museum of Ar. Prestel, 2004, p. 30
    4. 4. Work Type: shirt, ceremonial costume, costumeCulture: Bamana, Mande, West AfricanTitle: Hunters Shirt with basi, or secret thingsDescription: Hunterss shirts accumulate basi, orsecret things, including amulets, claws, horns, andother found objects, to represent the knowledgeacquired by the hunter over the course of hislifetime. Only the hunter knows the contents of thepackets, and no other person is ever allowed towear the shirt, so personal are its secrets. (Nooter,p. 104)Materials: cloth, leather, cowrie shells, foundobjects, mirrorsCreation location: MaliSubjects: Magic; Power; Folk Art; Ethnic costume;Amulets; Cosentino, Henrietta, Numu Tunkarawearing hunters shirt, 1976Nooter, Mary. Secrecy: African Art that Conceals and Reveals. Museum for African Art, c1993, p. 104.
    5. 5. Work Type: documentary photograph, black-and-whitephotograph, photographCulture: Mende, MandeDate: 1976Photographer: Henrietta Cosentino (American, 1941-)Title: Numu Tunkara wearing hunters shirtDescription: The hunters life is dedicated to acquiringknowledge, kept as a closely guarded secret, which isreflected in the depth of accumulation on his shirt. Thecollection on a hunters shirt include amulets, tusks, mud,leather, and more, representing prayers, power, spells,and knowledge of plants of animals. (McClusky, p. 74)Citation: Pamela McClusky. Art from Africa: Long StepsNever Broke a Back. Lund Humphries, c2002.Subjects: Rites and ceremonies; Magic; Power; Amulets;Talismans; Indigenous peoplesMcClusky, Pamela. Art from Africa: Long Steps Never Broke a Back. Lund Humphries, c2002, p. 74
    6. 6. Work Type: face mask, mask (costume), costumeCulture: Kuba, Central AfricanTitle: Female mask (Ngady Mwaash)Description: This mask personifies the wife of theancestral king Woot who is represented by the maskMwaash Mbooy. These masks tell the origin storyduring a Kuba Bushoong masquerade that honorstradition and heritage during funeral ceremonies.Source:http://www.artsconnected.org/resource/40088/ngady-mwaash-mask (accessed 3/18/13)Discovery location: Kinshasa (Democratic Republic ofthe Congo);Repository: Baltimore Museum of Art (Baltimore,Maryland, USA) ID: BMA 1954.145.77Subjects: Geometric patterns; Ritual and ceremonies;Spirits; Ancestor figures; Masquerades; Cosmology;Funeral rites and ceremoniesLamp, Frederick John, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinking African art at the Baltimore Museum of Ar. Munich: Prestel, 2004, p. 172
    7. 7. Sample entry for a subject term authority record showing cataloger’s notes:Not in AAT, but a very useful term. dkAncestors are believed to affect the fertility and fortune of the living in several ancient andmodern cultures in Africa, South Pacific, and South America.As ancestor figures these sculptures were passed down through the family. They were cared for byfamily elders who kept the figures in shrines within their compounds and made frequent offeringsto them for the well-being of the family and its lineage. The figures powers could be heightenedby being anointed with magical medicines and they were used in a number of ways: to protect thesick from evil forces, villages from unwelcome intruders and to ascertain the guilt, or otherwise, ofa defendant.http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/a/a-tabwa-ancestor-figure/The peoples of the coasts and islands of Cenderawasih Bay in northwest New Guinea formerlycreated korwar, figures that portrayed recently deceased ancestors. ...Korwar images served assupernatural intermediaries, allowing the living to communicate with the dead, who remainedactively involved in family and community affairs. When a family member died, his or her relativessummoned a carver, typically a religious specialist, who created a korwar and enticed the spirit ofthe deceased to enter it.Source: Ancestor Figure (Korwar) [Cenderawasih Bay, New Guinea, Papua (Irian Jaya) Province,Indonesia] (2001.674) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
    8. 8. From the Getty Research Institute Art & Architecture Thesaurus® Onlinehttp://www.getty.edu/research/tools/vocabularies/aat/index.htmlCostume (Hierarchy Name)costume (mode of fashion)<costume by function>masks (costume)body masksfiber masksleaf masksceremonial masksBifwebeface maskskpeli-yehefiber maskshelmet maskshorizontal maskshorned masksleaf masksnimbaplank masks
    9. 9. NgadyMwaash performs at a funeral for an initiated manPhotograph by Patricia Darish and David Aaron Binkley, 1982Lamp, Frederick John, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinkingAfrican art at the Baltimore Museum of Ar. Munich: Prestel, 2004, p. 173
    10. 10. Egungun ensembleYoruba, West AfricaUCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History LosAngeles, California, USAFMCH X96.3.7Drewal, Henry John. Beads Body and Soul: Artand Light in the Yoruba Universe, Los Angeles:UCLA Fowler Museum, 1998, p. 270
    11. 11. McClusky, Pamela, Art from Africa: Long Steps Never Broke a Back. Seattle, Wash.: Lund Humphries, c2002, p. 22
    12. 12. Cataloging a complex, time-based eventEvent?Masquerade?Photograph?McClusky, Pamela, Art from Africa: Long Steps Never Broke a Back. Seattle, Wash.: Lund Humphries, c2002, p. 22
    13. 13. Work Type: documentary photograph,photographDate: 1994Photographer: Henning Christoph (American,1944-)Title: Yoruba Egungun mask dancingDescription: Egungun is a part of the Yorubapantheon of divinities. The Egungun representsthe "collective spirit" of the ancestors.Citation: Pamela McClusky. Art from Africa:Long Steps Never Broke a Back. LundHumphries, c2002.Technique: color photographySubjects: Costume (mode of fashion);Religious; Ancestor worship; Culture/Ritual;Events; Masquerades; Ancestor figures; Bodymasks; Yoruba
    14. 14. “Theses objects [in the museum] are but fragments of a larger, integrated form of art as itgenerally seen in Africa. …When we see the same objects in their original contexts … we realize that a museum display isquite antithetical to their original nature.”- Frederick John LampSee the Music, Hear the Dance: Rethinking African Art at the Baltimore Museum of African ArtLamp, Frederick John, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinking African art at the Baltimore Museum of Art, Munich: Prestel, 2004, p. 244-245.
    15. 15. Goli Glen pair accompanied by a tre played by KalouYao, 1971Photograph by Susan Mullin VogelVogel, Susan Mullin. Baule: African Art, Western Eyes. Yale UP, c1997, p. 181Yoké Mask, Baga, GuineaPhotograph by Michael HuetHuet, Michel. The dance, art, and ritual of Africa. Pantheon, c1978., pl. 24
    16. 16. Work Type: documentary photographCulture: Baule, AkanDate: 1971Creator: photographer: Susan Mullin Vogel(American, 1942-)Title(s): Goli Glen pair accompanied by a tre playedby Kalou YaoDescription: The tre, a side-blown horn, is Goli Glensspecial instrument. Goli is a dance of Wan origin thatinvolves use of four pairs of masks. Goli Glen (orGoliGlin) is the senior male mask in the series, alsocalled simply "Glen" (or "Glin.") (Vogel, p. 180)Creation location: Kami (Yamoussoukro, Cote dIvoire)Citation: Vogel, Susan Mullin. Baule: African Art, Western Eyes. Yale UP, c1997.Subjects: Goli dance; Horns (animal materials); Aerophones; Helmet masks; Masquerades;Ceremonial objects; Crowds; Audiences; Rituals (events); Dancers; Body masks; Fiber masks
    17. 17. BibliographyDrewal, Henry John. Beads Body and Soul: Art and Light in the Yoruba Universe, Los Angeles: UCLAFowler Museum, 1998.Huet, Michel. The dance, art, and ritual of Africa, New York: Pantheon, c1978.Michel Huet. The dances of Africa, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1996.Lamp, Frederick John, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinking African art at the BaltimoreMuseum of Art, Munich: Prestel, 2004.McClusky, Pamela, Art from Africa: Long Steps Never Broke a Back. Seattle, Wash.: Lund Humphries,c2002Nooter, Mary. Secrecy: African Art that Conceals and Reveals, New York: Museum for African Art,c1993.Visonà, Monica Blackmun. A History of Art in Africa, New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2001.
    18. 18. Additional Reading: Sources for Cataloging African and African Diaspora ArtAnderson, Martha.G and Christine Mullen Kreamer . Wild spirits, strong medicine : African art and the wilderness. New York, N.Y. : Centerfor African Art, 1989.Bacquart, Jean-Baptiste. The tribal arts of Africa. Thames and Hudson, 1998.Tanya Barson& Peter Gorschlüter eds. Afro modern : journeys through the Black Atlantic. Tate Liverpool, 2010.Bassani, Ezio. Africa and the Renaissance : art in ivory. New York City : Center for African Art, 1988.Suzanne Preston Blier. The Royal Arts of Africa: The Majesty of Form. H.N. Abrams, c1998.David H. Brown. Santería enthroned : art, ritual, and innovation in an Afro-Cuban religion. University of Chicago Press, c2003.Cole, Herbert M.,The Arts of Ghana. UCLA, c1977.Cole, Herbert. I Am Not Myself: The Art of the African Masquerade.Cole, Herbert. Icons : ideals and power in the art of Africa. Washington, D.C. : Published for the National Museum of African Art by theSmithsonian Institution Press, 1989.Cosentino, Donald J. Sacred Arts of Haitian Vodou (UCLA Fowler Museum). U of California P, 1995.Coquet, Michele and Jane Marie Todd. African Royal Court Art. U of Chicago P, 1998.Crowley, Daniel J. African Myth and Black Reality in BahianCarnaval. UCLA Fowler Museum, 1984.Henry John Drewal. Dynasty and divinity : Ife art in ancient Nigeria. Museum for African Art, c2009.Drewal, Henry John. MamiWata : arts for water spirits in Africa and its diasporas. Fowler Museum at UCLA, 2008.Drewal, Henry John . Yoruba : nine centuries of African art and thought. New York : Center for African Art in Association with H.N. Abrams,1989.Elleh, Nnamdi. African Architecture: Evolution and Transformation. McGraw Hill, 1996.
    19. 19. Flores-Peña, Ysamur and Roberta J. Evanchuk. Santeria Garments and Altars: Speaking Without a Voice. UP of Mississippi, 1994.Foss, Perkins, ed. . Where gods and mortals meet : continuity and renewal in Urhobo art. Museum/African Art, c2004.Galembo, Phyllis. Divine Inspiration: From Benin to Bahia. U of New Mexico P, 1993.Galembo, Phyllis. Maske. Chris Boot Ltd., 2010.Galembo, Phyllis and GerdesFleurant. Vodou: Visions and Voices of Haiti. Ten Speed Press, 1998.Garlake, Peter. Early Art and Architecture of Africa. Oxford UP, 2002.Grunne, Bernard de. The birth of art in Africa : Nok statuary in Nigeria. A. Biro, c1998.Hahner-Herzog, Iris. African masks from the Barbier-Mueller Collection, Geneva . Prestel, c1998.[Claudia Herrera]. The African presence in México : from Yanga to the present. Mexican Fine Arts Center Museum, c2006.Historical Museum of South Florida. At the Crossroads: Afro-Cuban Orisha Arts in Miami. Historical Museum of S. Fla., 2001.Huet, Michel. The dance, art, and ritual of Africa. Pantheon, c1978.Jemkur, J. F. The Nok culture : art in Nigeria 2,500 years ago. Prestel, c2006.LaGamma, Alisa,and John Pemberton. Art and Oracle: African Art and Rituals of Divination. HNA Books, 2000.Alisa LaGamma, ed. Eternal ancestors : the art of the Central African reliquary. Yale University Press, c2007.Frederick John Lamp, ed. See the music, hear the dance : rethinking African art at the Baltimore Museum of Ar. Prestel, 2004.André Magnin, ed. Arts of Africa : Jean Pigozzis contemporary collection. Skira, 2005.Pamela McClusky. Art from Africa: Long Steps Never Broke a Back. Lund Humphries, c2002.Morris, James. Butabu : adobe architecture of West Africa / James Morris ; text by Suzanne Preston Blier. Princeton Architectural Press, c. 2004.
    20. 20. Njami, Simon. Africa Remix: Contemporary Art of a Continent. Hayward Gallery, 2005.Omari, Mikelle Smith. From the Inside to the Outside: The Art and Ritual of BahianCandomblé. UCLA Fowler Museum, 1984.Perrois, Louis. Ancestral art of Gabon : from the collections of the Barbier-Mueller Museum. The Museum, 1985.Phillips, Tom, ed. Africa : the art of a continent. Prestel, 1995.Picton, John and John Mack. African Textiles: looms, weaving and design. British Museum Publications for the Trustees of the British Museum,1979Roberts, Allen F., Mary Nooter Roberts, Gassia Armenian, and OusmaneGueye. A Saint in the City: Sufi Arts of Urban Senegal. UCLA FowlerMuseum, 2003.Schildkrout, Enid. African reflections : art from northeastern Zaire. U of Washington P, c1990.Tamagni, Danielle. Gentlemen of Bacongo. London Trolley Ltd, 2009.Thompson, Robert F. Face of the Gods: Art and Altars of Africa and the African Americas. Prestel, 1993.Vogel, Susan, et al. Art/artifact : African art in anthropology collections. Center for African Art, 1988.Vogel, Susan. Africa Explores: Twentieth Century African Art. Center for African Art, 1991.Vogel, Susan Mullin. Baule: African Art, Western Eyes. Yale UP, c1997.Wahlman, Maude. Signs and symbols : African images in African-American quilts. Studio Books, 1993.Alvia J. Wardlaw, curator. Black art ancestral legacy : the African impulse in African-American art. Dallas Museum of Art , c1989.
    21. 21. LINKShttp://www.fowler.ucla.edu/collections/africahttp://www.caacart.com/artist_page.htmlhttp://ezine.zam-magazine.nl/editorialhttp://www.modernafricanart.com/http://www.sil.si.edu/ondisplay/afa-vf/index.htmhttp://www.artco-art.com/aktuell.phphttp://www.vaudou-vodun.com/en/#/cartier/11/the-west-african-vodun/13/photos/page/10/http://hartcottagequilts.com/africantextilesbibhttp://smafathers.org/museum/about-us/http://southernsudan.prm.ox.ac.uk/index.phphttp://www.greatbuildings.com/places/africa_north.htmlhttp://worldimages.sjsu.edu/?sid=75168&x=8244312http://raai.library.yale.edu/site/index.phphttp://www.liv.ac.uk/black-atlantic/http://www.npr.org/programs/re/archivesdate/2004/feb/voodoo/
    22. 22. http://www.paleobree.com/page7.htmhttp://www.nganga.org/http://www.folkways.si.edu/video/africa.aspxhttp://www.folklife.si.edu/resources/maroon/presentation.htmNote: Explore the Smithsonian’s Folkways site for music, video, interviews, etc.http://www.barbier-mueller.ch/collections.html?p=home&lang=frhttp://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/afar.2008.41.1.13_2http://exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu/teachers/curriculum/http://academic.csuohio.edu/curnowk/curnowk/html/aronson.htmlhttp://www.ezakwantu.com/Gallery%20Trade%20Beads%20Slave%20Beads%20African%20Currency.htmhttp://www.ondostate.gov.ng/culture_heritage.phphttp://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/YorubaT/yt1.htmlhttp://www.jamaicamix.com/JamaicaCultureAndHeritage/JamaicanTraditionalDances.htmlhttp://www.historyfiles.co.uk/MainFeaturesAfrica.htm